Illustration of a single crusader, dressed in chain mail and a cross-covered tunic kneeling on one knee with his hands clasped in prayer. His spear with Christian banner are leaning against his shoulder. The banner has two crosses on it. He a sword in a scabbard attached to his belt. Greaves protect his shins and sabatons protect his feet.

A Crusader from the First Crusade Kneels in Prayer

Illustration of a single crusader, dressed in chain mail and a cross-covered tunic kneeling on one knee…

"And when the angel stretched out his hand upon Jerusalem to destroy it, the LORD repented him of the evil, and said to the angel that destroyed the people, It is enough: stay now thine hand. And the angel of the LORD was by the threshingplace of Araunah the Jebusite." 2 Samuel 24:16

An Angel goes Forth to Smite the Land

"And when the angel stretched out his hand upon Jerusalem to destroy it, the LORD repented him of the…

"And he said unto them, It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power. But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth. And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight." Acts 1:7-9

The Ascension of Christ

"And he said unto them, It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put…

Ashtaroth, or Astarte, was among the idols of Syria; this medal shows she was worshiped in Jerusalem.  In her left hand she holds a staff, her right a human head and walks on a prostrate figure.

Astarte

Ashtaroth, or Astarte, was among the idols of Syria; this medal shows she was worshiped in Jerusalem.…

"And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves, And said unto them, It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves." Matthew 21:12-13 KJV

The Money-Changers Driven from the Temple

"And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and…

"Richard I (looking down on the Holy City): 'My dream comes true.' A cartoon which appeared in Punch, Dec. 19, 1917, at the time of the British capture of Jerusalem."—Webster, 1920

The Last Crusade

"Richard I (looking down on the Holy City): 'My dream comes true.' A cartoon which appeared in Punch,…

Illustration of a monk, riding horseback, surrounded by other Crusaders. Two other monks are in the crowd. A woman kneels at the head of the group and raises her child up to see the soldiers. The monk on horseback holds a cross in his raised hand. Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade in 1095. The goal was to restore Christian access to holy places in and around Jerusalem.

The Crusades being Preached by a Monk on Horseback

Illustration of a monk, riding horseback, surrounded by other Crusaders. Two other monks are in the…

"Now when they were departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I tell thee: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. And he arose and took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt." Matthew 2:13-14 ASV
<p>Illustration of Joseph leading a donkey carrying Mary and the baby Jesus into Egypt. The family is fleeing from King Herod. Joseph holds a staff in his hand and palm trees are depicted on the left.

The Flight into Egypt - Mary, Joseph, and Jesus Flee from King Herod

"Now when they were departed, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise…

"Tomb of Godfrey de Bouillon. During the Crusades, the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1099. The conquered lands were now formed into a little feudal kingdom, the head of which at first was Godfrey de Bouillon. He would not, however, accept the title of king, preferring to be called Defender of the Holy Sepulcher."—Colby, 1899

Godfrey de Bouillon Tomb

"Tomb of Godfrey de Bouillon. During the Crusades, the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1099. The conquered lands…

"Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men." Matthew 2:16 KJV

Killing the Male Children under the Age of Two

"Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and…

This illustration shows the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. The ground on which the church rests is venerated by most Christians as Golgotha, the Hill of Calvary, where the New Testament describes that Jesus was crucified.

Holy Sepulchre

This illustration shows the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This is a Christian church now within the…

Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and its largest city in both population and area. Located in the Judean Mountains, between the Mediterranean Sea and the northern tip of the Dead Sea, modern Jerusalem has grown up outside the Old City. The city has a history that goes back to the 4th millennium BCE, making it one of the oldest cities in the world. Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual center of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE, contains a number of significant ancient Christian sites, and is considered the third-holiest city in Islam.

A View of Jerusalem

Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and its largest city in both population and area. Located in the…

Jerusalem from Mount of Olives.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem from Mount of Olives.

Artist's conception of what first-century Jerusalem may have looked like from the surrounding countryside.

View of Jerusalem from the Countryside

Artist's conception of what first-century Jerusalem may have looked like from the surrounding countryside.

This illustration shows the temple at Jerusalem restored.

Jerusalem Temple

This illustration shows the temple at Jerusalem restored.

An illustration of ancient Jerusalem.

Ancient Jerusalem

An illustration of ancient Jerusalem.

View of first-century Jerusalem. Detail from a larger engraving of the city.

City of Jerusalem

View of first-century Jerusalem. Detail from a larger engraving of the city.

The destruction of Jerusalem.

The Destruction of Jerusalem

The destruction of Jerusalem.

"Finally should be mentioned Jerusalem, capital of Palestine. It is situated fifteen miles west of the head of the Dead Sea. It is built on a high plateau of limestone about two miles square, abutting against the mountains on the north."&mdash;Ridpath, 1885

View of Jerusalem

"Finally should be mentioned Jerusalem, capital of Palestine. It is situated fifteen miles west of the…

In Judaism, the Western Wall is venerated as the sole remnant of the Holy Temple. It has become a place of pilgrimage for Jews, as it is the closest permitted accessible site to the holiest spot in Judaism, namely the Even ha-shetiya or Foundation Stone, which lies on the Temple Mount.

