The Roman-Corinthian pilaster capital has a leaf and floral design, then it volutes with a spiral scroll like ornaments on the sides. It is found in the temple of Pantheon in Rome.

Roman-Corinthian Pilaster Capital

The Roman-Corinthian pilaster capital has a leaf and floral design, then it volutes with a spiral scroll…

This Flying Grotesque pilaster is a squatting winged female without arms. It is found in a palace in Siena, Italy during the Italian Renaissance.

Flying Grotesque Pilaster

This Flying Grotesque pilaster is a squatting winged female without arms. It is found in a palace in…

Coin of Piso with bust on front and wreath on back. Front.

Coin of Piso

Coin of Piso with bust on front and wreath on back. Front.

Coin of Piso with bust on front and wreath on back. Back.

Coin of Piso

Coin of Piso with bust on front and wreath on back. Back.

The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast mainly Renaissance palace in Florence, Italy. It is situated on the south side of the River Arno, a short distance from the Ponte Vecchio. The core of the present palazzo dates from 1458 and was originally the town residence of Luca Pitti, an ambitious Florentine banker.The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It grew as a great treasure house as later generations amassed paintings, plates, jewelry and luxurious possessions.In the late 18th century, the palazzo was used as a power base by Napoleon, and later served for a brief period as the principal royal palace of the newly united Italy. The palace and its contents were donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1919, and its doors were opened to the public as one of Florence's largest art galleries. Today, it houses several minor collections in addition to those of the Medici family, and is fully open to the public."Columns, pilasters, and mouldings are intermingled and intertwined in a fantastic and meaningless manner, the cornices are often interrupted; the essentially component parts of the architecture are frequently mutilated; for instance, columns and wall-pilasters are executed in rustic work, i. e., formed of extensively projecting hewn stones, yet are furnished with a capital and base as is shown [in this image], which is an illustration taken from the Late Italian Renaissance. For the sake of peculiarity, the various component elements assumed a form diametrically opposed to their original designation; mere decorative and secondary details were raised to the rank of essentials, whilst the real principal forms sank to an entirely subordinate position."

Part of the Back of the Pitti Palace at Florence

The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast mainly Renaissance palace…

Examples of house furniture from Pompeii, Italy.

House Furniture from Pompeii

Examples of house furniture from Pompeii, Italy.

An illustration of the streets of Pompeii. Pompeii is a ruined and partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Along with Herculaneum, its sister city, Pompeii was destroyed, and completely buried, during a long catastrophic eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius spanning two days in AD 79.

Streets of Pompeii

An illustration of the streets of Pompeii. Pompeii is a ruined and partially buried Roman town-city…

Illustrations of various surgical instruments used in Pompeii, Italy.

Surgical Instruments from Pompeii

Illustrations of various surgical instruments used in Pompeii, Italy.

Maiolica designates Italian tin-glazed pottery dating from the Renaissance.The name is thought to come from the medieval Italian word for Majorca, an island on the route for ships bringing Hispano-Moresque wares from Valencia to Italy. Moorish potters from Majorca are reputed to have worked in Sicily and it has been suggested that their wares reached the Italian mainland from Caltagirone.

Maiolica Pottery

Maiolica designates Italian tin-glazed pottery dating from the Renaissance. The name is thought to come…

"The next Emperor was Aurelius Probus, officer of the army of Germany. He was chosen by the legions, and recognized by the Senate, A certain Florianus, brother of Tacitus, had in the mean tie assumed the purple without recognition by either the civil or the military power; but presently finding himself abandoned, he made an end by suicide. Probus, who was a soldier and man of worth, was thus left in undisputed possession of the throne. His reign of six years was almost wholly occupied in war."—Ridpath, 1885

Probus

"The next Emperor was Aurelius Probus, officer of the army of Germany. He was chosen by the legions,…

(1483-1520) Italian painter

Raphael Sanzio

(1483-1520) Italian painter

"A cartoon which appeared in the English journal Punch for November 17, 1860."—Webster, 1920

The Right Leg in the Boot at Last

"A cartoon which appeared in the English journal Punch for November 17, 1860."—Webster, 1920

