A resaw is a large band saw optimized for cutting timber along the grain to reduce larger sections into smaller sections or veneers. Resawing veneers requires a wide blade with a small kerf to minimize waste.

Band Resaw

A resaw is a large band saw optimized for cutting timber along the grain to reduce larger sections into…

This illustration shows a Blake Ore Breaker (stone crusher), used in a gold stamp mill. This crusher breaks the large, mined rocks containing the gold (ore) into small pieces, to then be reduced to the finest powder by stamps.

Blake Ore Breaker

This illustration shows a Blake Ore Breaker (stone crusher), used in a gold stamp mill. This crusher…

"Advance of the Federal troops, near Howard's Bridge and Mill, four miles from Big Bethel, on the road to Yorktown." —Leslie, 1896

Howard's Bridge and Mill

"Advance of the Federal troops, near Howard's Bridge and Mill, four miles from Big Bethel, on the road…

"The apron is supported and carried by flanged wheels, fixed at distances apart upon shafts, one of he shafts begin placed near the mill, and the other at the outer extremity of apron. A chain band, adapted to a chain wheel on the end of the feeling roll shaft, and leading from thence to a similar wheel upon the end of the flageshaft nearest the mill, communicates motion to the apron. It should travel somewhat slower that the surface of the rolls." -Commissioner, 1865

Cane-apron

"The apron is supported and carried by flanged wheels, fixed at distances apart upon shafts, one of…

"The upright cyclinder a, is a tube which has a funnel shaped mouth for the admission of the stream of water from the pipe b. This tube is six or eight inches in diameter, and may be from ten to twenty feet long. The arms n and o, are also tubes communicating freely with the upright one, from the opposte sides of which they proceed." -Comstock 1850

Centrifugal Mill

"The upright cyclinder a, is a tube which has a funnel shaped mouth for the admission of the stream…

"The Chinapatam Sugar-mill consists of a mortar made by cutting down some hard-wood tree to within 2 or 3 feet of the ground, and hollowing the top of the portion left standing in the ground into the form of a mortar, A. A small hole is then bored obliquely through from the bottom of the cavity to the outside, and a pipe, f, conveys the juice into a jar, g. B is a cylindrical piece of wood, sharpened at each end, to act as a pestle, which is kept in its place with sufficient pressure by the lever C and the ropes at E. Two men are required: one at I has a basket supplied with small lengths of freshly-cut cane, which he places, two or three at a time, in the mortar, and when necessary, removes the crushed ones; the other man sits on the other end of the train, balancing it, and at the same time drives oxen which are attached to the end of the beam D, and keep the movable parts of the mill constantly turning round." — Chambers, 1881

Chinapatam Sugar-mill

"The Chinapatam Sugar-mill consists of a mortar made by cutting down some hard-wood tree to within 2…

An illustration of an early flour mill conveyor.

Early Flour Mill Conveyor

An illustration of an early flour mill conveyor.

Spinning cotton in a mill.

Cotton Mill

Spinning cotton in a mill.

An illustration of a cotton mill in Columbus, Georgia. A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. Cotton was the leading sector in the Industrial Revolution, as a cotton spinning was mechanized in mills.

Cotton Mill

An illustration of a cotton mill in Columbus, Georgia. A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and…

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution of Potassuim Cyanide (KCN), containing 0.05 to 0.3 percent KCN (or its equivalent, Sodium Cyanide, NaCN) which is allowed to remain for twelve to twenty-four hours to dissolve the gold.

Cyanide Leaching Tank (Gold Extraction)

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution…

This illustration shows a double discharge mortar, used in a Stamp Mill.

Double Discharge Mortar

This illustration shows a double discharge mortar, used in a Stamp Mill.

A machine used for converting paper rags, esparto, and other materials into pulp with water.

Pulp Engine

A machine used for converting paper rags, esparto, and other materials into pulp with water.

Man rotating his arms, doing the mill.

Exercise

Man rotating his arms, doing the mill.

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (End View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (Side View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Mill, with a man standing and a man on horseback in the foreground.

