An aerial view of a German Benedictine Monastery compound. A small town is nestled at the foot of a hill in the background. The monastery includes a ditch surrounding the outer wall, stables, gardens, graveyard, workshops, church, cloister, living quarters, and various other buildings. It is pictured as it would have looked at the end of the Middle Ages.

A German Benedictine Monastery with a Small Town in the Background - Aerial View

An aerial view of a German Benedictine Monastery compound. A small town is nestled at the foot of a…

A monk sits at his desk in a scriptorium with pen in hand, writing in a book. A second book also sits open on his desk, suggesting he is copying, a common practice. A third book sits open on a stand behind him and a fourth sits open on a low stand to his right Several books are on shelves in the background. He wears a cloak and hood. There are two latticed windows on the left.

A Monk at Work in the Scriptorium

A monk sits at his desk in a scriptorium with pen in hand, writing in a book. A second book also sits…

Illustration of Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, during one of several times that he was banished from Alexandria. Roman soldiers on horseback, with spears and shields, chase the bishop away from the city. Christians, including men, women, children, and a crippled man, follow around and in front of the bishop. A man follows just behind Athanasius, carrying the bishop's staff.

Athanasius is Banished from Alexandria

Illustration of Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, during one of several times that he was banished from…

Order of friars, characterized by their dark brown robes and white hooded cloaks.

Carmelite

Order of friars, characterized by their dark brown robes and white hooded cloaks.

A Carthusian monk, known for their extreme asceticism.

Carthusian

A Carthusian monk, known for their extreme asceticism.

The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. Bruno, is a Roman Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics. The order was founded by Saint Bruno of Cologne in 1084 and includes both monks and nuns. The order has its own Rule, called the Statutes, rather than the Rule of St Benedict (as is often erroneously reported) and combines eremitical and cenobitic life.

A Carthusian

The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. Bruno, is a Roman Catholic religious order of enclosed…

A Cistercian, clad in white robe.

Cistercians

A Cistercian, clad in white robe.

This illustration shows one fragment of a French cloister built in the Middle Ages. The architecture is Gothic, with pointed arches and vaulted ceilings, Two monks huddle in the passageway. This cloister looks very similar to the cloister at Mont Saint Michel Abbey, though it is not labeled as such.

A Cloister at a French Monastery from the Middle Ages

This illustration shows one fragment of a French cloister built in the Middle Ages. The architecture…

Cloisters of Heiligenkreuz, a German monastery.

Cloisters

Cloisters of Heiligenkreuz, a German monastery.

A drummer, juggler, and chaplain are entertaining the nobles and at Nursted Court. The kettle drum is carried by an assistant while the drummer played. The chaplain is holding a manuscript for the music played.

Juggler and Drummer Nursted Court

A drummer, juggler, and chaplain are entertaining the nobles and at Nursted Court. The kettle drum is…

Illustration of a monk, riding horseback, surrounded by other Crusaders. Two other monks are in the crowd. A woman kneels at the head of the group and raises her child up to see the soldiers. The monk on horseback holds a cross in his raised hand. Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade in 1095. The goal was to restore Christian access to holy places in and around Jerusalem.

The Crusades being Preached by a Monk on Horseback

Illustration of a monk, riding horseback, surrounded by other Crusaders. Two other monks are in the…

A sculpture representing and commemorating a person, usually in a church.

Effigy

A sculpture representing and commemorating a person, usually in a church.

Illustration of Saint Francis being carried on a pallet by five other clergy members. He is emerging from a wooded area. His right arm is upraised and his arm is around one of his companions. The facade of the Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi can be seen up on a hill in the background.

The Death of Saint Francis of Assisi with the Basilica of Saint Francis in the Background

Illustration of Saint Francis being carried on a pallet by five other clergy members. He is emerging…

"A Frate della Misericordia. MISERICORDIA, the name of a society (of laymen) in Florence, founded in the 13th century, who tend the poor sick, carry victims of accident or disease to the hospitals, and the dead to their burial. Members of all classes of the community, including the highest, are enrolled in this charitable association; and their somber and forbidding costume-- a dark monastic dress, with the cowl pulled down over the face so that the eyes merely peep through little holes." -Hazeltine, 1894

Frate della Misericordia

"A Frate della Misericordia. MISERICORDIA, the name of a society (of laymen) in Florence, founded in…

Friar Roger Bacon and the servant Miles with the brazen head from the play, The Honourable History of Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay by Robert Greene.

Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay

Friar Roger Bacon and the servant Miles with the brazen head from the play, The Honourable History of…

"The Benedictine system enjoined three virtues as essential; solitude, humility, and obedience." — Young, 1901

Cloister of the Lateran

"The Benedictine system enjoined three virtues as essential; solitude, humility, and obedience." —…

Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 - February 18, 1546) was a German monk, theologian, university professor, Father of Protestantism, and church reformer whose ideas influenced the Protestant Reformation and changed the course of Western civilization. Luther's theology challenged the authority of the papacy by holding that the Bible is the only infallible source of religious authority and that all baptized Christians under Jesus are a universal priesthood. According to Luther, salvation is a free gift of God, received only by true repentance and faith in Jesus as the Messiah, a faith given by God and unmediated by the church.

Martin Luther

Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 - February 18, 1546) was a German monk, theologian, university professor,…

A man, probably a monk, illuminating a manuscript. He sits at a large table with easel. The man is barefoot and wearing a robe with a hood.

Man Painting an Illuminated Manuscript

A man, probably a monk, illuminating a manuscript. He sits at a large table with easel. The man is barefoot…

An illustration of a monk giving a poor beggar a bowl of food on the steps of the monastery.

Monastery Gate

An illustration of a monk giving a poor beggar a bowl of food on the steps of the monastery.

Illustration of a monk, displaying an open book. His hood is pointed and appears to be unattached from his habit. His habit includes a robe-like undergarment with a short tunic on top. Crosses appear in a vertical line down the center of the front of the tunic.

A Monk with a Pointed Hood and Crosses on His Habit

Illustration of a monk, displaying an open book. His hood is pointed and appears to be unattached from…

Laprell the rabbit greeting Reynard the Fox who is dressed as a peaceful pilgrim.

Reynard the Fox: Laprell the Rabbit

Laprell the rabbit greeting Reynard the Fox who is dressed as a peaceful pilgrim.

Reynard the Fox talking with his uncle, Martin the ape, telling him that the animals' accusations of his trickery are false.

Reynard the Fox: Martin the Ape

Reynard the Fox talking with his uncle, Martin the ape, telling him that the animals' accusations of…

Reynard the Fox, dressed as a monk, telling the rooster, Chanticleer, that he does not eat animals anymore, right before his hunt on one of the hens.

Reynard the Fox: Tricking Chanticleer

Reynard the Fox, dressed as a monk, telling the rooster, Chanticleer, that he does not eat animals anymore,…