"The Pont du Gard near Nimes (ancient Nemausus) in southern France. Built by the emperor Antoninus Pius. The bridge spans two hilltops nearly a thousand feet apart. It carries an aqueduct with three tiers of massive stone arches at a height of 160 feet above the stream. This is the finest and best preserved aqueduct in existence."—Webster, 1913

A Roman Aqueduct

"The Pont du Gard near Nimes (ancient Nemausus) in southern France. Built by the emperor Antoninus Pius.…

"This ship lies besides the wharf at Ostia. In the afterpart of the vessel is a cabin with two windows. Notice the figure of Victory on the top of the single mast and the decoration of the mainsail with the wolf and twins. The ship is steered by a pair of huge paddles."—Webster, 1913

A Roman Freight Ship

"This ship lies besides the wharf at Ostia. In the afterpart of the vessel is a cabin with two windows.…

"From a monument of the imperial age. The soldier wears a metal helmet, a leather doublet with shoulder-pieces, a metal-plated belt, and a sword hanging from a strap thrown over the left shoulder. His left hand holds a large shield, his right, a heavy javelin."—Webster, 1913

A Roman Legionary

"From a monument of the imperial age. The soldier wears a metal helmet, a leather doublet with shoulder-pieces,…

"From a gravestone of the first century A.D. The standard consists of a spear crowned with a wreath, below which is a crossbar bearing pendant acorns. Then follow, in order, a metal disk. Jupiter's eagle standing on a thunderbolt, a crescent moon, an amulet, and a large tassel."—Webster, 1913

A Roman Standard Bearer

"From a gravestone of the first century A.D. The standard consists of a spear crowned with a wreath,…

"The best preserved of Roman temples. Located at Nimes in southern France, where it is known as La Maison Carree ("the square house"). The structure is now used as a museum of antiquities."—Webster, 1913

A Roman Temple

"The best preserved of Roman temples. Located at Nimes in southern France, where it is known as La Maison…

Palazzo Farnese is a prominent High Renaissance palace in Rome, which currently houses the French Embassy in Italy."The pupils of Bramante and other renowned architects pursued the path which he had marked out; as, for example, Balthazar Peruzzi (1481 to 1536) as the principle of his works may be mentioned the Farnesia at Rome; Ant. di Sangallo of Florence (died 1546), whose principle work is the Farnese Palace at Rome. The third story of this palace is, however, the work of Michel-Angelo. The Farnese Palace forms to a certain extent the type of distinct class in the architecture of Roman palaces, and its chief characteristic is, that the façades are not divided by any orders of columns or pilasters, but the same effect and impression are produced by the architraves, cornices, and plinths of the windows, which invariably have rectilineal terminations, as well as the doors, and also by the string-courses which divide the storeys, and by a far-projecting cornice: at the same time especial consideration is devoted to the effect of good proportions. Ornaments are by sparingly introduced; whilst, on the other hand, the corners are generally marked by rustications.These palaces convey the impression of solidity without cumbersomeness, or richness without luxury, and above all, of simplicity in conjunction with dignity."

Farnese Palace at Rome

Palazzo Farnese is a prominent High Renaissance palace in Rome, which currently houses the French Embassy…

The Villa Farnese, also known as Palazzo Farnese or Villa Caprarola, is a mansion in the town of Caprarola in the province of Viterbo, Northern Lazio, Italy, approximately 50 kilometres (35 miles) north-west of Rome.The Villa Farnese is a massive Renaissance construction begun in the early 1520s by Antonio da Sangallo, opening to the Monte Cimini, a range of densely wooded volcanic hills. It has a five-sided plant, and is built in reddish gold stone; buttresses support the piano nobile above, with two floors above again housing an almost complete two-story villa in itself. As a centerpiece of the vast Farnese holdings, it has always been more than a villa in the ordinary agricultural or pleasure senses."Another school, which displays a still stricter imitation of classical forms than that of which Bramante was the founder, was represented and advocated by Giacomo Barozzio, who is known under the name of Vignola (1507- 1573). This architect, by his works and his great influence on his contemporaries and successors, and the effect of his example is, like Palladio's, to be traced not only in the architectural bias of his own times, but also in the course of history of the eighteenth century. This result was principally brought about by means of his book on the five columnar orders of antiquity, and this treatise has been regarded as an authority down to the latest times. His most noteworthy construction is the Castle of Caprarola, between Rome and Viterbo."

