"The cylinder is placed vertically in the jaws of a cutting instrument, having a diamond cutter, pressing by a spring, inside the glass. The cutter moves by small wheels on the table on which it is placed, and being pushed around the cylinder it makes an accurate cut of uniform height." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"The cylinder is placed vertically in the jaws of a cutting instrument, having a diamond cutter, pressing…

"Now the splitting is done with a diamond cutter fixed in the fleft of a stick and guided from end to end of the cylinder by a straight-edge K laid within it. The cylinder is now ready to be taken to the flattening kiln." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"Now the splitting is done with a diamond cutter fixed in the fleft of a stick and guided from end to…

"In the arrangement of the flattening and annealing ovens numerous improvements have been effected, which have resulted in greatly increased smoothness and uniformity of the glass, and in considerable economy of time and labor in the operations. This shows a section of a flattening (L) and annealing kiln (M) in common use. The split cylinder O is introduced and gradually pushed forward so as to be uniformly heated till it reaches P, the flattening stone or table, mounted on a movable waggon N. On this waggon after it has been flattened it is carried into the annealing arch M, as shown by the dotted outline. Here in a less heat is graually stiffens, till it is ready to be moved by a forked tool to a horizontal position on the bed of the annealing oven." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Glass Cutter

"In the arrangement of the flattening and annealing ovens numerous improvements have been effected,…

Front and side views of the teeth and jaws.

Teeth and Jaws

Front and side views of the teeth and jaws.

Temporary teeth in a child aged about 4 years. The permanent teeth are seen in the process of formation in their alveoli or sockets.

Teeth of a Child

Temporary teeth in a child aged about 4 years. The permanent teeth are seen in the process of formation…