Reporter, known for working on the <em>Courant, Republican, Mirror,</em> and <em>Merchant's Ledger.</em>

Robert Bonner

Reporter, known for working on the Courant, Republican, Mirror, and Merchant's Ledger.

An illustration of a boy trying on a hat and looking at his reflection in the mirror.

Boy Trying on Hat and Looking at His Reflection

An illustration of a boy trying on a hat and looking at his reflection in the mirror.

"Bronze Mirror: Maenad." &mdash Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Bronze Mirror

"Bronze Mirror: Maenad." &mdash Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Condensing Octant.&mdash;The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly over the angle of 45 degrees pgp, while the supplemental rays fall upon the straight condensing prisms p, each of which spreads the incident rays parallel to the corresponding rays in the central angle pgp. In this way the whole of the front hemisphere of rays is parallelized in the vertical plane and spread equally over the 45 degree in azimuth." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Octant

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly…

"Condensing Octant.&mdash;The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly over the angle of 45 degrees pgp, while the supplemental rays fall upon the straight condensing prisms p, each of which spreads the incident rays parallel to the corresponding rays in the central angle pgp. In this way the whole of the front hemisphere of rays is parallelized in the vertical plane and spread equally over the 45 degree in azimuth." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Octant

"Condensing Octant.—The central fixed apparatus bb with spherical mirror dd throws its rays directly…

"Condensing Quadrant.&mdash;The fixed apparatus bbb, with spherical mirror behind, throws its rays directly through the angle of 90 degrees afa', while the supplementary rays falling on the straight condensing prisms p, p, p', p' are sent out parallel to the corresponding rays in the unobstructed central quadrant of the main apparatus. The whole light will therefore be condensed equally over 90 degrees." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Condensing Quadrant

"Condensing Quadrant.—The fixed apparatus bbb, with spherical mirror behind, throws its rays directly…

"Perfect Form of Dioptric Holophote for an Oil Flame.&mdash;By combining the back prisms ga, hc just described with a semi-holophote abc subtending 180 degrees and a portion of the dioptric spherical mirror ijk, no light is lost on the burner, and all the rays are parallelized, so that this apparatus, being all of glass, is both geometrically and physically perfect." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Dioptric Holophote

"Perfect Form of Dioptric Holophote for an Oil Flame.—By combining the back prisms ga, hc just…

The dressing table, chair and footstool are all designed to compliment each other. The dressing table has a mirror that can swing around.

Dressing Table, Chair and Footstool

The dressing table, chair and footstool are all designed to compliment each other. The dressing table…

This is a combination tool featuring a glass cutter and knife. A glass cutter is a hand tool which aids in the cutting of flat or sheet glass.

Combined Knife and Scissors Glass Cutter

This is a combination tool featuring a glass cutter and knife. A glass cutter is a hand tool which aids…

Harpy, depicted as a bird with a female face.

Harpy

Harpy, depicted as a bird with a female face.

"Heat is radiated at C, which is placed at mirror A's focus. Mirror A catches some of the heat and reflects it across to mirror B which focuses the heat on D." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Reflection of Radiant Heat

"Heat is radiated at C, which is placed at mirror A's focus. Mirror A catches some of the heat and reflects…

"If the object a be placed obliquely before the convex mirror, then the converging rays from its two extremities falling obliquely on its surface, would they prolonged through the mirror, meet at the point c, behind it. But instead of being thus continued, they are thrown back by the mirror in less convergent lines, which meet the eye at e, it being, as we have seen, one of the properties of this mirror, to reflect converging rays less convergent than before." -Comstock 1850

Curved Image

"If the object a be placed obliquely before the convex mirror, then the converging rays from its two…

"Mirror case illustrating storming of the Castle of Love, French, about 14th century, South Kensington museum." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Ivory Carving

"Mirror case illustrating storming of the Castle of Love, French, about 14th century, South Kensington…

How you see your reflection in a mirror.

Mirror

How you see your reflection in a mirror.

This sideboard, mirror and candelabrums are all richly designed with figures, fruits and foliage.

Sideboard, Mirror and Candelabrums

This sideboard, mirror and candelabrums are all richly designed with figures, fruits and foliage.

