"The battering ram was a large beam, made of the trunk of a tree, and having a mass of bronze or iron fastened to one end, and resembling a ram's head. This shape, as well as its name, was given to the engine in question, on account of the resemblence of its mode of action to that of a ram butting with its forehead. In an improved form, the ram was surrounded with iron bands, to which rings were attached for the purpose of suspending it by ropes or chains to a beam fixed transversely over it. See the lower figure." — Anthon, 1891

Battering ram

"The battering ram was a large beam, made of the trunk of a tree, and having a mass of bronze or iron…

"Road-machine. a, telescopic axle for rear wheels; b, scraper delivering spoil between rear wheels; c, platform for operator; d, seat for driver; e, e, e, e, hand-wheels controlling all operations of machine." -Whitney, 1911

Road Machine

"Road-machine. a, telescopic axle for rear wheels; b, scraper delivering spoil between rear wheels;…

"This occurs in horizontal engines when the valve is set on top of the cylinder instead of on one side. By means of the rocker AG the valve may receive its proper motion." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Valve with Lap Connected to Rocker

"This occurs in horizontal engines when the valve is set on top of the cylinder instead of on one side.…

"The design is to produce a continued stream, by simply turning it into a crank, thus converting the piston into cog-wheels and the vertical motion into a rotary one." -Comstock 1850

Rotary Pump

"The design is to produce a continued stream, by simply turning it into a crank, thus converting the…

"Savery's Steam Engine. The adjoining figure illustrates the apparatus employed by Savory. It consists of a furnace and a boiler B; from the latter, two pipes, furnished with stop-cocks C, proceed to two steam vessels S, only one of which is shown in the figure, the other being immediately behind it. Into the bottom of each of these steam vessels is inserted a branching pipe, connected with a descending main pipe D, and an ascending main pipe A; each branching pipe is furnished with valves a, b, which open upwards, and prevent, by their action, the return of any water which may have been forced up through them." —Comstock, 1850

Savery Engine

"Savery's Steam Engine. The adjoining figure illustrates the apparatus employed by Savory. It consists…

Sectional elevation showing construction of the Ames-Stumph uniflow engine.

Sectional Elevation

Sectional elevation showing construction of the Ames-Stumph uniflow engine.

"Since the valve must move a distance equal to the outside lap before admission can take place, it is evident that the eccentric can no longer be at right angles to the crank at the beginning of the stroke, but must be ahead of the right—angle point by an amount equal to AOC." —Derr, 1911

Valve with Lap of Steam Engine at Extreme Left with Exhaust Ports Open

"Since the valve must move a distance equal to the outside lap before admission can take place, it is…

This is a spark plug which fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engine and ignites compressed fuels such as aerosol gasoline.

Spark Plug

This is a spark plug which fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engine and ignites…

Starter motor also starting motor, or starter is an electric motor that rotates an internal combustion engine to cause the engine to begin powering itself.

Engine Starter

Starter motor also starting motor, or starter is an electric motor that rotates an internal combustion…

"A modern steam engine." -Comstock 1850

Modern Steam Engine (1850)

"A modern steam engine." -Comstock 1850

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive force of steam as a motive power. It is a real heat engine, transforming heat into mechanical energy." -Avery 1895

Steam Engine

"The steam engine is a powerful device for utilizing the energy involved in the elasticity and expansive…

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines have a long history, going back almost two thousand years. Early devices were not practical power producers, but more advanced designs became a major source of mechanical power during the industrial revolution. Modern steam turbines generate about half of the electric power in the world.

Steam Engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam…

Cross-section of a steam engine plant with Alberger barometric condenser and cooling tower.

Steam Engine

Cross-section of a steam engine plant with Alberger barometric condenser and cooling tower.

