The auditory ossicles of the right ear, seen from the front. Labels: M, malleus; J, incus; S, stapes; Mcp, head of the malleus; Mc, neck of the malleus; Ml, long process; Mm, handle; Jc, boy; Jb, short, and Jl, long process of incus; Jpl, os orbiculare; Scp, head of stapes.

The Auditory Ossicles

The auditory ossicles of the right ear, seen from the front. Labels: M, malleus; J, incus; S, stapes;…

"Diagram showing the ear and related parts in a young cat. P., Pinna; Sq., squamosal: E.A.M., external auditory meatus; T., tympanum; M., malleus; I., incus; St., stapes abutting onforamen ovale; B., bulla of tympanic bone; Se., a septum in the bulla; E.T., eustachian tube leading from the tymmpanic cavity to the back of the mouth; B.O., basi-occipital; C., cochlea; S., sacculus; U., utriculus; D.E., ductus endolymphaticus; N., auditory nerve; S.C., semi-circular canal; PE., periotic bone." -Thomson, 1916

Cat Ear

"Diagram showing the ear and related parts in a young cat. P., Pinna; Sq., squamosal: E.A.M., external…

"Diagram of the Middle and Internal Ear." — Blaisedell, 1904

Ear

"Diagram of the Middle and Internal Ear." — Blaisedell, 1904

Bones of the ear: Malleus, Incus and Orbiculare, Stapes. The bones of the area are connected with each other in the drum and serve to transmit vibrations of the membrane of the tympanum to the internal ear. They are very hard and brittle, with no cartilage on their articular surfaces like other bones.

Bones of the Ear

Bones of the ear: Malleus, Incus and Orbiculare, Stapes. The bones of the area are connected with each…

A, the malleus, or mallet, with its long handle running down, to touch with its delicate extremity the membrane of the drum. B, is the incus, or anvil, nicely fitted to the mallet, and showing C, the orbicular bone placed between its termination, and D, the stirrup. The line a,b, represents the center of motion of the malleus, and c,d, the center of motion of the incus. Now this chain of bones acts on the principle of a long level, as a small motion at one end of a long pole serve to move it through a wide space at the other.

Bones of the Ear

A, the malleus, or mallet, with its long handle running down, to touch with its delicate extremity the…

"1, malleus, or hammer; 2, incus, or anvil; 3, stapes, or stirrup." — Blaisedell, 1904

Bones of the ear

"1, malleus, or hammer; 2, incus, or anvil; 3, stapes, or stirrup." — Blaisedell, 1904

"Across the middle ear a chain of three small bones stretches from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. These bones are called from their shape the <em>malleus</em> (hammer), the <em>incus</em> (anvil), and the <em>stapes</em> (stirrup)." — Ritchie, 1918

Bones of the Ear

"Across the middle ear a chain of three small bones stretches from the tympanic membrane to the inner…

"Transverse Section through Side Walls of Skull, showing the Inner Parts of the Ear. Co, concha or external ear, or pinna; EM, external auditory meatus; TyM, tympanic membrane; Inc, incus; Mall, malleus; ASC, PSC, ESC, anterior, posterior, and external semicircular canals; Coc, cochlea; Eu, Eustachian tube; IM, internal auditory meatus, through which the auditory nerve passes to the organ of hearing." -Whitney, 1911

Inner Ear

"Transverse Section through Side Walls of Skull, showing the Inner Parts of the Ear. Co, concha or external…

General sectional view of the structure of the ear. Labels: a, the meatus auditorius externus; b, the tympanum; c, the malleus; d, the incus, e, the os orbiculare; f, the stapes; g, the semicircular canals; h, the cochlea; i, the meatus auditorius internus; k, the eustachian tube.

Sectional View of the Ear

General sectional view of the structure of the ear. Labels: a, the meatus auditorius externus; b, the…

Chains of small bones and their ligaments, seen from the front in a vertical, transverse section of the tympanum.

Small Bones and Ligaments of the Ear

Chains of small bones and their ligaments, seen from the front in a vertical, transverse section of…

"A hammer, a mallet. In the hands of the farmer the mallet of wood served to break down the clods and to pulverize them. The butcher used it in slaying cattle, by striking the head, and we often read of it as used by the smith upon the anvil. When several men were employed at te same anvil it was a matter of necessity that they should strike in time, and Virgil, accordingly says of the Cyclopes, "inter se brachia tollunt in numerum." The scene which he describes is represented in the annexed woodcut, taken from an ancient bas-relief, in which Vulcan, Brontes, and Steropes, are seen forging the metal, while the third Cyclops, Pyracmon, blows the bellows. Beside the anvil is seen the vessel of water in which the hot iron or bronze was immersed. But besides the employment of the hammer upon the anvil for making all ordinary utensils, the smith wrought with this instrument figures which were either small and fine, some of their parts being beaten as thin as paper, and being in very high relief, as in the bronzes of Siris, or of colossal proportions, being composed of seperate plates riveted together." &mdash; Smith, 1873

Malleus

"A hammer, a mallet. In the hands of the farmer the mallet of wood served to break down the clods and…

The hammer-bone or malleus, seen from the front. 1, the head; 2, neck; 3, short process; 4, long process.

Malleus

The hammer-bone or malleus, seen from the front. 1, the head; 2, neck; 3, short process; 4, long process.

The right malleus viewed from behind.

Malleus From Behind

The right malleus viewed from behind.

The right malleus viewed from in front.

Malleus From in Front

The right malleus viewed from in front.

Chain of ossicles and their ligaments, seen from the front in a vertical transverse section of the tympanum.

Ossicles of the Tympanum

Chain of ossicles and their ligaments, seen from the front in a vertical transverse section of the tympanum.

The tympanic ossicles, which are 3 small bones that form a chain across the tympanic cavity, connecting the membrane with the fenestra vestibuli. The 3 bones are known s the Malleus, the Incus, and the Stapes.

The Tympanic Ossicles

The tympanic ossicles, which are 3 small bones that form a chain across the tympanic cavity, connecting…

Tympanic ossicles of left ear. A, incus as seen from front. B, Malleus, viewed from behind. C, Incus seen from inner aspect. D, Malleus seen from inner aspect. E, Stapes. Labels: 1, body of incus, with articular surface for head of malleus; 2, processus longus; 3, processus lenticularis; 4, articular surface of incus; 5, head; 6, neck; 7, processus brevis; 8, manubrium; 9, body; 10, short process; 11, long process; 12, processus longus; 13, head; 14, facet for incus; 15, manubrium; 16, head; 17, neck; 18, crus anterior; 19, crus posterior; 20, footplate.

Tympanic Ossicles

Tympanic ossicles of left ear. A, incus as seen from front. B, Malleus, viewed from behind. C, Incus…

Left membrana tympani and chain of tympanic ossicles.

Tympanic Ossicles

Left membrana tympani and chain of tympanic ossicles.