"The foci of concave mirrors may be in front of the mirror, in which case they are real; or they may be behind teh mirror, in which case they are virtual." -Avery 1895

Foci of Concave Mirror

"The foci of concave mirrors may be in front of the mirror, in which case they are real; or they may…

"A concave mirror reflects from a curved surface hollowing in like he inside of an orange." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Concave Mirror

"A concave mirror reflects from a curved surface hollowing in like he inside of an orange." —Quackenbos…

"The focus of a concave mirror is the point where the rays are brought together by reflection." -Comstock 1850

Focus of a Concave Mirror

"The focus of a concave mirror is the point where the rays are brought together by reflection." -Comstock…

"Parallel rays of light strike the concave mirror. The rays converge at the focus, F, which is halfway between the mirror surface and the center of the sphere that the mirror would form if it were a full sphere." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Reflection from Concave Mirrors

"Parallel rays of light strike the concave mirror. The rays converge at the focus, F, which is halfway…

"Thus, were the rays falling on the mirror parallel, the focus would be at a' but in consequence of their previous convergency, they are brought together at a less distance than the principal focus." -Comstock 1850

Convergent Rays in a Concave Mirror

"Thus, were the rays falling on the mirror parallel, the focus would be at a' but in consequence of…

"...be made obvious...where the diverging rays 1, 2, 3, 4 form a focus at the point o, whereas, had they been parallel, their focus would have been at a." -Comstock 1850

Divergent Rays in a Concave Mirror

"...be made obvious...where the diverging rays 1, 2, 3, 4 form a focus at the point o, whereas, had…

"When the rays diverge from a point beyond the center of curvature, as B, the focus falls on the same axis, at a distrance from the mirror greater than that of the principal focus, and less than that of the center of curvature." -Avery 1895

Rays Diverging from Beyond the Center of Curvature on a Concave Mirror

"When the rays diverge from a point beyond the center of curvature, as B, the focus falls on the same…

"The focus of each point chose may be determined by tracing two rays from the point, and locating their real or apparent intersection after reflection by the mirror. The two rays most convenient for this purpose are teh oen that lies along the axis fo the point, and the one that lies parallel to the principal axis of the mirror." -Avery 1895

Concave Mirror with Image and Focus

"The focus of each point chose may be determined by tracing two rays from the point, and locating their…

"When the object is at a distance from the mirror somewhat greater than the center of curvature, as beyond C, the image is real, inverted, smaller than the object, and at a distance from the mirror greater than that of the principle focus and less than that of the center of curvature, as between F and C." -Avery 1895

Image Beyond the Curvature of a Concave Mirror

"When the object is at a distance from the mirror somewhat greater than the center of curvature, as…

"When the concave mirror is large, say six inches in diameter, and eight or ten inches focal distance, it exhibits the human face of enormous bulk, the spectator being frightened at the size and courseness of his own features." -Comstock 1850

Magnified Face in a Concave Mirror

"When the concave mirror is large, say six inches in diameter, and eight or ten inches focal distance,…

"...if the object is placed more remote from the mirror than the principal focus, and between the focus and the centre of the sphere of which the reflector is a part, then the image will appear inverted on the contrary side of the centre, and farter from the mirror than the object; thus, if a lamp be placed obliquely before a concave mirror, its image will be seem inverted in the air, on the contrary side of a perpendicular line through the centre of the mirror." -Comstock 1850

Object Beyond the Focus in a Concave Mirror

"...if the object is placed more remote from the mirror than the principal focus, and between the focus…

"...let us suppose the object a, to be placed before the mirror, and nearer to it than the principal focus. Then the rays proceeding from the extremities of the object without interruption, would continue to diverge in the lines o and n, as seen behind the mirror' but by reflection they are made to diverge less than before, and consequently to make the angle under which the meet more obtuse at the eye b, than it would be if they continued onward to e, where they would have met without reflection. The result therefore, is to render the image h, upon the eye, as much larger than the object a, as the angle at the eye is more obtuse than the angle at e." -Comstock 1850

Object Within the Focus in a Concave Mirror

"...let us suppose the object a, to be placed before the mirror, and nearer to it than the principal…

"The spherical aberration of a concave mirror is the deviation of some of the reflected light from the focus, as shown It arises from the curvature of the mirror, and causes an indistinctness or blurring of the image." -Avery 1895

Spherical Aberration of a Concave Mirror

"The spherical aberration of a concave mirror is the deviation of some of the reflected light from the…

"Suppose the tumbler, a, to be filled with water, and placed beyond the principal focus of the concave mirror, and so managed as to be hid from eye c, by the screen b. The lamp by which the tumbler is illuminated must also be placed behind the screen, and near the tumbler, To a person placed at c, the tumbler with its contents will appear incerted at e, and suspended in the air." -Comstock 1850

Deception by Mirrors

"Suppose the tumbler, a, to be filled with water, and placed beyond the principal focus of the concave…

This console table with mirror is decorated with elaborate fruit, leaves and flowers. It is used for decorative purposes.