"The relative positions of crank, eccentric and valve when the exhaust closes on the crank end and compression begins. Between these two positions the steam is expanding in the head end and exhausting from the crank end." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Valve with Lap Steam Where Slide Valve is Closed

"The relative positions of crank, eccentric and valve when the exhaust closes on the crank end and compression…

"While the crank is moving from the position, steam is being admitted to the head end and being exhausted from the crank end. The inside lap being less than the outside lap, causes the exhaust to continue longer than the admission." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Valve with Lap Where Steam is Admitted to the Slide Valve

"While the crank is moving from the position, steam is being admitted to the head end and being exhausted…

An illustration of the valve with lap at the end of the crank end steam compression. The piston will restart the compression cycle of at the head of the piston. As the piston moves, the sliding valve in the top compartment will fill with steam and closes.

Steam Engine Valve with Lap Steam Where Slide Valve is in Open Position

An illustration of the valve with lap at the end of the crank end steam compression. The piston will…

"If the inside lap is increased, the valve must move farther before released occurs and the crank angle would be greater than illustrated. On the return of the valve to the dotted position, the port will close earlier and make an earlier compression. Decreasing inside lap will cause earlier release and later compression." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Valve with Lap Steam Where Slide Valve Moved to Open Position

"If the inside lap is increased, the valve must move farther before released occurs and the crank angle…

"High volumes of steam were pumped into the hollow sphere. The steam would then escape through the many evenly spaced arms around the center of the sphere thus causing the engine to rotate." —Quackenbos 1859

Hero's Steam Engine

"High volumes of steam were pumped into the hollow sphere. The steam would then escape through the many…

"This arrangement makes it possible to place the valve and steam chest above the valve motion. A rod from the bell crank lever on the reverse shaft E, leads back to the engineer's cab and connects with the reverse lever." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Rocker Arrangement with Valve and Reverse Rod in Eccentric Motion

"This arrangement makes it possible to place the valve and steam chest above the valve motion. A rod…

"The steam engine, in its many forms, is the agent by means of which part of th eenrgy stored up in the steam, as supplied by a coiler, is converted into mechanical or useful work."—Finley, 1917

Steam engines

"The steam engine, in its many forms, is the agent by means of which part of th eenrgy stored up in…

Robinson's form of Stirling's Engine.

Robinson's Form of Stirling's Engine

Robinson's form of Stirling's Engine.

A high-speed simple engine belted to a small, three-phase generator.

Three-phase Generator

A high-speed simple engine belted to a small, three-phase generator.

"They who are within this machine obtain first a view of the place from their high position, and then, by means of small bridges (<em>pontes</em>), descend upon the city walls." — Anthon, 1891

Mobile tower

"They who are within this machine obtain first a view of the place from their high position, and then,…

A tractor compound steam engine with outside suspension spring. The spring suspension helps stabilize the tractor. The tractor is fitted with plates to minimize dust entering the engine.

Steam Operated Tractor with Outside Spring Suspension

A tractor compound steam engine with outside suspension spring. The spring suspension helps stabilize…

An illustration of a train.

Train

An illustration of a train.

An illustration of 9000 kilowatts capacity vertical Curtis turbine. Each turbines are located between the stationary nozzles. The steam enters from the steam chest into the moving gears, then to stationary blades. Electricity is then generated at the movable blades.

9000 Kilowatts Vertical Curtis Turbine

An illustration of 9000 kilowatts capacity vertical Curtis turbine. Each turbines are located between…

"In 1629, Branca, an Italian, invented a turbine much like a miniature water wheel, which was driven by a jet of steam from a nozzle directed against the buckets of the wheel. This is the simplest form of an impulse turbine." &mdash;Derr, 1911

Branca's Impulse Steam Turbine

"In 1629, Branca, an Italian, invented a turbine much like a miniature water wheel, which was driven…

A cross sectional view of Westinghouse Parsons turbine. Steam enters at V and exits at E, turning the turbines, R. The turbines turns the shaft, B, to produce energy to produce electricity. During this process, the steam, at high pressure, is expanded to a lower pressure.

