The Libreria Cluster is a fruit Festoon design found in the Cathedral of Siena, Italy during the Italian Renaissance.

Libreria Cluster

The Libreria Cluster is a fruit Festoon design found in the Cathedral of Siena, Italy during the Italian…

This Lion Coat of Arms is designed with inlayed marble work. It was found in St. Croce, Florence, Italy, during the Italian Renaissance.

Lion Coat of Arms

This Lion Coat of Arms is designed with inlayed marble work. It was found in St. Croce, Florence, Italy,…

This Lion Coat of Arms is designed with an intarsia panel. It was found in St. Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, during the Italian Renaissance.

Lion Coat of Arms

This Lion Coat of Arms is designed with an intarsia panel. It was found in St. Maria Novella, Florence,…

An illustration of a coin from the Italian Confederacy.

Coin of the Italian Confederacy

An illustration of a coin from the Italian Confederacy.

"Roman coins showing various styles of hair-dressing."—Webster, 1913

Roman Coins

"Roman coins showing various styles of hair-dressing."—Webster, 1913

An illustration of the Roman Colosseum.

Colosseum

An illustration of the Roman Colosseum.

A grand statue of Christopher Columbus stands tall in Genoa, Italy.

Statue of Christopher Columbus in Genoa, Italy

A grand statue of Christopher Columbus stands tall in Genoa, Italy.

The monument for Christopher Columbus in Genoa, Italy.

The Columbus Monument in Genoa, Italy

The monument for Christopher Columbus in Genoa, Italy.

An Italian explorer whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents.

Christopher Columbus

An Italian explorer whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the…

An Italian explorer who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and landed in the American continents.

Christopher Columbus

An Italian explorer who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and landed in the American continents.

The Trajan's column is a monument in honor of Emperor Trajan located in Rome, Italy. The column is a continuous bas-relief design (raised art) that winds up around the capital from the base to the top of the capital. The relief designs depict Emperor Trajan's two victorious wars against the Dacian's.

Trajan's Column

The Trajan's column is a monument in honor of Emperor Trajan located in Rome, Italy. The column is a…

This Grotesque column is a squatting winged female without arms. It is found in the Guadagni Palace in Florence, Italy.

Grotesque Column

This Grotesque column is a squatting winged female without arms. It is found in the Guadagni Palace…

This Thin Grotesque column is a squatting winged female without arms. It is found in the Guadagni Palace in Florence, Italy.

Thin Grotesque Column

This Thin Grotesque column is a squatting winged female without arms. It is found in the Guadagni Palace…

This Renaissance console is made out of marble. It is an Italian design found in the Santa Maria de Miracoli church in Venice, Italy.

Renaissance Console

This Renaissance console is made out of marble. It is an Italian design found in the Santa Maria de…

This Roman console is shown in the front and side view. It is a design that includes two decorative swans found at the Vatican in Rome, Italy.

Roman Console

This Roman console is shown in the front and side view. It is a design that includes two decorative…

This Roman console is shown in its front and side view. It is found in the Temple of Jupiter Stator in Rome, Italy.

Roman Console

This Roman console is shown in its front and side view. It is found in the Temple of Jupiter Stator…

This Roman console is shown in its front and side view. It is found in the Vatican, Rome, Italy.

Roman Console

This Roman console is shown in its front and side view. It is found in the Vatican, Rome, Italy.

The Arch of Constantine was erected to celebrate Constantine's victory of Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge. It is situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill.

Arch of Constantine

The Arch of Constantine was erected to celebrate Constantine's victory of Maxentius at the Battle of…

"Monstrance of Copper Gilt; Italian work of the 15th century." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Copper Gilt

"Monstrance of Copper Gilt; Italian work of the 15th century." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

An Italian politician who was instrumental in the formation of the united country.

Francesco Crispi

An Italian politician who was instrumental in the formation of the united country.

Famous Italian poet

Alighieri Dante

Famous Italian poet

The Italian Renaissance decorated shaft is designed on a tomb in St. Maria del Popolo in Rome, Italy. It is a design of foliage and festoons.

Italian Renaissance Decorated Shaft

The Italian Renaissance decorated shaft is designed on a tomb in St. Maria del Popolo in Rome, Italy.…

"The most noteworthy of the successors of Palladio at Venice were Scamozzi, and Longhena, the architect of the Della Salute church.Some of the churches of this style retain the Byzantine system of the Greek cross with barrel-vaultings and a central dome resting on four pillars or piers. Others, again, have the form of the basilica but with a system of their own, which produces a beautiful effect. This system consists of smaller domes in the aisles, all resting on pierces masses of masonry with barrel-vaultings connected with them, as, for instance San Salvador."The Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute (Basilica of St Mary of Health/Salvation), commonly known simply as the Salute, is a famous church in Venice, placed scenically at a narrow finger of land which lies between the Grand Canal and the Bacino di San Marco on the lagoon, visible as one enters the Piazza San Marco from the water. While it has the status of a minor basilica, its decorative and distinctive profile and location make it among the most photographed churches in Italy.

