A heat engine in which combustion occurs inside the engine rather than in a separate furnace; heat expands a gas that either moves a piston or turns a gas turbine

Internal Combustion Engine

A heat engine in which combustion occurs inside the engine rather than in a separate furnace; heat expands…

This motor vehicle engine, is an internal combustion engine in which high temperature and pressure gases produce a combustion which directly applies force t a moveable component of the engine.

Motor Vehicle Engine

This motor vehicle engine, is an internal combustion engine in which high temperature and pressure gases…

"A portable engine and feed grinder that saves frequent trips to the Grist Mill."—The Federal Digest, 1921

Portable Engine

"A portable engine and feed grinder that saves frequent trips to the Grist Mill."—The Federal…

"An eccentric on the main shaft gives an oscillating motion to a circular disc called the wrist plate, pivoted at the center of the cylinder. It transmits motion to each of the four valves through adjustable links known as steam rods or exhaust rods, according to whether they move the admission or exhaust valves." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine with Reynolds Corliss Gear

"An eccentric on the main shaft gives an oscillating motion to a circular disc called the wrist plate,…

An engine, as a turbine, in which the impelling fluid produces torque directly rather than by acting upon reciprocating parts.

Rotary Engine

An engine, as a turbine, in which the impelling fluid produces torque directly rather than by acting…

An engine is a machine that produces mechanical force and motion from another form of energy (e.g. a fuel source, compressed air, or electricity).

Rotary Engine

An engine is a machine that produces mechanical force and motion from another form of energy (e.g. a…

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water out of C. G is closed and cold water enters through I causing a vacuum drawing water up through F." —Quackenbos 1859

Savery's Engine

"Handle A opens and closes valves B and G. Steam is injected through pipe S which flushes any air/water…

A Geared Beam Engine developed in 1855. Applied force on a piston pushes down the rod, making the engine work so the ship can function.

Ship Engine

A Geared Beam Engine developed in 1855. Applied force on a piston pushes down the rod, making the engine…

A picture of how the engines in the Carmania power the propellers.

Ship Engine

A picture of how the engines in the Carmania power the propellers.

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive force of steam as a motive power. It is a real heat-engine, transforming heat into mechanical energy." — Avery, 1895

Steam engine

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive…

External-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder

Steam Engine

External-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces…

Illustration showing a twin cylinder steam engine fitted to a sentinel wagon. The steam expands and compresses as the piston oscillates. This oscillation rotates both the piston shaft and cam shaft, attached to the wheel.

Twin Cylinder Steam Engine Fitted to Sentinel Wagons

Illustration showing a twin cylinder steam engine fitted to a sentinel wagon. The steam expands and…

"The marine turbine of this type (Curtis turbine) installed in the U.S. Cruiser Salem had seven pressure stages with four velocity steps in the first stage, and three in each of the others. Steam passes from the steam chest through the nozzles, each of which may be closed by a valve operated from the governor. The number open at any one time depends upon the load." —Derr, 1911

Cross Sectional View of U.S.S Salem Steam Engine Showing Curtis Turbines

"The marine turbine of this type (Curtis turbine) installed in the U.S. Cruiser Salem had seven pressure…

A valve side view of the six cylinder Rolls Royce engine, showing the location of the magneto. The magneto is used to ignite fuel in the engine at a high voltage by using a spark plug's gap.

Valve Side View of Six Cylinder Rolls Royce Engine

A valve side view of the six cylinder Rolls Royce engine, showing the location of the magneto. The magneto…

A vapor engine means an engine running on vapor, such as gas or coal.

Vapor Emission Engine

A vapor engine means an engine running on vapor, such as gas or coal.

"Used a boiler to produce steam, chambers to condense it, and drive the pistons of the engine." —Quackenbos 1859

Watt's Double-Acting Condensing Steam-Engine

"Used a boiler to produce steam, chambers to condense it, and drive the pistons of the engine." —Quackenbos…

An early fire engine.

Fire Engine

An early fire engine.

