"When an Egyptian died the friends of the deceased went at once to the embalmer, By him they were shown a set of models, that is, wooden images painted and wrapped in imitation of the different styles of mummies prepared at the establishment. The models were divided into three classes; first, second, and third; and among these the friends selected according to their rank and means. The dead body was then delivered to the embalmers, by whom the brain was removed through the nostrils. Then an incision was made in the left side with a sharp stone. Through this opening the entire viscera were removed, and being cleansed by washing with palm wine, were covered with pounded aromatics and deposited in four urns. The cavity of the body was filled with powdered myrrh, cassia, and other fragrant substances, and the wound carefully sewn up. The whole body was then packed for seventy days in salt and carbonate of soda, at the end of which time it was washed and then wrapped in linen bands anointed on the inner surface with a certain gum which acted as glue. The mummy was finally put into a wooden case in the form of a man, and delivered to the relatives, by whom it was set upright against the wall in one of the rooms of their house."—Ridpath 1885

Process of Embalming

"When an Egyptian died the friends of the deceased went at once to the embalmer, By him they were shown…

An illustration of an Egyptian sculpture of a family.

Family Sculpture

An illustration of an Egyptian sculpture of a family.

The Egyptian Folding-Chair in the 18th dynasty was found in the tomb of Chambali. This Folding-chair had crossing struts combined to form a ribbed chair.

Egyptian Folding-Chair

The Egyptian Folding-Chair in the 18th dynasty was found in the tomb of Chambali. This Folding-chair…

Early developments of racial types, a tomb paint from an Egyptian tomb.

Racial Types From Egyptian Paintings

Early developments of racial types, a tomb paint from an Egyptian tomb.

Egyptian God, Bes, known as the cheerful.

Egyptian God, Bes

Egyptian God, Bes, known as the cheerful.

Chnemu creator-god, married to Hekt, a frog goddess.

Egyptian God, Chnemu

Chnemu creator-god, married to Hekt, a frog goddess.

Hathor (Isis) the Egyptian cow goddess.

Egyptian God, Hathor

Hathor (Isis) the Egyptian cow goddess.

"Set" the Egyptian God of Darkness.

Egyptian God of Darkness

"Set" the Egyptian God of Darkness.

"Anubis" the Egyptian God of Darkness. Anubis has a distinct Jackal head.

Egyptian God of Darkness

"Anubis" the Egyptian God of Darkness. Anubis has a distinct Jackal head.

Thoth-lunus is the Egyptian God of letters and all learning.

Egyptian God, Thoth-lunus

Thoth-lunus is the Egyptian God of letters and all learning.

Typhon was he wife of Anubis, God of Darkness. Typhon is also known as the Terrible One.

Egyptian God, Typhon

Typhon was he wife of Anubis, God of Darkness. Typhon is also known as the Terrible One.

Egyptian harps.

Harp, Egyptian

Egyptian harps.

A 68-foot stone pillar located at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis. It is considered to be the earlier obelisk built that is still in its original position.

Obelisk of Heliopolis

A 68-foot stone pillar located at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis. It is considered to be the earlier…

An early figure of the Egyptian hippopotamus goddess.

Egyptian Hippopotamus Goddess

An early figure of the Egyptian hippopotamus goddess.

An illustration of various Egyptian household items.

Egyptian Household Items

An illustration of various Egyptian household items.

"The hunting scenes are very numerous among their paintings, and the devices for capturing birds and beasts seem to have been as vaarious as they are in modern times." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian hunting party

"The hunting scenes are very numerous among their paintings, and the devices for capturing birds and…

"Egyptian hunting Hippopotamus." — Lardner, 1885

Egyptian hunting

"Egyptian hunting Hippopotamus." — Lardner, 1885

An illustration of an Egyptian hieroglyphic depicting the judgment of the dead. "An ape-assessor scourages an evil soul, that has been changed into an unclean animal." -Myers, 1896

Judgment of the Dead

An illustration of an Egyptian hieroglyphic depicting the judgment of the dead. "An ape-assessor scourages…

Gallery of columns. Built by Ramses III during ancient Egypt.