Della Salute Church and Custom House

"The most noteworthy of the successors of Palladio at Venice were Scamozzi, and Longhena, the architect…

The Dolphin Design is part of an address by German artists, given to King Humbert of Italy.

Dolphin Design

The Dolphin Design is part of an address by German artists, given to King Humbert of Italy.

The Dolphin Design is part of an address by German artists, given to King Humbert of Italy.

Dolphin Design

The Dolphin Design is part of an address by German artists, given to King Humbert of Italy.

This Medieval Desk was actually called a double-desk. It had a revolving shaft and was constructed at the end of the 13th century.

Medieval Desk

This Medieval Desk was actually called a double-desk. It had a revolving shaft and was constructed at…

Emperor of the Roman Empire from 284 to 286 AD, and again from 286 to 305.

Diocletian

Emperor of the Roman Empire from 284 to 286 AD, and again from 286 to 305.

This painting by J. William Turner is a good example of his oil on canvas pieces. The scene shown is of Venice. The painting is now found in the National Gallery in Washington D.C.

The Dogana

This painting by J. William Turner is a good example of his oil on canvas pieces. The scene shown is…

The obverse side of a ducatoon, a silver coin, struck by Antonio Priuli, Doge of Venice A.D. 1618-1623.

Ducatoon

The obverse side of a ducatoon, a silver coin, struck by Antonio Priuli, Doge of Venice A.D. 1618-1623.

The reverse side of a ducatoon, a silver coin, struck by Antonio Priuli, Doge of Venice A.D. 1618-1623.

Ducatoon, Reverse

The reverse side of a ducatoon, a silver coin, struck by Antonio Priuli, Doge of Venice A.D. 1618-1623.

Restoration of the column of Gaius Duilius, a Roman politician and admiral in the First Punic War.

Column of Duilius

Restoration of the column of Gaius Duilius, a Roman politician and admiral in the First Punic War.

"The column was adorned with the brazen beaks of the captured Carthaginian vessels. Part of the inscription reciting the achievements of the Roman fleet has been preserved."—Webster, 1913

Column of Duilis

"The column was adorned with the brazen beaks of the captured Carthaginian vessels. Part of the inscription…

"The Italian city of Volterra still preserves in the Porta dell' Arco an interesting relic of Ertuscan times. The archway, one of the original gates of the ancient town, is about twenty feet in height and twelve feet in width. On the keystone and imposts are three curious heads, probably representing the guardian deities of the place."—Webster, 1913

An Ertuscan Arch

"The Italian city of Volterra still preserves in the Porta dell' Arco an interesting relic of Ertuscan…

"Owing to the rarity and expensiveness of free-stone in Upper Italy, an architectural style in brick was developed side-by-side with that which has just been touched upon. This material had already been employed in the foregoing period for churches, and it now came into frequent use in the construction of the palaces. Bologna is especially rich in palaces of this description, which, with an admixture of earlier forms, belong for the most part to the Early Renissance, with semicircles for the heads of the opening, as was necessitated by the character of the material. The easy multiplication of the ornamental parts in burnt clay, generally led to an undue increase of the decorative element. Inasmuch as the main streets of Bologna have arcades running along them of which the individual palaces only embrace a portion, these buildings do not present the appearance of being totally detached, but seem rather parts of the entire front of the street, and show much similarity in the architecture of their façades with that of the arcades themselves."

Façade of a Palace at Bologna

"Owing to the rarity and expensiveness of free-stone in Upper Italy, an architectural style in brick…

"The lower story of palaces by Palladio, the greater part of which are at Vicenza, is generally of rustic work, whilst the upper storeys have pilasters or a colonnade; occasionally, however, pilasters or arcades are introduced on the ground-floor."

Façade of a Palace at Vicenza

"The lower story of palaces by Palladio, the greater part of which are at Vicenza, is generally of rustic…

This view of Florence shows the Duomo (cathedral) on the right and Giotto's Campanile (tower) on the left.

Florence

This view of Florence shows the Duomo (cathedral) on the right and Giotto's Campanile (tower) on the…

A picture of Florence, the capital of the former duchy of Tuscany, located in Italy.

Florence

A picture of Florence, the capital of the former duchy of Tuscany, located in Italy.