"The fire engine is a modification of the forcing pump. It consists of two such pumps, the pistons of which are moved by a lever whith equal arms, the common fulcrum being at C." -Comstock 1850

Fire Engine

"The fire engine is a modification of the forcing pump. It consists of two such pumps, the pistons of…

"Now if the plate were shaped as shown, so that the direction of the jet were completely reversed turned through 180 degrees, there would be an additional pressure on the plate, due to the reaction of the jet leaving it. This, neglecting friction, would be equal to the original impulse, thus making the total force on plate 2 F instead of F. It is quite evident that if the force is twice as great, the work must be double." —Derr, 1911

Force Measurement by Deflecting Water Jet 180 Degrees

"Now if the plate were shaped as shown, so that the direction of the jet were completely reversed turned…

"The force-pump differs from others in having its piston solid, or without a valve, and also in having a side pipe with a valve opening outwards, through which the water is forced to any height required, or against any pressure that may oppose it." -Marshall

Steam-engine Force Pump

"The force-pump differs from others in having its piston solid, or without a valve, and also in having…

A cross sectional view of a four stage vertical Riedler—Stumpf turbine. The steam enters and exit, indicated by the arrows. The steam spins a series of turbines located in the middle at a high pressure. As the turbine spins, the shaft, located in the middle, produces useable energy.

Cross Sectional View of Four Stage Vertical Riedler Stumpf Turbine

A cross sectional view of a four stage vertical Riedler—Stumpf turbine. The steam enters and exit,…

"A massive square framework of wood, mounted on six sarp disc wheels, each about two feet in diameter, which cut deep into the ground, and on the lightest land they can hold as effectually to resist the pull of the rope which is passed around the sheave beneath." — Chambers, 1881

Fowler's Anchor

"A massive square framework of wood, mounted on six sarp disc wheels, each about two feet in diameter,…

"Forler's Anchor, Engine, and Plough at work." — Chambers, 1881

Fowler's Inventions

"Forler's Anchor, Engine, and Plough at work." — Chambers, 1881

"A framework of iron, balanced upon two large wheels. To each side of this framework there are attached four plough-bodies and coulters, so that four furrows are cut at one 'bout,' and the headland on which the anchor is stationed being reached, the end of the beam that was out of the ground is depressed, and the four plough-bodies that were out of the ground, and which point in the opposite direction, are inserted in the soil, and turn up the furrows on the way back to the engine." — Chambers, 1881

Fowler's Plough

"A framework of iron, balanced upon two large wheels. To each side of this framework there are attached…

"In 1854, Mr. Fowler exhibited his patent steam-draining apparatus at the Lincoln meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society of England; and from this time may be dated the practical history of cultivation of the land byy steam; for the idea that such an apparatus could be wrought advantageously in other field-operations entered the mind of a practical farmer, Mr. Smith of Woolston, near Bletchley; and under the direction of Mr. Fowler, he got construced an apparatus with modifications." — Chambers, 1881

Fowler's Steam-engine

"In 1854, Mr. Fowler exhibited his patent steam-draining apparatus at the Lincoln meeting of the Royal…

Internal-combustion engine, side view.

Gas Engine, Internal-Combustion Engine

Internal-combustion engine, side view.

Internal-combustion engine (sectional view)

Gas Engine, Internal-Combustion Engine

Internal-combustion engine (sectional view)

"The governor cam rod operates a plate cam having a curved slot so shaped that it takes place of both the knock—off and the safety cam. The steam arm is keyed to the valve spindle and carries at its lower end a steel die which is free to slip up and down a small amount." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Brown Releasing Gear

"The governor cam rod operates a plate cam having a curved slot so shaped that it takes place of both…

A Joy valve gear for steam engine rotating the wheel in the direction of the arrow. The lever F changes the direction the wheel would turn when turned to point B.

Joy Steam Engine Valve Gear Rotating Wheel

A Joy valve gear for steam engine rotating the wheel in the direction of the arrow. The lever F changes…

An outline of the Marshall gear from a steam engine. The piston rotates the crank shaft at point H around axis S. The rod F is connected to the bottom rod E. Rod F rotates at axis P to rotate the engine backwards and forward.

Outline of a Steam Engine Marshall Gear Reducing Friction and Wear

An outline of the Marshall gear from a steam engine. The piston rotates the crank shaft at point H around…

"The steam arm is keyed to the valve spindle which passes loosely through a bracket on which the bell—crank lever turns, and the spindle is packed to make a steam—tight joint where it enters the cylinder. Motion of the steam rod toward the right will turn the bell—crank lever and raise the hook stud." —Derr, 1911

Close up of Reynolds Corliss Gear from Steam Engine

"The steam arm is keyed to the valve spindle which passes loosely through a bracket on which the bell—crank…

An illustration of the steam engine with Walschaert gear system on rail tracks. The piston moves the long shaft connected to the wheel. The lever adjusts the rods on top up and the lower ones down to rotate the wheels opposite from the arrows.

