Base of skull from below, the lower jaw is removed.

Base of Skull from Below

Base of skull from below, the lower jaw is removed.

The skull from the side.

Skull from Side

The skull from the side.

Base of skull from within.

Base of Skull from Within

Base of skull from within.

Skull of an ox, superior aspect. Labels: a, frontal crest; b, lateral crest; c, horn core; d, nasal peak; e, supraorbital foramina. Bones: 1, frontal; 2, lachrymal; 3, malar; 4, superior maxillary; 5, nasal; 6, premaxilla, with incisive openings.

Ox Skull

Skull of an ox, superior aspect. Labels: a, frontal crest; b, lateral crest; c, horn core; d, nasal…

Shown is the base of the skull seen from above. Labels: 1, frontal bone; 2, slit for nasal nerve; 3, anterior ethmoidal foramen; 4, posterior ethmoidal foramen; 5, optic foramen; 6, foramen for internal carotid artery formed by anterior and middle clinoid processes; 7, lesser wing of sphenoid; 8, anterior clinoid process, in this case united on its inner side to the middle clinoid process; 9, posterior clinoid process; 10, foramen ovale; 11, groove for middle meningeal artery; 12, foramen spinosum; 13, Hiatus Fallopii; 14, line of petro-squamosal suture; 15, internal auditory meatus; 16, groove for superior petrosal sinus; 17, groove for sigmoid part of lateral sinus; 18, jugular foramen; 19, anterior condylic foramen; 20, groove for lateral sinus; 21, internal occipital protuberance; 22, ridge for attachment of falx cerebri; 23, fossa for the lodgment of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum; 24, ridge for attachment of the falx cerebelli; 25, fossa for the lodgment of the left cerebellar hemisphere; 26, foramen magnum; 27, groove for the sigmoid sinus turning into the jugular foramen; 28, groove for the inferior petrosal sinus running along the line of the suture between the petrous temporal and the basioccipital; 29, depression for the Gasserian ganglion; 30, middle cranial fossa for lodgment of temporal lobe of cerebrum; 31, foramen lacerum medium; 32, carotid groove; 33, dorsum sellae of sphenoid; 34, leads into foramen rotundum; 35, pituitary fossa; 36, olivary eminence of sphenoid; 37, anterior cranial fossa for lodgment of frontal lobes of cerebrum; 38, cribriform plate of ethmoid; 39, crista galli of ethmoid; 40, foramen caecum; 41, crest for attachment of falx cerebri.

Base of the Skull Seen From Above

Shown is the base of the skull seen from above. Labels: 1, frontal bone; 2, slit for nasal nerve; 3,…

Shown is the inner aspect of the left half of the skull sagittally divided. Labels: 1, suture between parietal and temporal bone; 2, remains of subarcuate fossa; 3, grooves for branches of the middle meningeal artery; 4, dorsum sellae; 5, pituitary fossa; 6, anterior clinoid fossa; 7, optic foramen; 8, sphenoidal suture; 9, nasal surface of superior turbinated bone; 10, cribriform plate of ethmoid; 11, nasal surface of middle turbinated bone; 12, frontal sinus; 13, nasal spine; 14, nasal bone; 15, nasal process of superior maxilla; 16, middle meatus of nose; 17, directed towards opening of antrum; 18, nasal surface of inferior turbinated bone; 19, inferior meatus of nose; 20, anterior nasal spine; 21, anterior palatine canal; 22, palatal process of superior maxilla; 23, palatal process of palate bone; 24, posterior nasal spine; 25, hamular process of internal pterygoid plate; 26, external pterygoid plate; 27, superior meatus of nose; 28,sphenopalatine foramen; 29, pterygospinous ligament almost completely ossified to enclose a foramen; 30, styloid process of temporal bone; 31, alar spine of sphenoid; 32, mastoid process; 33, basion (midpoint of posterior border of foramen magnum); 34, internal auditory meatus; 35, anterior condylic foramen; 36, leading into jugular foramen; 37, opisthion (midpoint of posterior border of foramen magnum); 38, groove for sigmoid sinus; 39, opening of mastoid foramen; 40, for lateral sinus and attachment of tentorium cerebelli; 41, fossa for lodgment of cerebellar hemisphere; 42, internal occipital protuberance.

Skull Seen From Side

Shown is the inner aspect of the left half of the skull sagittally divided. Labels: 1, suture between…

Front section of skull through plane of outer border of orbits. Arrows pass through communication between atrum and middle meatus.

Frontal Section of Skull Showing Nasal Cavity

Front section of skull through plane of outer border of orbits. Arrows pass through communication between…

Inner aspect of outer wall of right nasal fossa.

