"Small additional valves, as those placed near the umbones of the Genus Pholas among mollusks."-Whitney, 1902

Accessory Valve

"Small additional valves, as those placed near the umbones of the Genus Pholas among mollusks."-Whitney,…

"A genus of mollusks, of the familiy bullidæ or Tornatellidæ, belonging to the tectibranchiate division of opisthobranchiate."-Whitney, 1902

Acera

"A genus of mollusks, of the familiy bullidæ or Tornatellidæ, belonging to the tectibranchiate…

a fossil cephalopod similar to the nautilisk.

Ammonite

a fossil cephalopod similar to the nautilisk.

a fossil cephalopod similar to the nautilisk.

Ammonite

a fossil cephalopod similar to the nautilisk.

a fossil cephalopod similar to the nautilisk.

Ammonite

a fossil cephalopod similar to the nautilisk.

"The Paper-nautilus, or Argonaut, [floats] gracefully on the surface of the sea, trimming its tiny sail to the breeze, just sufficient to ruffle the surface of the waves, it looks like an exquisite living shallop."

Argonauto Argo (Linnaeus)

"The Paper-nautilus, or Argonaut, [floats] gracefully on the surface of the sea, trimming its tiny sail…

"The argonaut can blush, turn pale, and show through its transparent shell its body changing in sudden shades."

Argonauta Papyracea in its Shell

"The argonaut can blush, turn pale, and show through its transparent shell its body changing in sudden…

"The principal apparatus of progression of the animal is the funnel with which it is furnished, in common with all Cephalopods, and which is very long in the argonaut. Aided by this apparatus, it ejects water after it has served the purpose of respiration, and in doing so, projects itself through the water."

Argonauta Papyracea Swimming

"The principal apparatus of progression of the animal is the funnel with which it is furnished, in common…

"Several Forms of Bivalves. A, Avicula; B, Pectunculus, with extended foot (a); C, Venus, with respiratory siphons (a, b) and extended foot (c); D, Mya truncata, showing respiratory siphons (a, b) and foot (c)." -Vaughan, 1906

Forms of Bivalves

"Several Forms of Bivalves. A, Avicula; B, Pectunculus, with extended foot (a); C, Venus, with respiratory…

"The Purpuras have a classical name and history, having furnished the Greeks and Romans with the brilliant purple coloring matter which was reserved for the mantles of patricians and princes."

Buccinum Senticosum (Linnaeus)

"The Purpuras have a classical name and history, having furnished the Greeks and Romans with the brilliant…

"In the genus <em>Cassis</em> the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height. These animals keep near the shore, in shallow water."

Cassis Canaliculata (Brugieres)

"In the genus Cassis the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height.…

"In the genus <em>Cassis</em> the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height. These animals keep near the shore, in shallow water."

Cassis Glauca (Linnaeus)

"In the genus Cassis the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height.…

"In the genus <em>Cassis</em> the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height. These animals keep near the shore, in shallow water."

Cassis Madagascariensis (Lamarck)

"In the genus Cassis the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height.…

"In the genus <em>Cassis</em> the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height. These animals keep near the shore, in shallow water."

Cassis Madagascariensis (Lamarck)

"In the genus Cassis the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height.…

"In the genus <em>Cassis</em> the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height. These animals keep near the shore, in shallow water."

Cassis Rula (Linnaeus)

"In the genus Cassis the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height.…

"In the genus <em>Cassis</em> the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height. These animals keep near the shore, in shallow water."

Cassis Zebra (Lamarck)

"In the genus Cassis the shell is oval, convex, and the spire is not of considerable height.…

"In one genera [of the <em>Octopodidae</em> family] the arms are completely united in their whole extent by a thin membrane."

Cirrhoteuthis Mulleri (Eschricht)

"In one genera [of the Octopodidae family] the arms are completely united in their whole extent…

"The genus <em>Conus</em> is especially rich in species, as well as numerous individuals. This group presents a remarkable uniformity of shape."

Conus Gloria Maris (Chemn.)

"The genus Conus is especially rich in species, as well as numerous individuals. This group…

"The genus <em>Conus</em> is especially rich in species, as well as numerous individuals. This group presents a remarkable uniformity of shape."

Conus Nobilis (Linn.)

"The genus Conus is especially rich in species, as well as numerous individuals. This group…

"The genus <em>Conus</em> is especially rich in species, as well as numerous individuals. This group presents a remarkable uniformity of shape."

Conus Tescallatus (Born.)

"The genus Conus is especially rich in species, as well as numerous individuals. This group…

"The genus <em>Conus</em> is especially rich in species, as well as numerous individuals. This group presents a remarkable uniformity of shape."

Conus Textilis (Linn.)

"The genus Conus is especially rich in species, as well as numerous individuals. This group…

"The anterior feet are about the length of the body. The other feet terminate in an elongated claw, which is straight-pointed."

Corystes Cassivelaunus, female

"The anterior feet are about the length of the body. The other feet terminate in an elongated claw,…

"The Long-clawed Crab is remarkable for its long antennae, which considerably exceed the length of the body."