Steam Engine with Walschaert Gear on Railroad

An illustration of the steam engine with Walschaert gear system on rail tracks. The piston moves the…

"The main valve controls admission, release, and compression; the other (valve) regulates the cut—off only, which may be changed without in any way affecting the other events of the stroke. This cut—off valve may be placed in a separate valve chest, or it may be placed in the back of the main valve." —Derr, 1911

Close up View of Double Sliding Valve Gears from Steam Engine

"The main valve controls admission, release, and compression; the other (valve) regulates the cut—off…

A direct-connected generating unit. A high-speed piston-valve engine driving a small alternator.

Generating Unit

A direct-connected generating unit. A high-speed piston-valve engine driving a small alternator.

An illustration of a Corliss steam engine to generate 5000 kW of electricity. The turbines to create electricity is located on the right hand side and the large circular casing in the left. The steam enters the system at a high pressure to turn the turbines.

5000 kW Corliss and Curtis Steam Engine for Electric Generation

An illustration of a Corliss steam engine to generate 5000 kW of electricity. The turbines to create…

"By placing the condensers underneath the turbine, as is frequently done at the present time, not only may a considerable amount of floor space be saved, but the turbine can more readily exhaust into the condenser. As we have already seen, at high vacuum the volume of steam is very large, and the exhaust pipe from the turbine will be proportionally large." —Derr, 1911

Corliss Steam Engine Generator Plan

"By placing the condensers underneath the turbine, as is frequently done at the present time, not only…

A cross sectional view of Rateau electric generator turbine by Western Electric Company. Steam is used to turn the turbine to generate electricity. The turbine rotates at 1500 revolutions per minute and operates at 1500 horsepower.

Cross Section View of Rateau Turbine Electric Generator by Western Electric Company

A cross sectional view of Rateau electric generator turbine by Western Electric Company. Steam is used…

"The bearings are of the plain ring—oiling type, usually provided with water jackets. The shaft not being unduly long, there is little danger of whipping, and the speeds of rotation not being very high, special precautions are not necessary. Sometimes the turbines are supported by three bearings, the high and intermediate states being separated from the low by a third bearing." —Derr, 1911

DeLaval Steam Electric Generator

"The bearings are of the plain ring—oiling type, usually provided with water jackets. The shaft…

An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor; motors and generators have many similarities.

Electric Generator

An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The reverse…

Used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core. They are used in pressurized water reactors between the primary and secondary coolant loops.

Steam Generator

Used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core. They are used in pressurized…

Piece of equipment within which heat is generated from the primary loop to the secondary loop without the water of the two systems actually touching

Steam Generator

Piece of equipment within which heat is generated from the primary loop to the secondary loop without…

"Turbines require very much smaller foundations than reciprocating engines reciprocating engines of the same power, and these foundations will therefore cost very much less. It is hard to get a direct comparison between turbines and reciprocating engines as a class, because the foundations for high—speed reciprocating engines will not be as massive as for the heavier, low—speed engines." —Derr, 1911

Westinghouse Turbo Steam Engine Generator Plan

"Turbines require very much smaller foundations than reciprocating engines reciprocating engines of…

"The Zoelly turbine has been developed rather extensively abroad, and is being manufactured largely through a syndicate of builders including some American firms. It is a turbine essentially of the Rateau type, a multi—pressure—stage turbine, but it has fewer stages, usually not over ten for condensing and five for non—condensing." —Derr, 1911

Zoelly Condensing Turbine Electric Generator

"The Zoelly turbine has been developed rather extensively abroad, and is being manufactured largely…

This illustration shows a Gnome motor with revolving cylinders and its many parts: Spark Plug; Conducting Wire from Collector Ring; Distributor Brush from Magneto; Electric Collector Ring; Fixed, Hollow Crankshaft; Connecting Rod; Piston; Revolving Crankcase; Tappet Cams (male and female); Exhaust Valve Tappet; Exhaust Valve; Intake Valve; Air-Cooled Cylinder. Gnome was the leading type of air cooled motor in the 1920s.

Gnome Motor, with Revolving Cylinders

This illustration shows a Gnome motor with revolving cylinders and its many parts: Spark Plug; Conducting…

Governor, used for regulating output of steam engines.

Governor

Governor, used for regulating output of steam engines.

