This illustration shows a Blake Ore Breaker (stone crusher), used in a gold stamp mill. This crusher breaks the large, mined rocks containing the gold (ore) into small pieces, to then be reduced to the finest powder by stamps.

Blake Ore Breaker

This illustration shows a Blake Ore Breaker (stone crusher), used in a gold stamp mill. This crusher…

An illustration of a coal bucket.

Coal Bucket

An illustration of a coal bucket.

Appearance of the chambers. The miners, when they branch off from the main shaft or avenue, leave pillars of coal about eighteen feet square, to support the roof or mass above. These huge pillars were crushed by the great weight upon them, in the accident recorded.

chambers

Appearance of the chambers. The miners, when they branch off from the main shaft or avenue, leave pillars…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel (End Section)

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The gold mining camp of Cripple Creek, Colorado.

Cripple Creek Mine

The gold mining camp of Cripple Creek, Colorado.

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution of Potassuim Cyanide (KCN), containing 0.05 to 0.3 percent KCN (or its equivalent, Sodium Cyanide, NaCN) which is allowed to remain for twelve to twenty-four hours to dissolve the gold.

Cyanide Leaching Tank (Gold Extraction)

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution…

An inside view of the Capell Fan for ventilation in mining. The fan removes the hazardous air from the mine to the atmosphere.

Capell Ventilation Fan for Mining

An inside view of the Capell Fan for ventilation in mining. The fan removes the hazardous air from the…

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (End View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (Side View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

"This consists of a cast-iron pan a, having a shallow cylindrical bottom b, holding 50 lb of mercury, in which a wooden runner c, nearly of the same shape as the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades, is made to revolve by gearing wheels placed either above or below." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hungarian Mill

"This consists of a cast-iron pan a, having a shallow cylindrical bottom b, holding 50 lb of mercury,…

An illustration of horizontal and vertical mine shaft placement.

Mine Shaft Placement

An illustration of horizontal and vertical mine shaft placement.

An illustration of a man sitting in a coal mine shaft with a shovel in hand.

Miner

An illustration of a man sitting in a coal mine shaft with a shovel in hand.

An illustration of a miners loading a mine cart with iron ore in St. Louis, MO.

Mining

An illustration of a miners loading a mine cart with iron ore in St. Louis, MO.

Cars entering the mines.

mining cars

Cars entering the mines.

"When rock is reached, a curb or crib of either wood or iron is inserted."—Finley, 1917

Mining crib

"When rock is reached, a curb or crib of either wood or iron is inserted."—Finley, 1917

An illustration of an iron ore mine dumb in St. Louis, MO in 1874.

Mining Dump

An illustration of an iron ore mine dumb in St. Louis, MO in 1874.

"The parting vessels are of porcelain which, to protect them against fracture by irregular heating, are covered with wire netting and plastered over with a mixture of clay and smithy scales. They are mounted in a frame and set loose in an iron pot with a hemispherical bottom, which is heated by a fire from below, the pot also serves to catch the contents of the porcelain vessel if the latter should be accidentally broken. The cover is perforated by a hole in the center for the passage of a lead pipe to carry off the sulphurous acid fumes." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Parting Vessel

"The parting vessels are of porcelain which, to protect them against fracture by irregular heating,…

Refinery Siphon and Alembic.

Refinery Siphon

Refinery Siphon and Alembic.

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated in grinding pans in the bottom of which mercury is placed. The amalgam (mercury alloy), after squeezing out the excess mercury, is heated in the retort, to distil (separate) off the rest and leave the gold, which is then melted and cast into bars of gold bullion of varying fineness.

Retort Furnace for Gold Bullion

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated…

Shaft wall from mining.

Shaft wall

Shaft wall from mining.

"One of the simplest forms of sluice as used in river diggings in the north-west of America. A rectangular trough of boards, whose dimensions depend chiefly on the size of the planks available, is set up on the higher part of the ground at one side of the claim to be worked, upon trestles or piers of rough stone-work, at such an inclination that the stream may carry off all but the largest stones, which are kept back by a grating of boards about 2 inches apart at a." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Sluice

"One of the simplest forms of sluice as used in river diggings in the north-west of America. A rectangular…

The Great Seal of the State of South Dakota, 1889. The seal shows hills, a river and a boat, a farmer, a mine, and cattle. The state motto is above and reads "Under God the People Rule."

Seal of South Dakota

The Great Seal of the State of South Dakota, 1889. The seal shows hills, a river and a boat, a farmer,…

Stamp Mill.

Stamp Mill

Stamp Mill.

A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle.<br>Top: A, platform; B, torpedo; C, water tight pine box; D, pin to be drawn.<br>Lower: A, vessel at anchor; B, her cable; E, F, two torpedoes; C, D, the coupling lines.

Torpedo Boat

A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle. Top:…

An illustration of mine train carts loaded with coal.

Coal Train

An illustration of mine train carts loaded with coal.

A trepan used for boring large shafts.

Large trepan

A trepan used for boring large shafts.

A trepan used for boring small shafts.

Small trepan

A trepan used for boring small shafts.

"Two kinds of successions of grooves used for rectangular bars in "two-high" train." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Two-high Trains

"Two kinds of successions of grooves used for rectangular bars in "two-high" train." — The Encyclopedia…