Temple of Chesnu at Karnak

Gallery of columns. Built by Ramses III during ancient Egypt.

Dress of the Egyptian king

Egyptian King

Dress of the Egyptian king

The Egyptian Krater is an antique vase that has a lotus cup design. Typically used for mixing water and wine.

Egyptian Krater

The Egyptian Krater is an antique vase that has a lotus cup design. Typically used for mixing water…

This Egyptian Krater is an antique vase that was found in Thebes, Ancient Egypt during the eighteenth dynasty. Typically used for mixing water and wine.

Egyptian Krater

This Egyptian Krater is an antique vase that was found in Thebes, Ancient Egypt during the eighteenth…

This Idealized Lotus and Papyrus comes from an Egyptian mural painting.

Idealized Lotus and Papyrus

This Idealized Lotus and Papyrus comes from an Egyptian mural painting.

Also known as Merneptah. He ruled Egypt as pharaoh for ten years, and was the thirteenth son of Ramessess II.

Menepta

Also known as Merneptah. He ruled Egypt as pharaoh for ten years, and was the thirteenth son of Ramessess…

Obelisk and sphinx with palm tree

Obelisk and sphinx

Obelisk and sphinx with palm tree

A column depicting the Egyptian god Osiris. Osiris is usually affiliated with the Afterlife, the underworld and the dead.

Column of Osiris

A column depicting the Egyptian god Osiris. Osiris is usually affiliated with the Afterlife, the underworld…

The feline war gods in Egyptian mythology.

Pakhet

The feline war gods in Egyptian mythology.

The Egyptian phiale with cover is a slender vessel without handles. It has an elongated body with a long narrow neck made out of clay or glass.

Egyptian Phiale

The Egyptian phiale with cover is a slender vessel without handles. It has an elongated body with a…

From a Bas-Relief of the Oldest Dynasty, Memphis. Depicts two men plowing with two oxen.

Egyptians Plowing

From a Bas-Relief of the Oldest Dynasty, Memphis. Depicts two men plowing with two oxen.

Pyramids and palms

Pyramids

Pyramids and palms

Pyramids and sphinx

Pyramids and sphinx

Pyramids and sphinx

A scene from ancient Egypt, with the pyramids in the background.

Pyramids scene

A scene from ancient Egypt, with the pyramids in the background.

Egyptians using pulleys to build a pyramid.

Building the Pyramids

Egyptians using pulleys to build a pyramid.

Ramesses III as Osiris, between the goddesses Nephthys and Isis.

Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III

Ramesses III as Osiris, between the goddesses Nephthys and Isis.

Also known as Ramses II. A profile portrait of Ramses the Great with carvings behind his head. He is often regarded as one of the most powerful pharaohs throughout history.

Ramses the Great

Also known as Ramses II. A profile portrait of Ramses the Great with carvings behind his head. He is…

An ancient amulet of Egypt.

An Egyptian Scarab

An ancient amulet of Egypt.

Egyptian scene with building and palm trees

Egyptian scene

Egyptian scene with building and palm trees

Sculpture on pedestal

Sculpture

Sculpture on pedestal

Sculpture on pedestal

Sculpture

Sculpture on pedestal

Front of Egyptian sculpture, figure in bronze.

Egyptian Sculpture

Front of Egyptian sculpture, figure in bronze.

Side of Egyptian sculpture, figure in bronze.

Egyptian Sculpture

Side of Egyptian sculpture, figure in bronze.

A greek vase of Serapis, an Egyptian god in Antiquity.

Greek Vase of Serapis

A greek vase of Serapis, an Egyptian god in Antiquity.

The Shedu is a celestial being from Mesopotamian mythology. He is a human above the waist and a bull below the waist. He also has the horns and the ears of a bull. The bull man helps people fight evil and chaos. He holds the gates of dawn open for the sun god Shamash and supports the sun disc. He is often shown on Cylinder Seals. It appears frequently in Mesopotamian art, sometimes with wings. Statues of the bull-man were often used as gatekeepers.

