"Cylinder added to crankcase. The cylinders are next bolted down to the crankcase, the pistons and crankshaft having been connected. A cover is placed over the gears to keep them clean." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 05: Cylinder Added to Crankcase

"Cylinder added to crankcase. The cylinders are next bolted down to the crankcase, the pistons and crankshaft…

"The magneto gives an electric spark, which explodes the gasoline in the cylinders. The water pump keeps water flowing around the cylinders to prevent them from getting too hot. This water comes back to the pump through the radiator at the front of the car. Wind blows through the radiator and cools off the water. The tire pump on up-to-date cars is run by the engine. It does not pump except when the gears, which are shown in the picture, are pulled together." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 10: Magneto

"The magneto gives an electric spark, which explodes the gasoline in the cylinders. The water pump keeps…

"The transmission is added. The transmission makes it possible to reverse the car. It also enables the driver to go into high-speed gear when on level roads and low-speed gear for starting and for pulling hills." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 12: Transmission

"The transmission is added. The transmission makes it possible to reverse the car. It also enables the…

"In machinery, a drum of adjustable diameter used with a belt to effect changes as desired in the speed of machinery." -Whitney, 1911

Expansion Drum

"In machinery, a drum of adjustable diameter used with a belt to effect changes as desired in the speed…

"Epicycloidal wheel, a wheel or ring fixed to a framework, toothed on its inner side, and having in gear with it another toothed wheel, of half the diameter of the first, fitted so as to revolve about the center of the latter. It is used for converting circular into alternate motion, or alternate into circular." -Whitney, 1911

Epicycloidal Wheel

"Epicycloidal wheel, a wheel or ring fixed to a framework, toothed on its inner side, and having in…

"A combination of wheels and axles, as shown, is called a train. The wheel in a train to which motion is imparted from a wheel on another shaft by such means as a belt or gearing, is called the driven wheel or follower; the hweel that imparts the motion is called the driver." —Hallock 1905

Train

"A combination of wheels and axles, as shown, is called a train. The wheel in a train to which motion…

"For sprockets of different diameters, small rings D are used, of different diameters. The nut C is screwed on and off by a wrench; it has grooves, in order to get rid of the turnings that fall on the threads of the studs." —Grimshaw, 1902

Bicycle Sprockets Gear

"For sprockets of different diameters, small rings D are used, of different diameters. The nut C is…

A train of wheels for transmitting and varying motion in machinery.

Gearing

A train of wheels for transmitting and varying motion in machinery.

using a mechanical system of gears or belts and pulleys to increase or decrease shaft speed. Power losses from friction are inherent in any gearing system.

Change Speed Gearing

using a mechanical system of gears or belts and pulleys to increase or decrease shaft speed. Power losses…

Equipped with or connected by gears or having gears engaged

Mechanical Gearing

Equipped with or connected by gears or having gears engaged

"The accompanying engraving is an illustration of a new style vertical mill in which an attempt is made to embody all the improvements which have been suggested by experience, and to furnish a complete vertical cane mill. In this machine the hearing is placed between the rolls, giving access to the boxes; the small wheels are lapped, bringing the minor rolls close together, and dispensing with the guide plate or 'dumb returner;' the main roll has a wide flange; the sweep cap has a square eye fitted to the squared end of the main shaft removable by hand; the weight of the rolls is supported upon the ends of the shafts in adjustable oil-tight boxes; the feed roll is fluted to facilitate the entrance of the cane to the mill; the top and bottom plates are diagonally braced as represent, and the construction of the whole machine is such that the mill may be taken entirely apart by simply unscrewing the corner bolts, no keys being used in any part of the machine." -Commissioner, 1865

Vertical cane mill

"The accompanying engraving is an illustration of a new style vertical mill in which an attempt is made…

"To avoid the inconvenience of having the team travel around the mill, interfering with the passing to and fro with cane and bagasse, the plan has been adopted by one manufacturer at least, of prolonging the main shaft of the mill down through the floor, and there coupling it with another shaft which continues down and rests in a step on the floor of a lower story or basement. The sweep is attached to the shaft below, and the team is thus removed from around the mill leaving the space unobstructed." -Commission, 1865

Vertical cane mill

"To avoid the inconvenience of having the team travel around the mill, interfering with the passing…

Righthand spiral gears

Righthand Spiral Gears

Righthand spiral gears

"Scutching-machine or Scutcher for Flax. a, feed-table on which the flax is fed to the fluted rollers b, b', which seize it and present it to the scutches or beaters c, fastened by supports d to the rotating drum e. The latter revolves in a case f, with a grating at the bottom. The feed-rolls are driven by gearing i." -Whitney, 1911

Scutcher

"Scutching-machine or Scutcher for Flax. a, feed-table on which the flax is fed to the fluted rollers…

A wheel of a car fitted with a double-chain drive from a jack-shaft that is parallel to the rear axis.

Power Transmission

A wheel of a car fitted with a double-chain drive from a jack-shaft that is parallel to the rear axis.