Console Table with Mirror

This console table with mirror is decorated with elaborate fruit, leaves and flowers. It is used for…

"A convex mirror is a part of a sphere, or globe, reflecting from the outside." -Comstock 1850

Convex Mirror

"A convex mirror is a part of a sphere, or globe, reflecting from the outside." -Comstock 1850

"Hence the image of the object, when reflected from the convex mirror, appears smaller than the object itself." -Comstock 1850

Object Diminished in Convex Mirror

"Hence the image of the object, when reflected from the convex mirror, appears smaller than the object…

"To explain this, let us suppose that the arrow a, is diminished by reflection from the convex surface, so that its image appearing a d, with the eye at c, shall seem as much smaller in proportion to the object, as d is less than a. Now keeping the eye at the same distance from the mirror, withdraw the object, so that it shall be equally distant with the eye, and the image will gradually diminish, as the arrow is removed." -Comstock 1850

Convex Mirror

"To explain this, let us suppose that the arrow a, is diminished by reflection from the convex surface,…

"...as the arrow is moved backwards, the angle at c, must be diminished, because the rays flowing from the extremities of the object fall a greater distance before the reach the surface of the mirror; and as the angles of the reflected rays bear a proportion to those of the incident ones, so the angle of vision will become less in proportion, as the object is withdrawn." -Comstock 1850

Convex Mirror

"...as the arrow is moved backwards, the angle at c, must be diminished, because the rays flowing from…

"Let us suppose that a, is a luminous point, from which a pencil of diverging rays falls upon a convex mirror. These rays, as already demonstrated, will be reflected more divergent, and consequently will meet the eye at e, in a wider state of dispersion that they fell upon the mirror at o." -Comstock 1850

Convex Mirror

"Let us suppose that a, is a luminous point, from which a pencil of diverging rays falls upon a convex…

"A convex mirror is generally a part of the other surface of a spherical shell. It increases the divergence, or decreases the convergence of light that falls upon it. The foci are virtual; the principal focus is midway between the center of the mirror and the center of curvature. The foci may be located and the images determined by processes closely similar to those used for concave mirrors, as illustrated." -Avery 1895

Convex Mirror

"A convex mirror is generally a part of the other surface of a spherical shell. It increases the divergence,…

"Rays from an object showing the reproduction of an image in a convex mirror." -Avery 1895

Convex Mirror Reproducing an Image of an Arrow

"Rays from an object showing the reproduction of an image in a convex mirror." -Avery 1895

"A convex mirror reflects from a curved surface rounding out like the outside of an orange." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Convex Mirror

"A convex mirror reflects from a curved surface rounding out like the outside of an orange." —Quackenbos…

"Parallel rays strike the convex mirror, reflect, and diverge as if they had originated from a virtual focus inside the mirror. Focus F is located between the surface of the mirror and the mirror's center if it were a full body sphere." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Reflection by Convex Mirrors

"Parallel rays strike the convex mirror, reflect, and diverge as if they had originated from a virtual…

This fireplace with mirror is richly decorated with figures and scrolls.

Fireplace with Mirror

This fireplace with mirror is richly decorated with figures and scrolls.

"This will be understood [here] where the ray of light A B, proceeding from the eye, falls perpendicularly on the plane mirror B D. will be reflected back in the same line; but the ray C D coming from the feet, which falls obliquely on the mirror, will be reflected back under the same angle in the line D A; and since we see objects in the direction of the reflected rays, and the image appears at the same distance behind the mirror that is object is before it, we must continue the line A D to the feet, E, and for the same reason, the rays A B, from the eye, must be prolonged to F, as far behind the mirror as the line E extends, where the whole image will be represented." -Comstock 1850

Mirror Half the Length of the Object

"This will be understood [here] where the ray of light A B, proceeding from the eye, falls perpendicularly…