Corystes Cassivelaunus, male

"The Long-clawed Crab is remarkable for its long antennae, which considerably exceed the length of the…

"The Cowries are found at a little distance from the shore, generally in clefts of the rocky bottoms; sometimes they bury themselves in the sand. These magnificent mollusks are natives or every sea."

Cypraea Argus (Linn.)

"The Cowries are found at a little distance from the shore, generally in clefts of the rocky bottoms;…

"The Madagascar Cowry [is] beautifully marked, having the general appearance of being mammillated all over."

Cypraea Madagascariensis (Gmel.)

"The Madagascar Cowry [is] beautifully marked, having the general appearance of being mammillated all…

"The Money Cowry is a little, oval shell, depressed, flat below, with very thick edges and slightly waving. It comes from the Indian ocean, and is sometimes found in the Atlantic."

Cypraea Moneta (Linnaeus)

"The Money Cowry is a little, oval shell, depressed, flat below, with very thick edges and slightly…

"The Granular Cowry [is] beautifully marked, having the general appearance of being mammillated all over."

Cypraea Nucleus (Linnaeus)

"The Granular Cowry [is] beautifully marked, having the general appearance of being mammillated all…

"The animal which inhabits these shells is elongated, and is provided with a well-developed mantle, furnished on the inside with a band of tentacular filaments; it is able to fold itself over its shell in such a manner as to envelop it all around."

Cypraea Tigris (Linnaeus)

"The animal which inhabits these shells is elongated, and is provided with a well-developed mantle,…

"Zigzag Cowries are beautifully ornamented with waving and broken lines."

Cypraea Zigzag (Linnaeus)

"Zigzag Cowries are beautifully ornamented with waving and broken lines."

A remarkable species of the genus <em>Fusus</em>.

Fusus Colus

A remarkable species of the genus Fusus.

A remarkable species of the genus <em>Fusus</em>.

Fusus Pagodus

A remarkable species of the genus Fusus.

A remarkable species of the genus <em>Fusus</em>.

Fusus Proboscidiferus

A remarkable species of the genus Fusus.

"The genus <em>Harpa</em> contains shells from the Indian ocean, richly enameled within and ornamented externally with slightly oblique, longitudinal stripes with finely sculptured forms in the intervals; spire very small and opening large."

Harpa Ventricosa (Linnaeus)

"The genus Harpa contains shells from the Indian ocean, richly enameled within and ornamented…

"The Common Calmar or Squid. They propel themselves backward through the water with great velocity, driving back the water by means of their funnel."

Loligo Gahi (d'Orbigny)

"The Common Calmar or Squid. They propel themselves backward through the water with great velocity,…

"The Common Calmar or Squid. They propel themselves backward through the water with great velocity, driving back the water by means of their funnel."

Loligo Vulgaris, with its pen, or internal bone (Lamarck)

"The Common Calmar or Squid. They propel themselves backward through the water with great velocity,…

"The Episcopal Miter, from the Indian ocean is white, ornamented with square spots of a fine red, and capable of high polish. It emits a purple liquid, having a nauseous odor, when irritated."

Mitra Episcopalis (Lamarck)

"The Episcopal Miter, from the Indian ocean is white, ornamented with square spots of a fine red, and…

"The Papal Miter has dentiform folds around the opening, which also crown each turn of the spiral. It emits a purple liquid, having a nauseous odor, when irritated."

Mitra Papalis (Lamarck)

"The Papal Miter has dentiform folds around the opening, which also crown each turn of the spiral. It…

Bivalves are molluscs belonging to the class Bivalvia. They have two-part shells, and typically both valves are symmetrical along the hinge line. The class has 30,000 species, including scallops, clams, oysters and mussels. Other names for the class include Bivalva, Pelecypoda, and Lamellibranchia.

Right Valve of Mollusk

Bivalves are molluscs belonging to the class Bivalvia. They have two-part shells, and typically both…

An illustration of the right valve of a mollusk. Bivalves are molluscs belonging to the class Bivalvia. They have two-part shells, and typically both valves are symmetrical along the hinge line. The class has 30,000 species, including scallops, clams, oysters and mussels. Other names for the class include Bivalva, Pelecypoda, and Lamellibranchia.

Right Valve of Mollusks

An illustration of the right valve of a mollusk. Bivalves are molluscs belonging to the class Bivalvia.…

Many mollusks live upon seaweeds, and the greater number of terrestrial forms are fond of garden vegetables. The food needs to be masticated and the mouth is usually provided with horny jaws, and an additional matricatory apparaus which consists of a kind of tongue with eight to forty thousand minute teeth in our land forms, while in certain marine snails they are beyond computation. With the licking motion of the tongue this rasp tears the food into shreds before it is swallowed. Shown here is a small portion of the radula or tongue-rasp of a snail.

Snail

Many mollusks live upon seaweeds, and the greater number of terrestrial forms are fond of garden vegetables.…

"The genus <em>Murex</em>, or Rock Shells, includes a large number of species, all remarkable for their brilliant colors and somewhat fantastical and varied forms."