Scene of the Battle of Gaines' Mill

Mill, with a man standing and a man on horseback in the foreground.

"A sectional elevation of incorporating mill, showing one runner and ploughs (p, p); C, curb of bed; M, machinery in tank, underground; D, drenching apparatus; l, lever-board, or shutter; t, tank; f, f, floor line." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gunpowder Mill

"A sectional elevation of incorporating mill, showing one runner and ploughs (p, p); C, curb of bed;…

"A sectional elevation of incorporating mill, showing one runner and ploughs (p, p); C, curb of bed; M, machinery in tank, underground; D, drenching apparatus; l, lever-board, or shutter; t, tank; f, f, floor line." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gunpowder Mill

"A sectional elevation of incorporating mill, showing one runner and ploughs (p, p); C, curb of bed;…

"Breaking-down Machine. H, hopper; B, endless band; R, rollers; M, boxes to receive meal." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Gunpowder Mill

"Breaking-down Machine. H, hopper; B, endless band; R, rollers; M, boxes to receive meal." — Encyclopedia…

"This consists of a cast-iron pan a, having a shallow cylindrical bottom b, holding 50 lb of mercury, in which a wooden runner c, nearly of the same shape as the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades, is made to revolve by gearing wheels placed either above or below." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hungarian Mill

"This consists of a cast-iron pan a, having a shallow cylindrical bottom b, holding 50 lb of mercury,…

"In the ordinary pattern of a lapidary's bench the handle turns in a horizontal plane, where W is the driving-wheel turned by the handle A, and working the pulley P by means of a strap. The pulley is fixed on a vertical spindle, which carries M the disk for slitting or the leaden lap for roughing or polishing. The upper end of this spindle is conical, and rotates in a socket drilled in a horizontal arm of iron which projects from a vertical wooden rod D. A block of wood C fits on to the end of an iron support termed the gim-peg or germ-peg. This support is used to steady the operator's arm when grinding the edges of small stones, and the wooden block, which is fixed by a wedge, is employed for cutting facets at any desired angle, the stone being cemented to the end of a stik S, which is fixed at the requisite angle in one of the holes or notches made in the sides of the socket C." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lapidary's Mill

"In the ordinary pattern of a lapidary's bench the handle turns in a horizontal plane, where W is the…

"Part of Lapidary's Mill. A, upper summer (cut through); B, lower summer (cut through); C, spindle; D, pulley; E, lap; F, table (cut through); g, g, wooden blocks, adjusted by means of wedges." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lapidary's Mill

"Part of Lapidary's Mill. A, upper summer (cut through); B, lower summer (cut through); C, spindle;…

This mill was manufactured in Birmingham, England. It was possibly used as a textile mill for processing fabrics.

Mill

This mill was manufactured in Birmingham, England. It was possibly used as a textile mill for processing…

"Grain enters the mill at H down into D and into tube A. The grain passes down through the holes B and C causing A to rotate. This rotation powers the millstone S at the top which grinds the grain before it reaches the dispersal tube A." —Quackenbos 1859

Barker's Mill

"Grain enters the mill at H down into D and into tube A. The grain passes down through the holes B and…

A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. The grinding of solid matters occurs under exposure of mechanical forces that trench the structure by overcoming of the interior bonding forces. After the grinding the state of the solid is changed: the grain size, the grain size disposition and the grain shape.

Bed Pan Grinding Mill

A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. The grinding…

Machining process used to create cider, allowing for different types of apples to be mixed for juicing.

Cider Mill

Machining process used to create cider, allowing for different types of apples to be mixed for juicing.

An illustration of a curd mill.

Curd Mill

An illustration of a curd mill.

A mill which grounds grain into flour. This flour mill is located on a body of water.

Floating Flour Mill

A mill which grounds grain into flour. This flour mill is located on a body of water.