"There exists, however, a few Florentine palaces of a smaller type, which externally present a more habitable appearance. In these rustic-work is not the all-important feature, but it is only employed for the quoins of the fa&ccedilade, though it sometimes extends to the whole of the ground-floor. The roof. which projects very considerably, and shows the wooden construction, is not in accordance with the rest of the architectural features of the façade, nor is it supported by a strong enough cornice. Sometimes the upper storey forms an open arcade (as shown here). The figures and embellishments in sgraffitto which are introduced in this façade are not a necessary feature in these Florentine palaces. This method of ornamentation is also met in exceptional instances in some of the Roman palaces."

Gaudagni Palace at Florence

"There exists, however, a few Florentine palaces of a smaller type, which externally present a more…

"An expression of great massiveness is the main characteristics of this Florentine style, which was principally applied in the architecture of the palaces. The forms which were borrowed from the Roman columnar construction do not in this style, as they do more or less in the other styles of the Renaissance, constitute a pseudo-architecture. The massiveness, however, of the Florentine palaces conveys rather the notion of a fortress than of a mansion of a wealthy nobleman, and this impression is increased by the smallness of the windows in comparison with the rest of the building. This is especially the case with those façades which are entirely constructed of considerably projecting ashlar of irregular size, and to a less degree in the case of those the lowest storey of which alone displays these large undressed blocks." The palace was designed by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo for Cosimo de' Medici, of the Medici family, and was built between 1445 and 1460. It was well known for its stone masonry that includes rustication and ashlar. The tripartite elevation was used here as a revelation of the Renaissance spirit of rationality, order, and classicism of human scale. This tripartite division is emphasized horizontal stringcourses that divide the building into stories of decreasing height. This makes the building seem lighter as the eye moves up to the extremely heavy cornice that caps and clearly defines the building's outline.Michelozzo di Bartolomeo was influenced in his building of this palace by both Roman principles and Brunelleschian principles. During the Renaissance revival of classical culture, Roman elements were often replicated in architecture, both built and imagined in paintings. In the Palazzo Medici Riccardi, the rusticated masonry and the cornice had precedents in Roman art.

Riccardi Palace at Florence

"An expression of great massiveness is the main characteristics of this Florentine style, which was…

"Those palaces which like the back of the Strozzi Place are constucted of dressed blocks with a less decided projection, present a more elegant appearance."Palazzo Strozzi is a palace in Florence, Italy. The Palace was begun in 1489 by Benedetto da Maiano, for Filippo Strozzi the Elder, a rival of the Medici who had returned to the city in November 1466 and desired the most magnificent palace to assert his family's continued prominence and, perhaps more importantly a political statement of his own status. A great number of other buildings were acquired during the 70s and demolished to provide enough space for the new construction. Giuliano da Sangallo the Younger provided a wood model of the design. Filippo Strozzi died in 1491, long before the construction's completion in 1538. Duke Cosimo I de' Medici confiscated it in the same year, not returning it to the Strozzi family until thirty years later.

Strozzi Palace at Florence

"Those palaces which like the back of the Strozzi Place are constucted of dressed blocks with a less…

"The English name of a gold coin weighing about 55 grains, first issued at Florence in 1252, and having on the obverse a lily and the word 'Florentia.'" -Whitney, 1911

Obverse and Reverse Sides of Gold Florin

"The English name of a gold coin weighing about 55 grains, first issued at Florence in 1252, and having…

The part of shaft foliated is a Roman state-candelabrum that is made out of marble. It is found at the Vatican museum in Rome, Italy.

Part of Shaft Foliated

The part of shaft foliated is a Roman state-candelabrum that is made out of marble. It is found at the…

"A Frate della Misericordia. MISERICORDIA, the name of a society (of laymen) in Florence, founded in the 13th century, who tend the poor sick, carry victims of accident or disease to the hospitals, and the dead to their burial. Members of all classes of the community, including the highest, are enrolled in this charitable association; and their somber and forbidding costume-- a dark monastic dress, with the cowl pulled down over the face so that the eyes merely peep through little holes." -Hazeltine, 1894

Frate della Misericordia

"A Frate della Misericordia. MISERICORDIA, the name of a society (of laymen) in Florence, founded in…

"Garibaldi was a patriot who started up a revolt in Sicily and took possession of the island, then passed over to Naples and overthrew the tyrant. This was done without the consent of Sardinia, but that kingdom profited none the less from its results. About the same time trouble with the papal states had led to the sending of a Sardinian army into the pope's dominions, and the annexation of the greater part of them to Sardinia. Garibaldi, after his success in Naples and Sicily, saluted the Sardinian king as King of Italy, and by a vote of the people Naples and Sicily joined Sardinia. A parliament of united Italy was opened in 1861, but ten years passed before unity was complete."—Colby, 1899

Garibaldi

"Garibaldi was a patriot who started up a revolt in Sicily and took possession of the island, then passed…

An Italian military and political figure.

