An illustration of the ruins of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.

Chambersburg

An illustration of the ruins of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.

Fort Duquesne (originally called Fort Du Quesne) was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It was destroyed and replaced by Fort Pitt in 1758; over two centuries later, the site formerly occupied by Fort Duquesne is now Point State Park.

Fort Duquesne

Fort Duquesne (originally called Fort Du Quesne) was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the…

"Fossil Plant from Coal Measures of Pennsylvania."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Fossil Plant

"Fossil Plant from Coal Measures of Pennsylvania."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

"Shelling Confederate cavalry across the Potomac River from the heights of Great Falls, by Major West, of Campbell's Pennsylvania Artillery, October 4th, 1861. On Friday, october 4th, 1861, Major West, of Campbell's Pennsylvania Artillery, was ordered to shell a barn, in which there was every reason to conclude a large quantity of Confederate provisions and supplies was stored. The major, therefore, placed a Parrott gun on the heights of Great Falls, and threw a few shells across the Potomac. Several of them fell into the barn, which had the effect of unhousing a number of Confederate cavalry, who rode with all speed for the neighboring woods." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Great Falls

"Shelling Confederate cavalry across the Potomac River from the heights of Great Falls, by Major West,…

"Gallant attack by 150 of the Pennsylvania Bucktails, led by Colonel Kane, upon a portion of General Stonewall Jackson's Confederate Army, stronly posted in the woods, near Harrisonburg, Friday, June 6th, 1862. We illustrate one of the most heroic actions of the war, the attack of the famous Bucktails, under their gallant leader, Colonel Krane, upon a large portion of Stonewall Jackson's army, consisting of infantry, cavalry and artillery. The spot where this deadly conflict took place was about a mile and a half beyond Harrisonburg, on the road to Port Republic, toward which place the Confederates were in full retreat, closely but warily pursued by Generals Fremont and Shields. On Friday, June 6th, Colonel Sir Percy Wyndham, of the First New Jersey Cavalry, having been sent by General Bayard to reconnoitre, was led into an ambuscade, where his regiment was fearfully cut up, and himself wounded and taken prisoner. It will be seen that the humanity of Colonel Krane led him into a similar trap. News of what had occurred was rapidly transmitted to headquarters, and General Bayard was ordered out with fresh cavalry and a battalion of Pennsylvania Bucktails. But the Sixtieth Ohio had already beaten back the bold Confederates. The evening was waxing late; General Fremont did not wish to bring on a general engagement at this hour, and the troops were ordered back. "But do not leave poor Wyndham on the field, and all the wounded," remonstrated brave Colonel Krane of the Bucktails. "Let me at 'em, general, with my Bucktails." "Just forty minutes I'll give you, colonel," said General Bayard, pulling out his watch. "Peep through the woods on our left, see what is in there, and out again when the time is up." In go the 150 at an opening in the pines; they were soon surrounded by a cordon of fire flashing from the muzzles of more than a thousand muskets; but not a sign, nor the shadow of a sign, of yielding. Their fire met the enemy's straight and unyielding as the blade of a matador. Oh for re-enforcements! But none came. The brave Bucktails were forcd to retreat across the fields of waving green, firing as they did so- but not the 150 that went in. The rest lie under the arching dome of the treacherous forest." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Attack at Harrisonburg

"Gallant attack by 150 of the Pennsylvania Bucktails, led by Colonel Kane, upon a portion of General…