Side View of Skull Showing Nasal Cavity

Inner aspect of outer wall of right nasal fossa.

Portion of right half of skull, showing posterior wall of sphenomaxillary fossa. The superior maxilla, ethmoid, and part of malar have been removed.

Skull Showing Posterior Wall of Sphenomaxillary Fossa

Portion of right half of skull, showing posterior wall of sphenomaxillary fossa. The superior maxilla,…

Lateral aspect of the skull, showing the various points.

Skull Showing Various Points

Lateral aspect of the skull, showing the various points.

Base of skull.

Base of Skull

Base of skull.

Shown is norma basalis, which refers to the base of the cranium. Labels: 1, external occipital crest; 2, superior curved line of the occipital bone; 3, foramen magnum; 4, occipital condyle; 5, digastric groove; 6, mastoid process; 7, external auditory meatus; 8, styloid process; 9, glenoid fossa; 10, foramen spinosum; 11, sphenoidal spine; 12, foramen ovale; 13, external pterygoid plate; 14, hamular process of internal pterygoid plate; 15, nasal septum; 16, posterior nasal spine; 17, horizontal plate of palate bone; 18, palatal process of superior maxilla; 19, anterior palatine canal; 20, intermaxillary suture; 21, posterior palatine canal; 22, malar process of superior maxilla; 23, spheno-maxillary fissure; 24, zygomatic fossa; 25, zygomatic arch; 26, posterior openings of left nasal fossa; 27, pterygoid fossa; 28, scaphoid fossa; 29, foramen lacerum medium; 30, opening of osseous Eustachian canal; 31, carotid canal; 32, jugular fossa; 33, stylo-mastoid foramen; 34, jugular process of the occipital bone; 35, groove for occipital artery; 36, mastoid foramen; 37, posterior condylic foramen; 38, inferior curved line of occipital bone; 39, external occipital protuberance.

Base of the Skull

Shown is norma basalis, which refers to the base of the cranium. Labels: 1, external occipital crest;…

Shown is a coronal section passing inferiorly through interval between between the first and second molar teeth. Labels: 1, groove of superior longitudinal sinus; 2,crest for attachment of falx cerebri; 3, crista galli of ethmoid; 4, cristiform plate of ethmoid; 5, perpendicular plate of ethmoid, assisting in the formation of nasal septum; 6, lateral mass of ethmoid consisting of the ethmoidal cells; 7, os planum of ethmoid; 8, middle meatus of nose; 9, middle turbinated bone; 10, opening from the middle meatus; 11, orbital plate of superior maxilla; 12, frontomalar suture; 13, infraorbital groove; 14, antrum or maxillary sinus; 15, canal for anterior dental nerve and vessels exposed; 16, inferior meatus of nose; 17, alveolar process of the superior maxilla; 18, nasal surface of inferior turbinated bone; 19, groove for anterior palatine nerve and vessels; 20, palatal process of superior maxilla; 21, maxillary crest forming part of nasal septum; 22, vomer forming part of nasal septum.

Coronal Section of Skull

Shown is a coronal section passing inferiorly through interval between between the first and second…

"Showing how the Bones of the Skull may be artificially deformed by "head-binding." From the photograph of a "triangular" skull found in an Indian grave in Ancon, Peru." — Blaisedell, 1904

Deformed skull

"Showing how the Bones of the Skull may be artificially deformed by "head-binding." From the photograph…

Shown is norma frontalis, which refers to the front of the skull. Labels: 1, mental protuberance; 2, body of lower jaw; 3, ramus of lower jaw; 4, anterior nasal spine; 5, canine fossa; 6, infraorbital canal; 7, malar canal; 8 orbital surface of superior maxilla; 9, temporal fossa; 10, os planum of ethmoid; 11, sphenoidal fissure; 12, lachrymal bone and groove; 13, optic foramen; 14, orbital foramina; 15, temporal ridge; 16, supraorbital notch; 17, glabella; 18, frontal eminence; 19, superciliary ridge; 20, parietal bone; 21, front-nasal suture; 22, pterion; 23, great wing of sphenoid; 24, orbital surface of great wing of sphenoid; 25, squamous temporal; 26, left nasal bone; 27, malar bone; 28, sphenomaxillary fissure; 29, zygomatic arch; 30, anterior nasal aperture, displaying nasal septum and inferior and middle turbinated bones; 31, mastoid process; 32, incisor fossa; 33, angle of jaw; 34, mental foramen; 35, symphysis.

Front of the Skull

Shown is norma frontalis, which refers to the front of the skull. Labels: 1, mental protuberance; 2,…

Lateral view of skull with zygomatic arch removed.

Lateral View of Skull

Lateral view of skull with zygomatic arch removed.