Garibaldi

An Italian military and political figure.

(1807-1882) Italian Patriot that helped reinstate the kingdom of Italy

Giuseppe Garibaldi

(1807-1882) Italian Patriot that helped reinstate the kingdom of Italy

(1807-1882) Italian patriot and hero known as a great military and political leader.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

(1807-1882) Italian patriot and hero known as a great military and political leader.

"The purity of style, however, of the Genoese palaces is not so great as in the Roman, particularly as regards the heavy, ungraceful forms of details. This is shown by [this image], and there are other instances in which the faults are more marked than in the palaces in question. The palaces of Genoa may, however, be favorably contrasted with the Roman as regards height; for ground-floor and the mezzanine are raised considerably, in order to gain more light and a better view from the main storey. Owing, however, to the extreme narrowness of the streets and the consequent difficulty in obtaining a satisfactory point of view, the object is not obtained to the desired degree."

Half the Façade of a Palace at Genoa

"The purity of style, however, of the Genoese palaces is not so great as in the Roman, particularly…

"The purity of style, however, of the Genoese palaces is not so great as in the Roman, particularly as regards the heavy, ungraceful forms of details. This is shown by [this image], and there are other instances in which the faults are more marked than in the palaces in question. The palaces of Genoa may, however, be favorably contrasted with the Roman as regards height; for ground-floor and the mezzanine are raised considerably, in order to gain more light and a better view from the main storey. Owing, however, to the extreme narrowness of the streets and the consequent difficulty in obtaining a satisfactory point of view, the object is not obtained to the desired degree."

Façade of the Tursi-Doria Palace at Genoa

"The purity of style, however, of the Genoese palaces is not so great as in the Roman, particularly…

This geometrical circle pattern  found in the St. Croce church in Florence, Italy.

Geometrical Pattern

This geometrical circle pattern found in the St. Croce church in Florence, Italy.

"Medieval Griffin. Porch of the Duomo, Verona, Italy. GRIFFIN. In mythology, an imaginary animal supposed to be generated between the lion and the eagle, and to combine the head, front, and wings of an eagle with the body and hind quarters of a lion." -Whitney, 1911

Griffin

"Medieval Griffin. Porch of the Duomo, Verona, Italy. GRIFFIN. In mythology, an imaginary animal supposed…

"Grille. San Giacomo de Rialto, Venice. GRILLE. A piece of openwork or grating, usually of metal, as wrought-iron." -Whitney, 1911

Grille

"Grille. San Giacomo de Rialto, Venice. GRILLE. A piece of openwork or grating, usually of metal, as…

The Carved Bench Grotesque Mask is a mask design carved on a bench in Bargello, Florence, Italy.

Carved Bench Grotesque Mask

The Carved Bench Grotesque Mask is a mask design carved on a bench in Bargello, Florence, Italy.

The Single Grotesque mask comes from a frieze design during the Italian Renaissance. It was designed by Michelangelo in San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy.

Single Grotesque Mask

The Single Grotesque mask comes from a frieze design during the Italian Renaissance. It was designed…

Also known as Castel Sant'Angelo. The temple of the Roman emperor Hadrian.

The Tomb of Hadrian

Also known as Castel Sant'Angelo. The temple of the Roman emperor Hadrian.

This Cherub Head was used on a candelabrum in Certosa near Pavia, Italy during the Italian Renaissance.

Cherub Head

This Cherub Head was used on a candelabrum in Certosa near Pavia, Italy during the Italian Renaissance.

This Lynx head is shown from its front and side view. It is an Antique Gargoyle, found in the Vatican.

Lynx Head

This Lynx head is shown from its front and side view. It is an Antique Gargoyle, found in the Vatican.

"House construction consists mainly of concrete or brick, and sometimes of stone blocks, especially at the corners. Two-storied, sometimes three-storied houses are numerous, though the upper floors, built of wood, have been consumed by the eruption. Stores usually occupied the ground floors of dwelling-houses, on their street aspect, let out to merchants or dealers as at the present day, but not connected with the back part of the house. They could be separated from the street by large wooden doors, while inside they had tables covered with marble, in which earthen vessels for wine or oil were inserted. The storekeeper had sometimes a second room at the back, when he did not live on an upper floor or in another part of the town."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Pompeiian House

"House construction consists mainly of concrete or brick, and sometimes of stone blocks, especially…

Four people in Italian costume of the 1800's.

Italian

Four people in Italian costume of the 1800's.

Italian girl doll in traditional national costume.

Italian doll

Italian girl doll in traditional national costume.