"Gallant attack by 150 of the Pennsylvania Bucktails, led by Colonel Kane, upon a portion of General Stonewall Jackson's Confederate Army, stronly posted in the woods, near Harrisonburg, Friday, June 6th, 1862. We illustrate one of the most heroic actions of the war, the attack of the famous Bucktails, under their gallant leader, Colonel Krane, upon a large portion of Stonewall Jackson's army, consisting of infantry, cavalry and artillery. The spot where this deadly conflict took place was about a mile and a half beyond Harrisonburg, on the road to Port Republic, toward which place the Confederates were in full retreat, closely but warily pursued by Generals Fremont and Shields. On Friday, June 6th, Colonel Sir Percy Wyndham, of the First New Jersey Cavalry, having been sent by General Bayard to reconnoitre, was led into an ambuscade, where his regiment was fearfully cut up, and himself wounded and taken prisoner. It will be seen that the humanity of Colonel Krane led him into a similar trap. News of what had occurred was rapidly transmitted to headquarters, and General Bayard was ordered out with fresh cavalry and a battalion of Pennsylvania Bucktails. But the Sixtieth Ohio had already beaten back the bold Confederates. The evening was waxing late; General Fremont did not wish to bring on a general engagement at this hour, and the troops were ordered back. "But do not leave poor Wyndham on the field, and all the wounded," remonstrated brave Colonel Krane of the Bucktails. "Let me at 'em, general, with my Bucktails." "Just forty minutes I'll give you, colonel," said General Bayard, pulling out his watch. "Peep through the woods on our left, see what is in there, and out again when the time is up." In go the 150 at an opening in the pines; they were soon surrounded by a cordon of fire flashing from the muzzles of more than a thousand muskets; but not a sign, nor the shadow of a sign, of yielding. Their fire met the enemy's straight and unyielding as the blade of a matador. Oh for re-enforcements! But none came. The brave Bucktails were forcd to retreat across the fields of waving green, firing as they did so- but not the 150 that went in. The rest lie under the arching dome of the treacherous forest." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Attack at Harrisonburg

"Gallant attack by 150 of the Pennsylvania Bucktails, led by Colonel Kane, upon a portion of General…

"Gallant attack by 150 of the Pennsylvania Bucktails, led by Colonel Kane, upon a portion of General Stonewall Jackson's Confederate Army, stronly posted in the woods, near Harrisonburg, Friday, June 6th, 1862. We illustrate one of the most heroic actions of the war, the attack of the famous Bucktails, under their gallant leader, Colonel Krane, upon a large portion of Stonewall Jackson's army, consisting of infantry, cavalry and artillery. The spot where this deadly conflict took place was about a mile and a half beyond Harrisonburg, on the road to Port Republic, toward which place the Confederates were in full retreat, closely but warily pursued by Generals Fremont and Shields. On Friday, June 6th, Colonel Sir Percy Wyndham, of the First New Jersey Cavalry, having been sent by General Bayard to reconnoitre, was led into an ambuscade, where his regiment was fearfully cut up, and himself wounded and taken prisoner. It will be seen that the humanity of Colonel Krane led him into a similar trap. News of what had occurred was rapidly transmitted to headquarters, and General Bayard was ordered out with fresh cavalry and a battalion of Pennsylvania Bucktails. But the Sixtieth Ohio had already beaten back the bold Confederates. The evening was waxing late; General Fremont did not wish to bring on a general engagement at this hour, and the troops were ordered back. "But do not leave poor Wyndham on the field, and all the wounded," remonstrated brave Colonel Krane of the Bucktails. "Let me at 'em, general, with my Bucktails." "Just forty minutes I'll give you, colonel," said General Bayard, pulling out his watch. "Peep through the woods on our left, see what is in there, and out again when the time is up." In go the 150 at an opening in the pines; they were soon surrounded by a cordon of fire flashing from the muzzles of more than a thousand muskets; but not a sign, nor the shadow of a sign, of yielding. Their fire met the enemy's straight and unyielding as the blade of a matador. Oh for re-enforcements! But none came. The brave Bucktails were forcd to retreat across the fields of waving green, firing as they did so- but not the 150 that went in. The rest lie under the arching dome of the treacherous forest." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Attack at Harrisonburg

"Gallant attack by 150 of the Pennsylvania Bucktails, led by Colonel Kane, upon a portion of General…