"In the Curtis turbine, steam is admitted through a series of valves, the number of which depends upon the capacity of the machine. The valves are arranged to open successively, two—thirds of them being open at full load. The action of the valves is so regulated that they are either fully open or fully closed. Any increasing load is taken care of by the opening of an additional valve, this valve closing when the load falls off." —Derr, 1911

Sectional View of Governor for Varying Number of Nozzles Opened

"In the Curtis turbine, steam is admitted through a series of valves, the number of which depends upon…

"All fly—wheel governors operate by shifting the eccentric either to change the angular advance, the travel of the valve, or both. The principle of a governor arranged to give decreasing lead under the head of governors." —Derr, 1911

Top View of the Fly Wheel Governor Turning Clockwise

"All fly—wheel governors operate by shifting the eccentric either to change the angular advance,…

"An admission of steam occurs about once in every thirty revolutions at approximately full load. The pilot valve is continually oscillating, thus preventing any liability of sticking, but its period of oscillation is varied directly by the governor. Steam, therefore, enters the turbine in puffs, the duration of which depends upon the load; at slight overloads the valve would be constantly open." —Derr, 1911

Turbine Governor for Varying Time of Admission

"An admission of steam occurs about once in every thirty revolutions at approximately full load. The…

"The oldest form of blast heating apparatus, applied by Neilson, consisted of a tubular rivetted boiler plate heating vessel, mounted in a brick chamber OOOO, and heated by a fire underneath fed through the door D, the waste gases from the fire passing out at the far end of the chimney. Crescent-shaped partitions p, p, p inside the heater caused the current of air from the blowing engine which entered at B to take a serpentine course as indicated by the arrows, finally passing off at S to the furnace." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hotblast Stove

"The oldest form of blast heating apparatus, applied by Neilson, consisted of a tubular rivetted boiler…

"Hydraulic Scroll. a, case, inclosing center-discharge turbine water-wheel; b, openings for inflow of water; c, c', gates for admitting water to central wheel-space d (the wheel is not shown); e, e', gate-shafts; f, shaft by which the two gates are operated simultaneously and equally from worm-gearing at the top of the gate-shafts." -Whitney, 1911

Hydraulic Scroll

"Hydraulic Scroll. a, case, inclosing center-discharge turbine water-wheel; b, openings for inflow of…

"If a jet with the velocity V strikes the bucket at an angle a, its velocity A B could be resolved into two components —one C B at right angles to the shaft, and one C A parallel to the shaft. The one at right angles to the shaft, commonly known as the velocity of whirl, would produce a rotative impulse equal to Vcosa, and V1, the velocity of the vane necessary for maximum efficiency." —Derr, 1911

Jet Steam Stream Hitting Curved Vane

"If a jet with the velocity V strikes the bucket at an angle a, its velocity A B could be resolved into…

"As the speed increases, and the link is 'notched up', the lead is increased as the cut—off is shortened, and at high speed we have a large lead. With the Gooch link, the lead can be set for average running speed, and although a little too great for good work at slow speed." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Gooch Link and Valve Gear Arrangement

"As the speed increases, and the link is 'notched up', the lead is increased as the cut—off is…

This is an elongated muffler which is used in motored vehicles to reduce the amount of noise emitted by an engine.

Exhaust Muffler

This is an elongated muffler which is used in motored vehicles to reduce the amount of noise emitted…

"Machine used to take water out of mines." -Comstock 1850

Newcomen's Engine

"Machine used to take water out of mines." -Comstock 1850

"The simple outline of the atmospheric engine. Its mode of operation is as follows. Steam is admitted from the boiler into the cylinder, through the tube l, by means of a regulating cock, e, which is worked by a handle outside the boiler; the pressure of the atmosphere above the piston being thus balanced by the force of the steam beneath it, the extremity of the lever beam to whch the piston is attached is elevated by proportionate weights, w, attached to the pump-rod, and the piston is drawn to the top of the cylinder, the other extremity of the beam being depressed." —Comstock, 1850

Newcomens Engine

"The simple outline of the atmospheric engine. Its mode of operation is as follows. Steam is admitted…

Section through a small, low pressure oil engine of the "hot-bulb" or "hot-ball" type.

Oil Engine

Section through a small, low pressure oil engine of the "hot-bulb" or "hot-ball" type.

"Steam enters at E and gradually expands in volume until it exhausts at G. The rotor is usually built in three different diameters to facilitate mechanical construction and to avoid excessively small and excessively large vanes. It is thus possible to use a large number of vanes of the same size." —Derr, 1911

Cross Sectional View of Parsons Turbine

"Steam enters at E and gradually expands in volume until it exhausts at G. The rotor is usually built…

A portable, external, combustion heat engine that converts steam in to mechanical work.

Portable Steam-Engine

A portable, external, combustion heat engine that converts steam in to mechanical work.

This n electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor.

Power Generator

This n electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The reverse…