Farnese Palace at Rome

The Villa Farnese, also known as Palazzo Farnese or Villa Caprarola, is a mansion in the town of Caprarola…

"The most remarkable productions of Bramante at Rome are the Cancelleria Palace, with the Church of San Lorenzo in Damaso contained within its precincts, the Giraud Palace, now the Torlonia, and the Court of the Vatican, with the celebrated Loggie, decorated by Raphael."The Giraud Palace, known today as the Palazzo Castellesi Giraud Torlonia, was built in the 16th century for Cardinal Adriano Cestellesi. The palace was later owned by Giraud and finally by Torlonia.

Giraud Palace at Rome

"The most remarkable productions of Bramante at Rome are the Cancelleria Palace, with the Church of…

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his example necessarily entailed imitation and produced effects on subsequent times. When his deviations were moderate, they were considered by his imitators merely as marks of the originality of his wonderful talent, and by this means proved stepping-stones to the degeneration which marked the ensuing period of the Roccoco style. Amongst his architectural works, the design of the Capitol at Rome, with its wings, may be considered as the most pleasing, whilst as a testimony to his lofty genius the mighty and glorious dome of St. Peter's at Rome, which has no rival in the world, must be adducted as a striking instance."

Modern Capital at Rome

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his…

"The pupils of Bramante and other renowned architects pursued the path which he had marked out; as, for example, Balthazar Peruzzi (1481 to 1536) as the principle of his works may be mentioned the Farnesia at Rome;"

Small Palace at Rome by Balthazar Peruzzi

"The pupils of Bramante and other renowned architects pursued the path which he had marked out; as,…

"Besides the walls and ceilings of the interior, the façades were frequently decorated with sculptured figures, and the flat spaces between the windows and mouldings underwent ornamentation. This took place either by a manner of painting called sgraffito, in which the undercoating was black, with a thin surface-coating of white laid over it, and then the design or shading was engraved or scraped away down to the black grounding; or similar designs were executed in base-relief, as is shown"The Palazzo Spada is a palace in Rome that houses a grand art collection, the Galleria Spada. The collection was originally assembled by Cardinal Bernardino Spada in the 17th century and added to by his grand-nephew Cardinal Fabrizio Spada (1643-1717), and by Virginio Spada (1596-1662).

Part of the Façade of the Spada Palace in Rome

"Besides the walls and ceilings of the interior, the façades were frequently decorated with sculptured…

The pantheon at Rome is a temple that was built to all the Gods of Ancient Rome. It was built by Marcus Agrippa Roman statesman, general, and son-in-law to Emperor Caesar Augustus. The structure has a circular body with columns and a dome that covers the ceiling.

The Pantheon at Rome

The pantheon at Rome is a temple that was built to all the Gods of Ancient Rome. It was built by Marcus…

"Constructed by Aurelian and rebuilt by Honorius. The material is concrete faced with brick; thickness, 13 feet; greatest height, 58 feet. This is still the wall of the modern city, although at present no effort is made to keep it in repair."—Webster, 1913

The Wall of Rome

"Constructed by Aurelian and rebuilt by Honorius. The material is concrete faced with brick; thickness,…

The Italian rosette is a renaissance design made of five divisions. It is found on the door of the baptistery in Parma, Italy.

Italian Rosette

The Italian rosette is a renaissance design made of five divisions. It is found on the door of the baptistery…

An image of Julius Caesar and his army crossing the Rubicon River, which is located in northeastern Italy. The idiom "Crossing the Rubicon" refers to Julius Caesar passing this river in 49 BC, and means to pass a point of no return.

Caesar Crossing the Rubicon

An image of Julius Caesar and his army crossing the Rubicon River, which is located in northeastern…

"The creations of Alberti form a class apart in Florentine palace architecture, for they do not display the peculiarities of the Florentine style, but rather accommodating the forms of the antique to more modern requirements, they pointed out the road which was followed by the Roman Renaissance style, especially at the commencement of the sixteenth century. As will be seen from (this image,) these buildings are, to a certain extent, free from medièval sympathies, and approach more closely to the classical models."

Rucellai Palace

"The creations of Alberti form a class apart in Florentine palace architecture, for they do not display…

Sarcophagus of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, an elected Roman consul in 298 BC.

Sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus

Sarcophagus of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, an elected Roman consul in 298 BC.

An Italian Dominican priest of Florence, Italy. He is best known for his acts of book burning.

Savonarola

An Italian Dominican priest of Florence, Italy. He is best known for his acts of book burning.

"A small covered brazier of glazed earthenware, used in Italy." -Whitney, 1911

Scaldino

"A small covered brazier of glazed earthenware, used in Italy." -Whitney, 1911

"A method of decoration is peculiar to these buildings which appears to have been borrowed from Byzantine models. Fine marbles of various colors, of which red porphyry and green serpentine are the most frequent, are inserted in circular and angular panels and borderings, and form a sort of mosaic-work. This style of ornamentation is employed both in churches and palaces, and gives a peculiarly rich and elegant appearance to the façades. Another peculiarity which was borrowed from the Byzantine style consists in the employment of semi-circular gables, both in churches, as in the case of the Santa Maria dei Miracoli, and also in public places, of which the Scuola di San Marco is a brilliant example."

Scuola di San Marco

"A method of decoration is peculiar to these buildings which appears to have been borrowed from Byzantine…

The Cathedral of Siena is a Roman Catholic Marian church located in Siena, central Italy. A medieval church, it was completed in 1263. The interior of the church is designed with black and white marble stripes on the columns and the walls. These black and white stripes represent the coat of arms of Siena. The entire floor of the church is covered with an inlaid marble mosaic.

Cathedral of Sienna

The Cathedral of Siena is a Roman Catholic Marian church located in Siena, central Italy. A medieval…

"Walls of Signia. The colony of Signia was said to have been founded by the last Tarquin; but its possession was lost in the early years of the republic." -Allen, 1890

Walls of Signia

"Walls of Signia. The colony of Signia was said to have been founded by the last Tarquin; but its possession…

"A runaway slave, if recaptured, was sometimes compelled to wear a metal collar riveted about his neck."—Webster, 1913

A Slave's Collar

"A runaway slave, if recaptured, was sometimes compelled to wear a metal collar riveted about his neck."—Webster,…

The Half-figure Socle of Altar is the base platform design of the altar. It is a design of two half-figure human bodies with the bottom part is a scroll foliage design. This socle is found in the cathedral of Orvieto, Italy, designed during the Italian Renaissance.

Half-Figure Socle of Altar

The Half-figure Socle of Altar is the base platform design of the altar. It is a design of two half-figure…

The Renaissance spanrail panel is a plinth (base) of a column. It is found in the St. Anthony cathedral in Padua, Italy.

Renaissance Spanrail Panel

The Renaissance spanrail panel is a plinth (base) of a column. It is found in the St. Anthony cathedral…

The Byzantine square panel design is a bas-relief design found in San Marco, Venice, Italy.

Byzantine Square Panel

The Byzantine square panel design is a bas-relief design found in San Marco, Venice, Italy.

The Renaissance square panel is a motif that comes from a robe in the St. Croce church in Florence, Italy.

Renaissance Square Panel

The Renaissance square panel is a motif that comes from a robe in the St. Croce church in Florence,…

This Renaissance square panel is found on the door of the Madonna di Galliera in Bologna, Italy.

Renaissance Square Panel

This Renaissance square panel is found on the door of the Madonna di Galliera in Bologna, Italy.

The Renaissance square panel is mosaic flooring design found in a cathedral in Spoleto, Itlay.

Renaissance Square Panel

The Renaissance square panel is mosaic flooring design found in a cathedral in Spoleto, Itlay.

The Renaissance square panel is an intarsia (wood inlaying) design found on the stalls of a church in Pavia, Italy.

Renaissance Square Panel

The Renaissance square panel is an intarsia (wood inlaying) design found on the stalls of a church in…

This Renaissance square panel are majolica tiles (Italian ceramics) found in Siena, Italy.

Renaissance Square Panel

This Renaissance square panel are majolica tiles (Italian ceramics) found in Siena, Italy.

This Renaissance square panel is found on the door of the Madonna di Galliera in Bologna, Italy.

Renaissance Square Panel

This Renaissance square panel is found on the door of the Madonna di Galliera in Bologna, Italy.

This Renaissance square panel is found on the door of the Madonna di Galliera in Bologna, Italy.