A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. There are many different types of grinding mills and many types of materials processed in them. "A, bedstone; b, runner; g, bush; h, spindle; i, driver; j, balancerynd; k, cockeye; l, cockhead; n, eye; p, hopper; q, shoe; s, damsel." -Century, 1889

Grinding Mill

A grinding mill is a unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces. There are…

This tool was used to break a larger material into smaller pieces or sections.

Grinding Mill

This tool was used to break a larger material into smaller pieces or sections.

Author and statesman, born in London, England, May 20, 1806 died in Avignon France, May 9, 1873.

John Mill

Author and statesman, born in London, England, May 20, 1806 died in Avignon France, May 9, 1873.

Steel mill where metal is rolled into sheets and bars

Rolling Mill

Steel mill where metal is rolled into sheets and bars

"The accompanying engraving is an illustration of a new style vertical mill in which an attempt is made to embody all the improvements which have been suggested by experience, and to furnish a complete vertical cane mill. In this machine the hearing is placed between the rolls, giving access to the boxes; the small wheels are lapped, bringing the minor rolls close together, and dispensing with the guide plate or 'dumb returner;' the main roll has a wide flange; the sweep cap has a square eye fitted to the squared end of the main shaft removable by hand; the weight of the rolls is supported upon the ends of the shafts in adjustable oil-tight boxes; the feed roll is fluted to facilitate the entrance of the cane to the mill; the top and bottom plates are diagonally braced as represent, and the construction of the whole machine is such that the mill may be taken entirely apart by simply unscrewing the corner bolts, no keys being used in any part of the machine." -Commissioner, 1865

Vertical cane mill

"The accompanying engraving is an illustration of a new style vertical mill in which an attempt is made…

"To avoid the inconvenience of having the team travel around the mill, interfering with the passing to and fro with cane and bagasse, the plan has been adopted by one manufacturer at least, of prolonging the main shaft of the mill down through the floor, and there coupling it with another shaft which continues down and rests in a step on the floor of a lower story or basement. The sweep is attached to the shaft below, and the team is thus removed from around the mill leaving the space unobstructed." -Commission, 1865

Vertical cane mill

"To avoid the inconvenience of having the team travel around the mill, interfering with the passing…

"The workpiece is fastened on a round platen, which in turn is attached to the table of a large and heavy vertical boring machine. The mill arbor bears a profile mill with inserted teeth, and the table has power feed. The operation is cheaper than turning in the lathe." —Grimshaw, 1902

Ring Milling

"The workpiece is fastened on a round platen, which in turn is attached to the table of a large and…

"This wheel of all others, gives the greatest power with the least quantity of water, and is, therefore, generally used when circumstances will permit, or where there is a considerable fall, with a limited quantity of water." -Comstock 1850

Overshot Wheel

"This wheel of all others, gives the greatest power with the least quantity of water, and is, therefore,…

"The parting vessels are of porcelain which, to protect them against fracture by irregular heating, are covered with wire netting and plastered over with a mixture of clay and smithy scales. They are mounted in a frame and set loose in an iron pot with a hemispherical bottom, which is heated by a fire from below, the pot also serves to catch the contents of the porcelain vessel if the latter should be accidentally broken. The cover is perforated by a hole in the center for the passage of a lead pipe to carry off the sulphurous acid fumes." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Parting Vessel

"The parting vessels are of porcelain which, to protect them against fracture by irregular heating,…

Refinery Siphon and Alembic.

Refinery Siphon

Refinery Siphon and Alembic.

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated in grinding pans in the bottom of which mercury is placed. The amalgam (mercury alloy), after squeezing out the excess mercury, is heated in the retort, to distil (separate) off the rest and leave the gold, which is then melted and cast into bars of gold bullion of varying fineness.

Retort Furnace for Gold Bullion

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated…

The mill at Sleepy Hollow, New York.

The Old Mill at Sleepy Hollow

The mill at Sleepy Hollow, New York.

Stamp Mill.

Stamp Mill

Stamp Mill.

In a sugarcane mill, sugarcane is washed, chopped, and shredded by revolving knives.

A Sugarcane Mill

In a sugarcane mill, sugarcane is washed, chopped, and shredded by revolving knives.