Alfalfa and lucerne are the common names of <i>medicago sativa</i>. The plant is native to Europe. It is cultivated as hay and pasture plants.

Alfalfa

Alfalfa and lucerne are the common names of medicago sativa. The plant is native to Europe. It is cultivated…

Blossom of an alfalfa plant, one of the oldest types of hay currently grown.

Alfalfa blossoms

Blossom of an alfalfa plant, one of the oldest types of hay currently grown.

A stack of alfalfa.

Stack of Alfalfa

A stack of alfalfa.

"Ventilating a barn having a silo at or near the center. The fresh air enters at AB, and finds its way to the foul-air shaft CE, passing out through the cupola F. The ventilators, CE, are spaces in the walls around the silo."&mdash;The Federal Digest, 1921

Barn Blueprint

"Ventilating a barn having a silo at or near the center. The fresh air enters at AB, and finds its way…

"A load of hay...upsets where one wheel rises by little above the other, because it is broader on the top than the distance of the wheels from each other; while a load of stone is very rarely turned over..." -Comstock 1850

Center of Gravity of a Load of Hay

"A load of hay...upsets where one wheel rises by little above the other, because it is broader on the…

"When a line of direction falls within the base, a body stands when not, it falls... On the same principle, a load of stone may pass safely over a hillside, on which a load of hay would be overturned [as shown by the line of direction in this illustration]." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Line of Direction from the Center of Gravity of an Object

"When a line of direction falls within the base, a body stands when not, it falls... On the same principle,…

An illustration of children playing in hay.

Children in Hay

An illustration of children playing in hay.

An illustration of a young cow eating hay out of a trough and a dog peeking around the corner.

Cow Eating Hay in Barn

An illustration of a young cow eating hay out of a trough and a dog peeking around the corner.

"The Benday process, so called, is the use of mechanical appliances for adding lines or stipples to either drawings or plates. Its use is very extensive in the making of tint blocks or color work, used either in connection with line or half-tone key plates." -Hill, 1921

Benday Engraving

"The Benday process, so called, is the use of mechanical appliances for adding lines or stipples to…

"The making of line engravings follows the same general course, with the exception that no halftone screen is needed, the copy to be reproduced being already made up of lines or dots or a combination of them." -Hill, 1921

Line Engraving

"The making of line engravings follows the same general course, with the exception that no halftone…

A feeder of timothy hay. Some has been eaten by cows, indicating their preference for the type of hay.

Feeder

A feeder of timothy hay. Some has been eaten by cows, indicating their preference for the type of hay.

Timothy Grass is commonly grown for cattle feed and, in particular, as hay for horses. It is relatively high in fibre, especially when cut late. It is considered part of the standard mix for grass hay and provides quality nutrition for horses. Timothy is a staple food for domestic pet rabbits, guinea pigs,chinchillas, and degus, often making up the bulk of their diet. If the stalk is cut from the tubers before evidence of maturity appears, with nutritin arrested, the proper growth will cease. An effort is made to repair the injury by sending out small, lateral tubers, as shown here.

Timothy Grass

Timothy Grass is commonly grown for cattle feed and, in particular, as hay for horses. It is relatively…

Timothy Grass is commonly grown for cattle feed and, in particular, as hay for horses. It is relatively high in fibre, especially when cut late. It is considered part of the standard mix for grass hay and provides quality nutrition for horses. Timothy is a staple food for domestic pet rabbits, guinea pigs,chinchillas, and degus, often making up the bulk of their diet. Plants persist through the winter. Dead, straw-colored flowering stems may persist, but only for a short time, and are recognized by the distinctive spike-like inflorescence. This picture represents the bulb fully developed and mature, form which the stalk was cut.

Timothy Grass

Timothy Grass is commonly grown for cattle feed and, in particular, as hay for horses. It is relatively…

Timothy Grass is commonly grown for cattle feed and, in particular, as hay for horses. It is relatively high in fibre, especially when cut late. It is considered part of the standard mix for grass hay and provides quality nutrition for horses. Timothy is a staple food for domestic pet rabbits, guinea pigs,chinchillas, and degus, often making up the bulk of their diet. Plants persist through the winter, but if my any means, the green portion is severed, at any season of the year, the result will be as we see in the picture here, the death of the plant. Dead, straw-colored flowering stems may persist, but only for a short time, and are recognized by the distinctive spike-like inflorescence.

Timothy Grass

Timothy Grass is commonly grown for cattle feed and, in particular, as hay for horses. It is relatively…

Grass cut and dried for fodder.

Hay

Grass cut and dried for fodder.

A hay rack is a freestanding vertical drying rack. These are permanent structures primarily made of wood, hay racks are often artistically designed and handcrafted

Hay Rack

A hay rack is a freestanding vertical drying rack. These are permanent structures primarily made of…

A group of children going on a traditional hay ride.