A mirror intended to be held in the hand

Hand Mirror

A mirror intended to be held in the hand

"Suppose the mirror, a b, to be placed on the side of a room, and a lamp to be set in antoher room, but so situated as that its light would shine upon the glass. The lamp itself could not be seen by the eye placed at e, because the partition d is between them; but its image would be visible at e, beacuse the angle of the incident ray, coming from the light, and that of the reflected ray which reaches the eye, are equal." -Comstock 1850

Plane Mirror

"Suppose the mirror, a b, to be placed on the side of a room, and a lamp to be set in antoher room,…

"Suppose the arrow a to be the object reflected b the mirror d c; the incident rays a, flowing from the end of the arror being thrown back by reflection, will meet the eye in the same state of dicergence that they would do, if they proceded to the same distance behind the mirrr, that the eye is before it, as at o." -Comstock 1850

Plane Mirror

"Suppose the arrow a to be the object reflected b the mirror d c; the incident rays a, flowing from…

"If an object is placed before a plane mirror, a virtual image appears behind the mirror. Each point of this image seems to be as far behind the mirror as the corresponding point of the object is in front of the mirror. Hence, images seen in still, clear, water are inverted." -Avery 1895

Plane Mirror

"If an object is placed before a plane mirror, a virtual image appears behind the mirror. Each point…

"A plane mirror reflects from a flat surface, like a common looking glass." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Plane Mirror

"A plane mirror reflects from a flat surface, like a common looking glass." —Quackenbos 1859

"The construction for the image produced by a plane mirror depends upon the fact that the image of the object may be located by locating the images of a number of well chosen points in the surface of the object." -Avery 1895

Object in Plane Mirror

"The construction for the image produced by a plane mirror depends upon the fact that the image of the…

The sideboard and mirror is a type of dresser with mirror.

Sideboard and Mirror

The sideboard and mirror is a type of dresser with mirror.

The German mirror frame was made in the 18th century. A mirror surrounded by scroll work.

German Mirror-Frame

The German mirror frame was made in the 18th century. A mirror surrounded by scroll work.

The German mirror frame was made in the 18th century. A mirror surrounded by scroll work.

German Mirror-Frame

The German mirror frame was made in the 18th century. A mirror surrounded by scroll work.

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope for observing direction and motion of a cloud. The horizontal mirror reflects the sky, matching the cloud's motion.

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope Horizontal Compass Projection

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope for observing direction and motion of a cloud. The horizontal mirror reflects…

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope for observing direction and motion of a cloud using a compass. The compass measures the direction of the cloud moving, while the center metal reflects the sky.

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope Horizontal Mirror Projection

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope for observing direction and motion of a cloud using a compass. The compass…

The inside view of Abbe's Marine Nephoscope used to measure the cloud's direction and velocity on a boat. The rounded middle part of the nephoscope is the mirror with the compass is along the circumfrance.

Abbe's Marine Nephoscope Inside View

The inside view of Abbe's Marine Nephoscope used to measure the cloud's direction and velocity on a…

Marvin's Nephoscope to measure direction and velocity of the cloud. This nephoscope is used on land, and made out of a mirror with a string attached to the scale.

Marvin's Nephoscope

Marvin's Nephoscope to measure direction and velocity of the cloud. This nephoscope is used on land,…

"In order strictly to equalize a fixed light over the whole horizon, which could not possibly be done with separate reflectors, Marcet proposed this ingenious instrument, which is generated by the revolution of the parabolic profile pp' round its parameter as a vertical axis, instead of round a horizontal axis, as in all former reflectors." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Parabolic Profile

"In order strictly to equalize a fixed light over the whole horizon, which could not possibly be done…

"It will be seen that the parabolic mirror a is at best but a very imperfect instrument, for even if the radiant were strictly a mathematical point, the cone of rays (shown undotted) escaping past the lips of the mirror must be lost." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Paraboloid

"It will be seen that the parabolic mirror a is at best but a very imperfect instrument, for even if…

A triangular prism.

Prism

A triangular prism.

A triangular prism on a stand.

Prism

A triangular prism on a stand.

"From the surface of a plane mirror, parallel rays are reflected parallel; but the convex mirror causes parallel rays falling on its surface to diverge, by reflection." -Comstock 1850

Divergent Rays

"From the surface of a plane mirror, parallel rays are reflected parallel; but the convex mirror causes…

"Mirror A/B is only half of person C's height. C is able to view his entire body through such a small mirror due to the angle of incidence from D to B to F." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Angle of Incidence and Reflection

"Mirror A/B is only half of person C's height. C is able to view his entire body through such a small…