Shedu

The Shedu is a celestial being from Mesopotamian mythology. He is a human above the waist and a bull…

"A signet ring has a square revolving bezel on which are four serpents interlaced." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Signet Ring

"A signet ring has a square revolving bezel on which are four serpents interlaced." —The Encyclopedia…

"The sistrum was an Egyptian instrument of music, used in certain ceremonies by that people, and especially in the worship of Isis." — Anthon, 1891

Sistrum

"The sistrum was an Egyptian instrument of music, used in certain ceremonies by that people, and especially…

"Sphinx is a Greek word signifying 'strangler,' applied to certain symbolical forms of Egyptian origin, having the body of a lion, a human or an animal head, and two wings. Various other combinations of animal forms have been called by this name, though they are rather griffins or chimæras. Human-headed sphinxes have been called andro-sphinxes; that with the head of a ram, a criosphinx; and that with a hawk's head, a hieracosphinx. The form when complete had the wings added at the sides; but these are of a later period and seem to have originated with the Babylonians or Assyrians. In Egypt the sphinx also occurs as the symbolical form of the monarch considered as a conqueror, the head of the reigning king being placed on a loin's body, the face bearded, and the usual head dress. Thus used, the sphinx was generally male; but in the case of female rulers that figure has a female head and the body of a lioness. The most remarkable sphinx is the Great Sphinx at Gizeh (Giza), a colossal form hewn out of the natural rock, and lying about a quarter of a mile S.E. of the Great Pyramid. It is sculptured out of a spur of the rock itself, to which masonry has been added in certain places to complete the shape, and it measures 172 feet 6 inches long by 56 feet high."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Sphinx

"Sphinx is a Greek word signifying 'strangler,' applied to certain symbolical forms of Egyptian origin,…

A Sphinx is a zoomorphic mythological figure which is depicted as a recumbent lion with a human head.

Sphinx

A Sphinx is a zoomorphic mythological figure which is depicted as a recumbent lion with a human head.

The Crouching Sphinx is a combination of the human bust with the body of the Lion. The Sphinx is an Egyptian invention that was used as the guardian of temples and tombs.

Crouching Sphinx

The Crouching Sphinx is a combination of the human bust with the body of the Lion. The Sphinx is an…

This Crouching Ram Head Sphinx has a head of a ram and the body of a lion. An Egyptian invention, it was used as a guardian of temples and tombs.

Crouching Ram Head Sphinx

This Crouching Ram Head Sphinx has a head of a ram and the body of a lion. An Egyptian invention, it…

This Egyptian spoon is plainly decorated and partly painted.

Egyptian Spoon

This Egyptian spoon is plainly decorated and partly painted.

This Egyptian spoon is plainly decorated and partly painted.

Egyptian Spoon

This Egyptian spoon is plainly decorated and partly painted.

This Egyptian spoon is richly decorated and partly painted.

Egyptian Spoon

This Egyptian spoon is richly decorated and partly painted.

This Egyptian spoon is richly decorated and partly painted.

Egyptian Spoon

This Egyptian spoon is richly decorated and partly painted.

"Egyptian Statue in black basalt. Heroic size, in the British Museum." —D'Anvers, 1895

Egyptian statue

"Egyptian Statue in black basalt. Heroic size, in the British Museum." —D'Anvers, 1895

The Egyptian stool may be regarded as the prototype of the modern Cobbler's-stool.

Egyptian Stool

The Egyptian stool may be regarded as the prototype of the modern Cobbler's-stool.

An Egyptian stool from the BRitish Museum.

Egyptian Stool

An Egyptian stool from the BRitish Museum.

A profile view of Queen Tai, the wife of Amenophis III, pharaoh of Egypt.

Queen Tai

A profile view of Queen Tai, the wife of Amenophis III, pharaoh of Egypt.

Restored Temple, from the Egyptian Commission.

Temple

Restored Temple, from the Egyptian Commission.

Column located in the Temple of Denderah, with masks of Hathor, an Egyptian sky goddess of love and joy, adorning the top.

Column from the Temple of Denderah, with Hathor Masks, Time of Cesar

Column located in the Temple of Denderah, with masks of Hathor, an Egyptian sky goddess of love and…

An Ancient Egyptian temple complex founded in 1400 B.C.E.

Luxor Temple

An Ancient Egyptian temple complex founded in 1400 B.C.E.