Shown is norma lateralis, which refers to the side of the skull. Labels: 1, mental foramen; 2, body of lower jaw; 3, superior maxillary; 4, ramus of lower jaw; 5, zygomatic arch; 6, styloid process; 7, external auditory meatus; 8, mastoid process; 9, asterion; 10, superior curved line of occipital bone; 11, external occipital protuberance; 12, lambdoid suture; 13, occipital bone; 14, lambda; 15, obelion placed between the two parietal foramina; 16, parietal bone; 17, lower temporal ridge; 18, upper temporal ridge; 19, squamous part of temporal bone; 20, bregma; 21, coronal suture; 22, stephanion; 23, frontal bone; 24, pterion; 25, temporal fossa; 26, great wing of sphenoid; 27, malar bone; 28, malar canal; 29, lachrymal bone; 30, nasal bone; 31, infraorbital canal; 32, anterior nasal aperture.

Side of the Skull

Shown is norma lateralis, which refers to the side of the skull. Labels: 1, mental foramen; 2, body…

Sphenoid bone, situated the anterior part of the base of the skull, articulating with all the other cranial bones, which it binds firmly and solidly together. Labels: a, greater wing; b, lesser wing.

Sphenoid Bone of the Human Skull

Sphenoid bone, situated the anterior part of the base of the skull, articulating with all the other…

The sphenoid as seen from behind.

Sphenoid Viewed from Behind

The sphenoid as seen from behind.

The sphenoid as seen from the front.

Sphenoid Viewed from the Front

The sphenoid as seen from the front.

A statue built on the Giza Plateau in Giza, Egypt, consisting of a lion with a human head. The Sphinx is believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians.

The Great Sphnix

A statue built on the Giza Plateau in Giza, Egypt, consisting of a lion with a human head. The Sphinx…

"Steeple Head-dress. From Viollet-le-Duc." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Steeple Head-dress

"Steeple Head-dress. From Viollet-le-Duc." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

The head and leg of the stork, a bird in the Ciconiidae family of storks, herons, and egrets.

Stork Head and Leg

The head and leg of the stork, a bird in the Ciconiidae family of storks, herons, and egrets.

An ornate capital T surrounded by leaves and vines, used at the start of a new chapter or heading.

Decorative Floral T

An ornate capital T surrounded by leaves and vines, used at the start of a new chapter or heading.

Two men using a telephone.

Telephone

Two men using a telephone.

The inner surface of the left temporal bone at birth.

Temporal Bone at Birth

The inner surface of the left temporal bone at birth.

A, The outer surface of the right temporal bone at birth. B, The same with squamozygomatic portion removed. Labels: a, tympanic ring; b, inner wall of tympanum; c, fenestra rotunda; d, foramen ovale; e, mastoid; f, mastoid process; g, mastosquamosal suture, with foramen for transmission of vessels; h, squamozygomatic, removed in figure B to show how its descending process forms the outer wall of the mastoid antrum.

Temporal Bone at Birth

A, The outer surface of the right temporal bone at birth. B, The same with squamozygomatic portion removed.…

Inner surface of right temporal bone at birth. am squamozygomatic; b, petrosquamosal suture and foramen (just above the end of the lead line; c, subarcuate fossa; d, aquaedutcus vestibuli; e, aquaeductus cochlea; f, internal auditory meatus; g, upper end of carotid canal.

Temporal Bone at Birth

Inner surface of right temporal bone at birth. am squamozygomatic; b, petrosquamosal suture and foramen…

Temporal bone at birth. Inner aspect.

Inner Aspect of Temporal Bone at Birth

Temporal bone at birth. Inner aspect.

Temporal bone at birth. Outer aspect.

Outer Aspect of Temporal Bone at Birth

Temporal bone at birth. Outer aspect.

Temporal bone of the human skull. The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull. Labels: 1, squamous portion; 2, placed below external opening of auditory canal in petrous portion; 3, placed below mastoid portion; 4, placed below glenoid cavity for reception of condyle of lower jaw.

Temporal Bone of the Human Skull

Temporal bone of the human skull. The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull.…

The right temporal bone as seen from below.

Temporal Bone Viewed from Below

The right temporal bone as seen from below.

The anterior half of a vertical transverse section through the left temporal bone.

Anterior Half of Section Through Temporal Bone

The anterior half of a vertical transverse section through the left temporal bone.

Development of the temporal bone. From ten centers.

Development of Temporal Bone

Development of the temporal bone. From ten centers.

Horizontal section through left temporal bone showing lower half of section.

Horizontal Section of Temporal Bone

Horizontal section through left temporal bone showing lower half of section.

The right temporal bone as seen from the inner side.

