"Portions of the rotting pulp were placed on a microscopic slide, divided into hundredths and thousandths of an inch. Fig. 21, A B, represents such a scale, the larger division, A B, representing the one-hundredth of an inch, and the smaller subdivision the one-thousandth of an inch; 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, represent the cells of which the apples are mostly composed. The granular dottings represent apple starch. The branching cellular structure represents the mycelium of a fungus penetrating the cells. At 9, three small starch granuals are represented in a line, and are confined within the division of the one-thousandth of an inch." -Watts, 1874

Microscopic view of a fermented apple

"Portions of the rotting pulp were placed on a microscopic slide, divided into hundredths and thousandths…

Aschophora, the Bread-Mold

Ascophora

Aschophora, the Bread-Mold

Aspergillus glaucus, the mold of cheese, but common on moldy vegetables.

Aspergillus Glaucus

Aspergillus glaucus, the mold of cheese, but common on moldy vegetables.

A pair of hands forming a long section of rolled clay into a container.

Modeling a clay container

A pair of hands forming a long section of rolled clay into a container.

A pair of hands smoothing a clay container formed by curling large sections of rolled clay together.

Smoothing a clay container

A pair of hands smoothing a clay container formed by curling large sections of rolled clay together.

A purple or violet powder, used in dyeing violet, purple, crimson, prepared for various species of lichens which grow on the rocks in northern europe.

Cudbear

A purple or violet powder, used in dyeing violet, purple, crimson, prepared for various species of lichens…

"Cast or mold of the interior of the left ventricle of the heart of a deer. Shows that the left ventricular cavity in conical and spiral in its nature."—Pettigrew, 1874

Heart of a Deer

"Cast or mold of the interior of the left ventricle of the heart of a deer. Shows that the left ventricular…

Dry-rot fungus (Merulius lacrymans). A decay affecting timber, occasioned by various species of fungi, the mycelium of which penetrated the timber, destroying it.

Dry Rot Fungus

Dry-rot fungus (Merulius lacrymans). A decay affecting timber, occasioned by various species of fungi,…

"A shallow frame of wood or iron used in foundries to contain the sand and patterns employed in molding and casting." -Whitney, 1911

Two-Part Flask

"A shallow frame of wood or iron used in foundries to contain the sand and patterns employed in molding…

Frame used to frame tables, this is a small type design featuring shape.

Small Frame for Table Top

Frame used to frame tables, this is a small type design featuring shape.

This illustration "represents its mycelium growth; 2,2 its budding cells, which terminate in fruit cells; 3, 3, 3, 3, bearing spores which germinate; 4, 4, are fungoid aggregations, which throw out filaments; their relation to the black mycelium is not represented thus far; 5 represents what appears to be a cross section of the asci or fruit, when perfectly formed and cut through its greatest diameter crosswise." -Watts, 1874

Stages of fungus growth

This illustration "represents its mycelium growth; 2,2 its budding cells, which terminate in fruit cells;…

The bread mold fungus.

Bread mold fungus

The bread mold fungus.

"A Piece of Hair from the Scalp infested with a Mold which produces Ringworm. Ringworm may occur anywhere on the body, but is perhaps most common on the scalp and face." — Blaisedell, 1904

Hair with ringworm

"A Piece of Hair from the Scalp infested with a Mold which produces Ringworm. Ringworm may occur anywhere…

A pair of hands rolling clay into a cylindrical shape.

hands molding clay

A pair of hands rolling clay into a cylindrical shape.

This machine was used to mold different hat bodies, where the molding body spins about the axis and can be changed to varying shapes.

Molding Tool, Hat

This machine was used to mold different hat bodies, where the molding body spins about the axis and…

An illustration of powdery mildew showing the ascus containig eight ascospores.

Powdery Mildew Ascus Containing Eight Ascospores

An illustration of powdery mildew showing the ascus containig eight ascospores.

An illustration of powdery mildew showing conidia bearing hypha.

Powdery Mildew Conidia Bearing Hypha

An illustration of powdery mildew showing conidia bearing hypha.