Wailing Place of the Jews at Jerusalem

In Judaism, the Western Wall is venerated as the sole remnant of the Holy Temple. It has become a place…

"And when he was twelve years old, they went up after the custom of the feast; and when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning, the boy Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and his parents knew it not but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day's journey; and they sought for him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance: and when they found him not, they returned to Jerusalem, seeking for him. And it came to pass, after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both hearing them, and asking them questions: and all that heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers." Luke 2:42-47 ASV
<p>Twelve-year-old Jesus sits on a curved bench, surrounded by doctors, teachers, and other learned men. Everyone is leaning towards him intently. One man points to the pages of a book sitting in his lap. Mary and Joseph are running in from the corner.

Mary and Joseph Find Jesus Learning and Teaching in the Temple

"And when he was twelve years old, they went up after the custom of the feast; and when they had fulfilled…

"And it came to pass, after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both hearing them, and asking them questions: and all that heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers." Luke 2:46-47 ASV
<p>Illustration of a twelve-year-old Jesus sitting in the temple among priests and other learned men. Jesus sits on a raised platform, right arm raised, with six men surrounding him. One man to his left is writing on a scroll, while another in front of him writes on a tablet.

Jesus Teaching at the Temple at Twelve Years Old

"And it came to pass, after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers,…

"Now these are the children of the province that went up out of the captivity, of those which had been carried away, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away unto Babylon, and came again unto Jerusalem and Judah, every one unto his city;" Ezra 2:1 KJV

The Return of the Jews from Captivity

"Now these are the children of the province that went up out of the captivity, of those which had been…

"Flavius Josephus was a strange amalgamation of Jew, Greek, and Roman, admittedly not what he should have been, either as a teacher of Mosiac law, as a patriot, or as a public man; and yet he performed successfully what he could not have achieved had he been any one of these only." &mdash; The Delphian Society, 1913

Flavius Josephus

"Flavius Josephus was a strange amalgamation of Jew, Greek, and Roman, admittedly not what he should…

"And when he had made a gathering throughout the company to the sum of two thousand drachms of silver, he sent it to Jerusalem to offer a sin offering, doing therein very well and honestly, in that he was mindful of the resurrection:" 2 Maccabees 12:43 
<p>Illustration of Judas' soldiers carrying a box full of twelve thousand drachmas of silver. They are handing the box over to the priest at the temple at Jerusalem. The entrance to the temple is framed by two columns.

Judas Sends Twelve Thousand Drachmas of Silver to Jerusalem

"And when he had made a gathering throughout the company to the sum of two thousand drachms of silver,…

"So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of Jehovah with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet." 2 Samuel 6:15 ASV
<p>Illustration of King David marching before the ark, playing his harp. The priests and people march behind him, carrying the ark and playing trumpets and tambourines. A young boy marches and plays a triangle.

King David Takes the Ark of the Covenant to Mount Zion

"So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of Jehovah with shouting, and with the sound…

Christ Taking Leave of his Mother is a woodcut that is part of a series "Life of the Virgin" by Albrecht D&uuml;rer, created between 1504 and 1505. It depicts Jesus saying farewell to his mother to go on his final journey to Jerusalem. The woodcut is created by carving an image on a wooden block and rolling ink over that surface and then printing it on paper.

Christ Taking Leave of His Mother

Christ Taking Leave of his Mother is a woodcut that is part of a series "Life of the Virgin" by Albrecht…

A medal of Jerusalem, depicting how the city was rebuilt by Hadrian after being destroyed by the Romans.  On one side of the coin is the head of Hadrian; the other, a colonist driving oxen with a military insignia.

Medal of Jerusalem

A medal of Jerusalem, depicting how the city was rebuilt by Hadrian after being destroyed by the Romans.…

Christ on the Mount of Olives is an engraving by Albrecht D&uuml;rer in 1508. It is part of a series of engravings called the "Passion". It depicts Jesus in his last days when he and his disciples went up to Mount of Olives near Jerusalem. Jesus goes to pray on his own and comes back to find his disciples sleeping.

Christ on the Mount of Olives

Christ on the Mount of Olives is an engraving by Albrecht Dürer in 1508. It is part of a series…

A painting by Johann Overbeck of St. John as a child.

The Naming of St. John

A painting by Johann Overbeck of St. John as a child.

"And when there had been much questioning, Peter rose up, and said unto them, Brethren, ye know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. And God, who knoweth the heart, bare them witness, giving them the Holy Spirit, even as he did unto us; and he made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. Now therefore why make ye trial of God, that ye should put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? But we believe that we shall be saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, in like manner as they." Acts 15:7-11 ASV
<p>Illustration of Peter, standing before the rest of the apostles, explaining to them that Jesus made no distinction between Jew and Gentile and that all should be saved by their belief and not by their adherence to the old law. The apostles and the ancients at the council decided that circumcision would no longer be required.