"Gallant attack by 150 of the Pennsylvania Bucktails, led by Colonel Kane, upon a portion of General Stonewall Jackson's Confederate Army, stronly posted in the woods, near Harrisonburg, Friday, June 6th, 1862. We illustrate one of the most heroic actions of the war, the attack of the famous Bucktails, under their gallant leader, Colonel Krane, upon a large portion of Stonewall Jackson's army, consisting of infantry, cavalry and artillery. The spot where this deadly conflict took place was about a mile and a half beyond Harrisonburg, on the road to Port Republic, toward which place the Confederates were in full retreat, closely but warily pursued by Generals Fremont and Shields. On Friday, June 6th, Colonel Sir Percy Wyndham, of the First New Jersey Cavalry, having been sent by General Bayard to reconnoitre, was led into an ambuscade, where his regiment was fearfully cut up, and himself wounded and taken prisoner. It will be seen that the humanity of Colonel Krane led him into a similar trap. News of what had occurred was rapidly transmitted to headquarters, and General Bayard was ordered out with fresh cavalry and a battalion of Pennsylvania Bucktails. But the Sixtieth Ohio had already beaten back the bold Confederates. The evening was waxing late; General Fremont did not wish to bring on a general engagement at this hour, and the troops were ordered back. "But do not leave poor Wyndham on the field, and all the wounded," remonstrated brave Colonel Krane of the Bucktails. "Let me at 'em, general, with my Bucktails." "Just forty minutes I'll give you, colonel," said General Bayard, pulling out his watch. "Peep through the woods on our left, see what is in there, and out again when the time is up." In go the 150 at an opening in the pines; they were soon surrounded by a cordon of fire flashing from the muzzles of more than a thousand muskets; but not a sign, nor the shadow of a sign, of yielding. Their fire met the enemy's straight and unyielding as the blade of a matador. Oh for re-enforcements! But none came. The brave Bucktails were forcd to retreat across the fields of waving green, firing as they did so- but not the 150 that went in. The rest lie under the arching dome of the treacherous forest." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Attack at Harrisonburg

"Gallant attack by 150 of the Pennsylvania Bucktails, led by Colonel Kane, upon a portion of General…

First Governor of Pennsylvania

Thomas Mifflin

First Governor of Pennsylvania

First Governor of Pennsylvania

Thomas Mifflin

First Governor of Pennsylvania

View of Oil City in Pennsylvania.

Oil City

View of Oil City in Pennsylvania.

Color flag of Panama. Divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center.

Flag of Panama, 2009

Color flag of Panama. Divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side)…

Black and white outline flag of Panama. Divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center

Flag of Panama, 2009

Black and white outline flag of Panama. Divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white…

(1644-1718) Founder of Pennsylvania

William Penn

(1644-1718) Founder of Pennsylvania

(1644-1718) Founder of Pennsylvania

William Penn

(1644-1718) Founder of Pennsylvania

"Captain Muller's Battery Company of the Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania Regiment making fascines and gabions for breastworks. Fascines have long been employed in temporary defenses, the word being derived from <em>facis</em>, the Latin for <em>bundle</em>. In fortification, fascines stand for a fagot, a bundle of rods or small sticks of wood, bound at both eds and in the middle, used in raising batteries, in filling ditches and making parapets. Sometimes they are dipped in melted pitch or tar, and made use of to set fire to the enemy's works or lodgments. A gabion in fortification is a hollow cylinder of wickerwork, resembling a basket but having no bottom. This is filled with earth, and so serves to shelter the men from the enemy's fire. During the preparatory work of concentrating and organizing the army in Kentucky opportunities were afforded for perfecting the men in knowledge of this practical part of war and erecting fortifications. Captain Muller, who was in command of the battery attached to Colonel Stambaugh's Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania Regiment, was an accomplished officer, having served with much distinction in the Prussian Army. Our illustration represents the men cutting down the oak saplings, using the trunks, branches and twigs in fastening the gabions, the pointed stakes of which are ranged in a continuous line, forming a complete breastwork." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

77th Pennsylvania Regiment

"Captain Muller's Battery Company of the Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania Regiment making fascines and gabions…

Seal of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1875

Pennsylvania seal

Seal of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1875

Seal of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1876

Pennsylvania seal

Seal of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1876

Seal of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1890

Pennsylvania seal

Seal of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1890

Seal of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1904

Pennsylvania seal

Seal of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1904

Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876.

Philadelphia Exhibition

Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876.

An illustration of the treaty between the Native Americans and William Penn.

William Penn's Treaty with the Native Americans

An illustration of the treaty between the Native Americans and William Penn.