An illustration of the sporocarp and mycelium of powdery mildew.

Powdery Mildew Sporocarp & Mycelium

An illustration of the sporocarp and mycelium of powdery mildew.

An illustration of erysiphe communis, powdery mildew, that is on the epidermis of the leaf of the flower, Indian beet.

Powdery Mildew

An illustration of erysiphe communis, powdery mildew, that is on the epidermis of the leaf of the flower,…

The green mold, Penicillium, one of the most common of the Sac Fungi. The hyphae of the branching mycelium is composed of cells and the spores or conidia are formed in chains that are arranged in brushlike clusters at the ends of the erect hyphae.

Mold

The green mold, Penicillium, one of the most common of the Sac Fungi. The hyphae of the branching mycelium…

"Showing One of the More Common Molds found on Fruits and Bread. The tiny stalks grow verticallyinto the air. The end of each thread swells into a small round knob, from the inside of which hundreds of minute bodies, called <em>spores</em>, burst. As <em>a</em> is seen a large knob filled with spores." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Common mold

"Showing One of the More Common Molds found on Fruits and Bread. The tiny stalks grow verticallyinto…

An illustration of a mold and dreckel for handmade paper.

Paper Mold

An illustration of a mold and dreckel for handmade paper.

"Showing the Comparative Size of Molds (a), Yeast (b and c), and Bacteria (d)." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Molds, yeast, and bacteria

"Showing the Comparative Size of Molds (a), Yeast (b and c), and Bacteria (d)." — Blaisedell,…

Mucor caninus is a species of mold found in soil, on plant surfaces, and rotting vegetables.

Mucor caninus

Mucor caninus is a species of mold found in soil, on plant surfaces, and rotting vegetables.

"A Piece of Bread upon which One of the Common Molds, known as <em>Mucor</em>, is growing." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Mucor, a common mold

"A Piece of Bread upon which One of the Common Molds, known as Mucor, is growing." —…

"Under the power of about 90 diameters the general character of the peridia is seen. They are densely aggregated, elongated, submerged, pale-brown, irregularly torn. The sporidia are copius...Nos. 1 and 2, indicate the general points of growth of this fungus. I find frequently on the leaf-ribs and terminal points of the leaves, and very often dispersed over the smooth parts of the leaf; sometimes, although rarely, the peridia are on the upper surface which, when matured, resembles net work. At the juncture of the leaf (see 4) the cells of the peridia are nearly round, at 5, oblong. From 3 to 4 the cellular structure is of light Vandyke brown; at 5, a pale yellow...6 represents the appearance of the peridia as see by the naked eye; 7, their general arrangements and their groupings on the leaves; 8, three cells, showing the parts of which the peridia are composed being magnified about 125 diameters." -Watts, 1874

Cellular structure of peridia

"Under the power of about 90 diameters the general character of the peridia is seen. They are densely…

"It is not unusual to fine a decayed spot in the center of potatoes otherwise apparently in good condition. A microscopic examination a portion of the diseased part will show that the decay commenced where the vascular bundles concentrate. At that point the air is in greater volume than elsewhere. Although these mineral acids and caustic alkalies dissolve starch granuals, they do not affect the cellulose cells which contain the starch. When such spots are exposed to the atmosphere the fungus blue-mold forms on the surface. This disease, therefore, has not relation to potato-rot, as ordinarily understood. f represents the mycelium (roots) of blue-mold, Penicillium glaucum, and G that of potato-rot, Peronospora infestans." -Watts, 1874

Potato diseases at a microscopic level

"It is not unusual to fine a decayed spot in the center of potatoes otherwise apparently in good condition.…

Spore of a bread fungus mold

Bread fungus mold spore

Spore of a bread fungus mold

"Germinating spore, with secondary spores or conidia."&mdash;Finley, 1917

Germinating spore

"Germinating spore, with secondary spores or conidia."—Finley, 1917

A contrivance for holding the dies used in screw cutting.

Die Stock

A contrivance for holding the dies used in screw cutting.