Murex Erinaceus (Linnaeus)

"The genus Murex, or Rock Shells, includes a large number of species, all remarkable for their…

"The genus <em>Murex</em>, or Rock Shells, includes a large number of species, all remarkable for their brilliant colors and somewhat fantastical and varied forms."

Murex Haustellum (Linnaeus)

"The genus Murex, or Rock Shells, includes a large number of species, all remarkable for their…

"The genus <em>Murex</em>, or Rock Shells, includes a large number of species, all remarkable for their brilliant colors and somewhat fantastical and varied forms."

Murex Scorpio (Linnaeus)

"The genus Murex, or Rock Shells, includes a large number of species, all remarkable for their…

"The genus <em>Murex</em>, or Rock Shells, includes a large number of species, all remarkable for their brilliant colors and somewhat fantastical and varied forms."

Murex Tenuispina (Lamarck)

"The genus Murex, or Rock Shells, includes a large number of species, all remarkable for their…

"In the last partition of the shell is the animal, covered by its mantle, which lines to walls of the partitions. The mouth of the nautilus is armed with mandibles, fashioned somewhat like a parrot's beak."

Nautilus Pompilius (Linnaeus), showing the interior of the lower cell, to which the animal is fixed.

"In the last partition of the shell is the animal, covered by its mantle, which lines to walls of the…

"Norway Lobsters have the eyes uniform and the two last rings of the thorax movable."

Nephrops Norvegicus

"Norway Lobsters have the eyes uniform and the two last rings of the thorax movable."

"A very ugly-looking creature, which belongs to the <em>Octopodidae</em> family, is the Octopus."

Octopus Brevipes (d'Orbigny)

"A very ugly-looking creature, which belongs to the Octopodidae family, is the Octopus."

"A very ugly-looking creature, which belongs to the <em>Octopodidae</em> family, is the Octopus."

Octopus Horridus (d'Orbigny)

"A very ugly-looking creature, which belongs to the Octopodidae family, is the Octopus."

"A very ugly-looking creature, which belongs to the <em>Octopodidae</em> family, is the Octopus."

Octopus Macropus (Risso)

"A very ugly-looking creature, which belongs to the Octopodidae family, is the Octopus."

"A very ugly-looking creature, which belongs to the <em>Octopodidae</em> family, is the Octopus."

Octopus Vulgaris (Lamarck)

"A very ugly-looking creature, which belongs to the Octopodidae family, is the Octopus."

"The genus <em>Oliva</em> is so named from its resemblance in form to the olive. They are flesh-eaters."

Oliva Erythrostoma (Lamarck)

"The genus Oliva is so named from its resemblance in form to the olive. They are flesh-eaters."

"The genus <em>Oliva</em> is so named from its resemblance in form to the olive. They are flesh-eaters."

Oliva Peruviana (Lamarck)

"The genus Oliva is so named from its resemblance in form to the olive. They are flesh-eaters."

"The genus <em>Oliva</em> is so named from its resemblance in form to the olive. They are flesh-eaters."

Oliva Porphyria (Lamarck)

"The genus Oliva is so named from its resemblance in form to the olive. They are flesh-eaters."

"The Hermit or Soldier Crab is perhaps the oddest and most curious of the Crustaceans." Hermit Crabs seek out a shell to inhabit and will kill a living mollusk to take its home.

Pagurus Bernhardus, In the Shell

"The Hermit or Soldier Crab is perhaps the oddest and most curious of the Crustaceans." Hermit Crabs…

"The Hermit or Soldier Crab is perhaps the oddest and most curious of the Crustaceans." Hermit Crabs seek out a shell to inhabit and will kill a living mollusk to take its home.

Pagurus Bernhardus, Out of the Shell

"The Hermit or Soldier Crab is perhaps the oddest and most curious of the Crustaceans." Hermit Crabs…

"The common crayfish. Crustaceans are nearly all carnivorous. <em>a</em>, left outward root-jaw"

Palinurus Vulgaris

"The common crayfish. Crustaceans are nearly all carnivorous. a, left outward root-jaw"

This creature, belonging to the <em>Octopodidae</em> family, "changes its color under any exertion, so that the animal at rest and in motion are two different beings."

Pinnoctopus Cordiiformis (Q. & G.)

This creature, belonging to the Octopodidae family, "changes its color under any exertion,…

"Among some Crustaceans there is neither thorax, nor abdomen, nor head, but all three form only one mass, often short and squat, as in the Four-horned Spider-crab."

Pisa Tetraodon

"Among some Crustaceans there is neither thorax, nor abdomen, nor head, but all three form only one…

a: external antenna;b: external foot-jaw;c: tail or abdomen.

Portunus Variegatus, male

a: external antenna; b: external foot-jaw; c: tail or abdomen.

This species is known as the Sea-spiders or Scorpion-shells.

Pteroceras Chiragra (Linnaeus)

This species is known as the Sea-spiders or Scorpion-shells.