Renaissance Square Panel

This Renaissance square panel is found on the door of the Madonna di Galliera in Bologna, Italy.

The Roman square panels is an 1879 bas-relief design found near the Tiber river in Rome, Italy. This panel is divided into eight equal spaces that are decorated with a repeated design.

Roman Square Panel

The Roman square panels is an 1879 bas-relief design found near the Tiber river in Rome, Italy. This…

The mosaic circle pattern is inlaid pieces of stone, wood, glass, leather or straw to make a picture or pattern. This design is found in a cathedral in Monreale, Sicily, Italy.

Mosaic Square Pattern

The mosaic circle pattern is inlaid pieces of stone, wood, glass, leather or straw to make a picture…

This is a drawing of the interior of the St. Peter's Basilica located in the Vatican city of Rome, Italy. The interior space of the church was designed by Giovanni Paolo Panini an Italian painter and architect. The interior space is the largest interior of any Christian church in the world.

Interior of St. Peter's Basilica

This is a drawing of the interior of the St. Peter's Basilica located in the Vatican city of Rome, Italy.…

The Grotesque stall is found in San Agostino, Perugia, Italy. It is a design of a winged female with an ending of foliage, designed during the Italian Renaissance.

Grotesque Stall

The Grotesque stall is found in San Agostino, Perugia, Italy. It is a design of a winged female with…

The Laurentian Library Stall was designed beginning of the 16th century in Florence. It was said to have been designed by Michelangelo.

Laurentian Library Stall

The Laurentian Library Stall was designed beginning of the 16th century in Florence. It was said to…

The St. Maria Novella Stall was decorated with intarsias or wood inlaying. It was designed by Baccio d'Agnolo in Florence towards the end of the 15th century.

St. Maria Novella Stall

The St. Maria Novella Stall was decorated with intarsias or wood inlaying. It was designed by Baccio…

The Tall Grotesque stall is found in San Severino, Naples, Italy. It is a design of a winged female with an ending of foliage, designed during the Italian Renaissance.

Tall Grotesque Stall

The Tall Grotesque stall is found in San Severino, Naples, Italy. It is a design of a winged female…

Prince, made bid for English throne. Also known as the Pretender.

Charles Edward Stuart

Prince, made bid for English throne. Also known as the Pretender.

"The relief pictures an ancient Italian sacrifice of a bull, a ram, and a boar, offered to Mars to secure purification from sin. Note the sacred laurel trees, the two altars, and the officiating magistrate, whose head is covered with the toga. He is sprinkling incense from a box held by an attendant. Another attendant carries a ewer with the libation. In the rear is the sacrificer with his ax."—Webster, 1913

Suovetaurilia

"The relief pictures an ancient Italian sacrifice of a bull, a ram, and a boar, offered to Mars to secure…

The Lion supporting shield is also called "il Marzocco" in Italian. It is a sculpture designed by Donatello in Florence, Italy during the 15th century.

Lion Supporting Shield

The Lion supporting shield is also called "il Marzocco" in Italian. It is a sculpture designed by Donatello…

The pilaster panel symbol is a lyre which symbolizes the art of singing. It was designed by sculptor Fomilini of Florence, Italy.

Pilaster Panel Symbol

The pilaster panel symbol is a lyre which symbolizes the art of singing. It was designed by sculptor…

This stone terminus bust is an Italian Renascence design found in the Villa Massimi in Rome, Italy.

Stone Terminus Bust

This stone terminus bust is an Italian Renascence design found in the Villa Massimi in Rome, Italy.

"A relief from the Column of Trajan, Rome. The name testudo, a tortoise (shell), was applied to the covering made by a body of soldiers who placed their shields over their heads. The shields fitted so closely together that men could walk on them and even horses and chariots could be driven over them."—Webster, 1913

A Testudo

"A relief from the Column of Trajan, Rome. The name testudo, a tortoise (shell), was applied to the…

Teutoboch was a legendary king of the Teutons, a Germanic tribe.

The Capture of Teutoboch

Teutoboch was a legendary king of the Teutons, a Germanic tribe.

An ancient monument built in 520 CE by Theodoric the Great as his future tomb.

Tomb of Theodoric at Ravenna

An ancient monument built in 520 CE by Theodoric the Great as his future tomb.