Westinghouse Parsons Turbine Viewed Cross Sectionally

A cross sectional view of Westinghouse Parsons turbine. Steam enters at V and exits at E, turning the…

"In 1885, Parsons took out his first turbine patent on a motor along the lines previously suggested by Wilson, and is responsible for the successful development of this type of motor. His first turbine, took steam in the center A, and exhausted at both ends through the exhaust passage E E, thus avoiding any end&mdash;thrust on the shaft B." &mdash;Derr, 1911

Early Parsons Steam Turbine

"In 1885, Parsons took out his first turbine patent on a motor along the lines previously suggested…

"In 1858, Hartman Bros. patented a turbine consisting of two revolving disks c and c' fixed to a shaft D. Between them was a segment of stationary reversing blades d d. Steam entered from a nozzle F and was exhausted at H; G is the casing." &mdash;Derr, 1911

Hartman's Compound Impulse Turbine

"In 1858, Hartman Bros. patented a turbine consisting of two revolving disks c and c' fixed to a shaft…

A simple steam turbine by Hero of Alexandra during first century AD. The turbine consists of a hollow sphere and pipes. Steam enters the hollow ball, and exits at the pipe around the equator. This then turns the sphere turbine.

Hero's Simple Steam Turbine

A simple steam turbine by Hero of Alexandra during first century AD. The turbine consists of a hollow…

"The shaft, where it passes through the diaphragm, is fitted to a bronze bushing with a few thousandths of an inch clearance. This bushing seats on the metal surface of the diaphragm with latitude for slight side motion. It is kept to its seat by the steam pressure, but can move sideways to accommodate any whipping motion of the shaft." &mdash;Derr, 1911

Sectional View of Kerr Turbine

"The shaft, where it passes through the diaphragm, is fitted to a bronze bushing with a few thousandths…

"A compound turbine was patented by Real and Pichon, the idea being to reduce the velocity of rotating passing the seam through successive wheels G, separated by disks B B containing outlets C to permit the passage of the steam from one chamber to another. H is one of the blades, F the shaft, and M the steam exhaust." &mdash;Derr, 1911

Real and Pichon Compound Steam Turbine

"A compound turbine was patented by Real and Pichon, the idea being to reduce the velocity of rotating…

A two stage condensing Terry turbine from a steam engine. The steam, entering from the top, rotates the two turbines in the casing to generate electricity.

Cross Sectional View of Two Stage Condensing Terry Steam Engine Turbine

A two stage condensing Terry turbine from a steam engine. The steam, entering from the top, rotates…

"A view of Wilson's invention is shown; a, b, and c, are vance which are attached to and rotate with the drum D, while d, e, and f are stationary guide vanes. Steam enters at the left, passes through the turbine longitudinally, and exhausts at the right." &mdash;Derr, 1911

Wilson's Compound Steam Turbine

"A view of Wilson's invention is shown; a, b, and c, are vance which are attached to and rotate with…

Sectional elevation through the cylinder of a Skinner-poppet-valve uniflow engine.

Uniflow Engine

Sectional elevation through the cylinder of a Skinner-poppet-valve uniflow engine.

This illustration shows a V type motor with eight cylinders, fans, and many other parts: Gasoline Supply Pipe, Carburetor, Water Supply Connection, Centrifugal Pump, Intake Manifold Connection, Water Jacket Connection, Cylinder, Valve Rocker Arm, Manifold, Radiator Connection, and Magneto.

V Type Motor, with Eight Cylinders

This illustration shows a V type motor with eight cylinders, fans, and many other parts: Gasoline Supply…

"The maximum displacement of the valve is attained when the eccentric is horizontal. In this position both the steam and exhaust ports are wide open, and any further motion motion of the piston will cause the valve to move toward its mid position." &mdash;Derr, 1911

Valve with Lap of Steam Engine Where Steam Enters the Slide Valve Compartment

"The maximum displacement of the valve is attained when the eccentric is horizontal. In this position…

A valve used to keep the backwards pressure in a steam piston engine.

Back Pressure Valve

A valve used to keep the backwards pressure in a steam piston engine.

A valve used to keep the backwards pressure in a steam piston engine.

Back Pressure Valve

A valve used to keep the backwards pressure in a steam piston engine.