Inner Surface of the Temporal Bone

The right temporal bone as seen from the inner side.

The right temporal bone as seen from the outer side.

Outer Surface of the Temporal Bone

The right temporal bone as seen from the outer side.

The posterior half of a vertical transverse section through the left temporal bone.

Posterior Half of Section Through Temporal Bone

The posterior half of a vertical transverse section through the left temporal bone.

The temporal muscle is a broad muscle situated at the side of the head and occupying the entire extent of the temporal fossa. Shown is the temporal muscle, the zygoma and Masseter removed.

Temporal Muscle

The temporal muscle is a broad muscle situated at the side of the head and occupying the entire extent…

"Shows the head of a thyrsus composed of the leaves and berries of the ivy, and surrounded by acanthus leaves. Very frequently, also, a while fillet was tied to the pole just below the head." — Anthon, 1891

Head of a thyrsus

"Shows the head of a thyrsus composed of the leaves and berries of the ivy, and surrounded by acanthus…

Variation in timothy heads. No two are alike.

Timothy heads

Variation in timothy heads. No two are alike.

The Roman table support Trapezophoron is a marble design of a lion head and claw.

Roman Table Support Trapezophoron

The Roman table support Trapezophoron is a marble design of a lion head and claw.

The Roman table support trapezophoron is a marble design of a Lynx head and claw.

Roman Table Support Trapezophoron

The Roman table support trapezophoron is a marble design of a Lynx head and claw.

The Roman table support trapezophoron is a marble design of a Lynx head and claw.

Roman Table Support Trapezophoron

The Roman table support trapezophoron is a marble design of a Lynx head and claw.

The Roman table support Trapezophoron is a marble design of a panther head and claw.

Roman Table Support Trapezophoron

The Roman table support Trapezophoron is a marble design of a panther head and claw.

The Roman table support Trapezophoron is a marble design of a panther head and claw.

Roman Table Support Trapezophoron

The Roman table support Trapezophoron is a marble design of a panther head and claw.

The Roman table support Trapezophoron is a marble design of a lion head and claw.

Roman Table Support Trapezophoron

The Roman table support Trapezophoron is a marble design of a lion head and claw.

"Head of Triaenops Persicus." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Triaenops Persicus

"Head of Triaenops Persicus." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

This illustration shows a method of applying a triangular bandage to the chest, shoulder, head and elbow.

Triangular Bandage

This illustration shows a method of applying a triangular bandage to the chest, shoulder, head and elbow.

Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the trunk and head. Labels: 1,1, the dorsal cavity; a, the spinal portion; b, the cranial enlargement; c, c, the bodies of the vertebrae forming the partition between the dorsal and ventral cavities; 2, 2, the ventral cavity, subdivided into thoracic cavity (d), abdominal cavity (e), and pelvic cavity (f); g, the nasal cavity; h, the mouth, or buccal cavity. The alimentary canal (al) is represented running through the whole length of the ventral cavity.

Trunk and Head of Human Body

Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the trunk and head. Labels: 1,1, the dorsal cavity; a, the spinal…

An ornate capital V surrounded by leaves and vines, used at the start of a new chapter or heading.

Decorative Floral V

An ornate capital V surrounded by leaves and vines, used at the start of a new chapter or heading.

Section of the head of a serpent. a, poison fangs; b, poison glands; c, conductor for the poison; d, muscles of the jaws; e, tendon of the muscles; s, salivary glands.

Cross section of a viper head

Section of the head of a serpent. a, poison fangs; b, poison glands; c, conductor for the poison; d,…

Genus <em>Coragyps</em>, about the size of a small turkey. This one is feeding on a cow's head.

Black Vulture

Genus Coragyps, about the size of a small turkey. This one is feeding on a cow's head.

An ornate capital W surrounded by leaves and vines, used at the start of a new chapter or heading.

Decorative Floral W

An ornate capital W surrounded by leaves and vines, used at the start of a new chapter or heading.

Although he did not explicitly seek the office of commander and even claimed that he was not equal to it, there was no serious competition. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775; the next day, on the nomination of John Adams of Massachusetts, Washington was appointed Major General and elected by Congress to be Commander-in-chief.

Washington Taking Command of the Army

Although he did not explicitly seek the office of commander and even claimed that he was not equal to…

Winged head

Winged head

Winged head

Woman's face with glasses.

Woman

Woman's face with glasses.

Woman's face with hair bow.

Woman

Woman's face with hair bow.

An illustration of the face of a young woman.

Woman

An illustration of the face of a young woman.

An illustration of a woman consoling a man with his head down on a desk.

Woman Consoling Man

An illustration of a woman consoling a man with his head down on a desk.