Children on a hay ride

A group of children going on a traditional hay ride.

An illustration of a wagon covered with hay.

Hay Wagon

An illustration of a wagon covered with hay.

"In Summer heat, when brightly shines the sun, / To make your hay, the proper time is come: / Spread round the new mown grass, and do it right, / Work while the sky is clear, and sun is bright."&mdash;Barber, 1857

Make Hay While the Sun Shines

"In Summer heat, when brightly shines the sun, / To make your hay, the proper time is come: / Spread…

An illustration of men in a barn moving hay with pitch forks.

Men in Barn

An illustration of men in a barn moving hay with pitch forks.

A mower used for cutting hay.

Mower

A mower used for cutting hay.

Sainfion (Hedysarum onobrychis), a hay, is a leguminous plant with many straggling, tapering, smooth, stems growing from two to three feet long. The leaves are in pairs of pointed, oblong leaflets with a slightly hairy underside. The flower stalks are higher than the leaves, ending in a spike of flowers. The flowers are succeeded by flat, hard pods, toothed on the edges and prickly on the sides. The root is perennial, hard, and woody. The Saifoin flowers in July. The fruit or seed is said to be more nutritious than oats.

Sainfoin

Sainfion (Hedysarum onobrychis), a hay, is a leguminous plant with many straggling, tapering, smooth,…

Sainfion (Hedysarum onobrychis), a hay, is a leguminous plant with many straggling, tapering, smooth, stems growing from two to three feet long. The leaves are in pairs of pointed, oblong leaflets with a slightly hairy underside. The flower stalks are higher than the leaves, ending in a spike of flowers. The flower is shown here. The flowers are succeeded by flat, hard pods, toothed on the edges and prickly on the sides. The root is perennial, hard, and woody. The Saifoin flowers in July. The fruit or seed is said to be more nutritious than oats.

Sainfoin

Sainfion (Hedysarum onobrychis), a hay, is a leguminous plant with many straggling, tapering, smooth,…

Sainfion (Hedysarum onobrychis), a hay, is a leguminous plant with many straggling, tapering, smooth, stems growing from two to three feet long. The leaves are in pairs of pointed, oblong leaflets with a slightly hairy underside. The flower stalks are higher than the leaves, ending in a spike of flowers. The flowers are succeeded by flat, hard pods, toothed on the edges and prickly on the sides. The root is perennial, hard, and woody. The Saifoin flowers in July. The fruit or seed, shown here, is said to be more nutritious than oats.

Sainfoin

Sainfion (Hedysarum onobrychis), a hay, is a leguminous plant with many straggling, tapering, smooth,…

A hay rake is an agricultural rake used to collect cut hay into windrows for later collection. It is also designed to fluff up the hay and turn it over so that it may dry. A hay rake may be mechanized, drawn by a tractor or draft animals, or it may be a hand tool.

Horse Hay Rake

A hay rake is an agricultural rake used to collect cut hay into windrows for later collection. It is…

"Side-delivery rake, a horse-rake in which the rake is suspended between the axle of the pair of wheels and a third or caster-wheel trailing at the end of the rake, and placed in a position diagonal to the direction in which the machine moves. By means of suitable mechanism, operated through gearing on the axle, the hay, as fast as it is gathered, is delivered at the side of the rake and deposited on the ground in the form of a windrow." -Whitney, 1911

Side Delivery Rake

"Side-delivery rake, a horse-rake in which the rake is suspended between the axle of the pair of wheels…

A group of birds of the order <em>Rasores</em>, settled around a farmyard scene.

Rasores

A group of birds of the order Rasores, settled around a farmyard scene.

A hunter, shepherd, and farmers working on the shore.

Shore Scene

A hunter, shepherd, and farmers working on the shore.

"Germination of the spore of the hay bacillus&mdash;the axis of growth of the germinal rodlet is at right angles to the long axis of the spore." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Spore

"Germination of the spore of the hay bacillus—the axis of growth of the germinal rodlet is at…

"Endogenous spores of the hay bacillus." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Spores

"Endogenous spores of the hay bacillus." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

A swathe turner.

Swathe Turner

A swathe turner.

"A grain of wheat. Back view." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Back view." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"A grain of wheat. Front view." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Front view." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"A grain of wheat. Vertical section, showing (b) the endosperm, and (a) embryo." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Vertical section, showing (b) the endosperm, and (a) embryo." — Encyclopedia…

"A grain of wheat. Commencement of germination, showing (b) the pileola and (c) the secondary rootlets surrounded by their coleorrhizae." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Wheat Grain

"A grain of wheat. Commencement of germination, showing (b) the pileola and (c) the secondary rootlets…

A stool used to stack hay on so that it becomes ready faster then when it is stacked on the ground.

Young's Stack-Stool

A stool used to stack hay on so that it becomes ready faster then when it is stacked on the ground.