"The amount that the valve overlaps the steam ports is called the lap of the valve. It will at once be seen that both the admission and exhaust ports may remain closed during a part of the stroke, thus making expansion and compression possible." &mdash;Derr, 1911

Slide Valve of Steam Engine

"The amount that the valve overlaps the steam ports is called the lap of the valve. It will at once…

"This valve consists of two pistons connected by a sleeve through which the valve rod passes. This valve rod is prolonged to a small balancing piston, placed directly over the main valve." &mdash;Derr, 1911

Cross Sectional View of the High Pressure Cylinder of Piston Valve from USS Massachusetts

"This valve consists of two pistons connected by a sleeve through which the valve rod passes. This valve…

A motor vehicle is a wheeled vehicle whose propulsion is provided by an engine or motor. The internal combustion engine is the most common motor choice, although electric motors or other types are sometimes used. Motor vehicles or road vehicles typically run on public roads. The rules of the road are laws or practices which all road users must obey; many relate specifically to motor vehicles or subtypes of them.

Motored Vehicle

A motor vehicle is a wheeled vehicle whose propulsion is provided by an engine or motor. The internal…

A side and inside view of the superheated steam vehicle. Water is heated by a heat transferred by the fuel in the front casing of the vehicle. The steam is transferred to the piston, underneath the vehicle, to be compressed and expanded. The piston shaft is moves the bar connected to the wheel to operate the vehicle.

Side and Inside View of Steam Operated Vehicle

A side and inside view of the superheated steam vehicle. Water is heated by a heat transferred by the…

This illustration shows a six cylinder motor and its many parts: Intake Manifold, Centrifugal Pump, Magneto, Carburetor, Spark Plug, Tractor Screw Shaft, Intake Valve, Exhaust, Exhaust Valve, Water Outlet.

Vertical Type Motor, Six Cylinder

This illustration shows a six cylinder motor and its many parts: Intake Manifold, Centrifugal Pump,…

Two vessels from the Thomas Savery first steam engine. The right tank fills up with water while the left fills up with steam to create a pressure in the vessel. At certain pressure, the lever lets cools the right vessel by pumping the water out of it.

Two Vessels from Thomas Savery First Steam Engine

Two vessels from the Thomas Savery first steam engine. The right tank fills up with water while the…

An illustration of a steam wagon with a transmission with two side chains. The boiler is located on at the front, while the water tank is on the bottom back. The chain connects the back wheel and the engine.

Steam Wagon with Two Side Chains Transmitting Drive

An illustration of a steam wagon with a transmission with two side chains. The boiler is located on…

A steam wagon with single chain, connecting the back wheels to the differential gear. The engine is located at the top of the fuel bunker, connected to the large intermediate gear shaft.

Steam Wagon with Single Chain Transmitting Drive

A steam wagon with single chain, connecting the back wheels to the differential gear. The engine is…

"The transmission on the first type of vehicle is by means of gearing throughout, and is completely enclosed, thus ensuring protection from dust, and more perfect lubrication. Change gears to give two speeds are provided." &mdash;Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Wagon with Steam Engine and Transmission Gearing with Double Helical Gear

"The transmission on the first type of vehicle is by means of gearing throughout, and is completely…

A steam operated wagon with two speed gear. The gears are located at the intermediate shaft, moving the back wheel by a chain drive. The gearing is enclosed to protect it from dust exposure during use.

Steam Operated Wagon with Transmission Gearing with Double Helical Gear

A steam operated wagon with two speed gear. The gears are located at the intermediate shaft, moving…

A Yorkshire steam wagon patent with unique boiler construction. The wagon operates with the drive chain connected to the back wheel to the intermediate shaft. The boiler is located at the front oriented sideways, while the engine is located behind the driver.

Yorkshire Steam Wagon Patent

A Yorkshire steam wagon patent with unique boiler construction. The wagon operates with the drive chain…

"If the velocity of impact of the jet is V feet per second, its velocity in the same direction after striking the plate will be zero, a definite force will be exerted on that plate, equal to the force necessary to impart a velocity of V feet in one second to the mass of water in the jet." &mdash;Derr, 1911

Water Jet Deflected 90 Degrees Measuring Force

"If the velocity of impact of the jet is V feet per second, its velocity in the same direction after…