Peter and the Apostles Decide Not to Impose Circumcision on Christians

"And when there had been much questioning, Peter rose up, and said unto them, Brethren, ye know that…

"Peter, a hermit of Picardy, on his return from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, represented the condition of the city. This hermit, of hideous figure, covered with rags, walking barefooted, speaking as a prophet, and hearkened to as such, inspired the people everywhere with an enthusiasm similar to his own." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Peter the Hermit and followers

"Peter, a hermit of Picardy, on his return from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, represented the condition…

"And he arose and went: and behold, a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, who had come to Jerusalem to worship; and he was returning and sitting in his chariot, and was reading the prophet Isaiah." Acts 8:27-28 ASV
<p>Illustration of the apostle Philip, sitting in a chariot with an Ethiopian treasurer, teaching him about the gospel. Philip's head has a halo behind it. The Ethiopian holds a book in his lap. The chariot is being drawn by two horses and led by a young man, standing in a river.

Philip Speaks with an Ethiopian Eunuch in His Chariot

"And he arose and went: and behold, a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace, queen…

A pilgrim dressed in a cloak with a hood, wearing a round, wide-brimmed hat, and carrying a staff, travels to a holy place. Christian pilgrimages became popular in the Middle Ages and were generally made on foot with very few provisions.

A Pilgrim Traveling During the Middle Ages

A pilgrim dressed in a cloak with a hood, wearing a round, wide-brimmed hat, and carrying a staff, travels…

This modern oriental pipe-spout pot comes from Jerusalem and is made out of unglazed glass.

Modern Oriental Pipe-Spout Pot

This modern oriental pipe-spout pot comes from Jerusalem and is made out of unglazed glass.

"...and Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel; and for a sign which is spoken against; yea and a sword shall pierce through thine own soul; that thoughts out of many hearts may be revealed." Luke 2:34-35 ASV
<p>Illustration of Simeon prophesying as he holds the baby Jesus in his arms in the temple. Mary reaches out to cradle Jesus in her arms as Joseph stands by, holding a basket. A woman kneels behind Simeon. A priest stands in the background. The scene takes place during the presentation of Jesus at the temple.

The Prophecy of Simeon at the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple

"...and Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the falling…

"A six-sided cylinder of terra-cotta found at Ninevah. It contains a record of eight years of Sennacherib's reign, including an account of his expedition against Hezekiah, king of Jerusalem."&mdash;Webster, 1913

The Cylinder of Sennacherib

"A six-sided cylinder of terra-cotta found at Ninevah. It contains a record of eight years of Sennacherib's…

The portrait of Serapis, a deity in Egypt, who was also thought to be brought to Jerusalem and worshiped there as well.

Serapis

The portrait of Serapis, a deity in Egypt, who was also thought to be brought to Jerusalem and worshiped…

The obverse side of the Shekel, a ancient silver coin used in Mesopotamia and Jerusalem.

Shekel

The obverse side of the Shekel, a ancient silver coin used in Mesopotamia and Jerusalem.

The reverse side of the Shekel, a ancient silver coin used in Mesopotamia and Jerusalem.

Shekel

The reverse side of the Shekel, a ancient silver coin used in Mesopotamia and Jerusalem.

"Temple at Jerusalem" — Morey, 1903

Temple Jerusalem

"Temple at Jerusalem" — Morey, 1903

"And with him they crucify two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left." Mark 15:27 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus on the cross with a robber on his left and right. Mary Magdalene is at Jesus' feet. Jesus' mother, Mary, stands at the foot of the cross with another woman. Soldiers cast lots for Jesus' clothing (left). A soldier with a spear stands beside the cross.

The Crucifixion of Jesus with Two Robbers

"And with him they crucify two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left." Mark 15:27 ASV…

"And the most part of the multitude spread their garments in the way; and others cut branches from the trees, and spread them in the way. And the multitudes that went before him, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest. And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was stirred, saying, Who is this?" Matthew 21:8-10 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus entering Jerusalem on a colt, right hand raised, as crowds welcome him with palm branches. A man lays a piece of cloth on the ground for the colt to walk on. A small child on the left waves a tree branch.

Jesus' Triumphal Entry and Welcome into Jerusalem

"And the most part of the multitude spread their garments in the way; and others cut branches from the…

"On the morrow a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took the branches of the palm trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried out, Hosanna: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel. And Jesus, having found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written, Fear not, daughter of Zion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass's colt." John 12:12-15 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus riding up to the walls of Jerusalem on a donkey. A multitude of people are gathered around him, some falling to their knees and bowing, while others wave palm fronds. The twelve disciples, signified by halos over their heads, follow behind him. The walls and arched gate are visible.

The Triumphal Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem

"On the morrow a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to…

"And they bring the colt unto Jesus, and cast on him their garments; and he sat upon him. And many spread their garments upon the way; and others branches, which they had cut from the fields. And they that went before, and they that followed, cried, Hosanna; Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord: Blessed is the kingdom that cometh, the kingdom of our father David: Hosanna in the highest." Mark 11:7-10 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus riding on a colt, nearing Jerusalem. People in the crowd are laying garments down on the road in front of the colt. People in front of the colt are waving palm branches. Several men, women, and children follow behind. The walls of Jerusalem are in the background.

The Triumphant Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem

"And they bring the colt unto Jesus, and cast on him their garments; and he sat upon him. And many spread…