"The shaft A and B is attached to tubes, C. When the crank is turned, centrifugal force in the tubes draws the water up and into the circular trough, D. The water then collects and discharges out at E." —Quackenbos 1859

Centrifugal Pump

"The shaft A and B is attached to tubes, C. When the crank is turned, centrifugal force in the tubes…

"Liquid is drawn up pipe F by pistons C and D. Once the liquid passes through the first set of valves, the pressure of the descending piston forces the liquid up valves I and J into container H and finally out of hose L." —Quackenbos 1859

Fire Engine Pump

"Liquid is drawn up pipe F by pistons C and D. Once the liquid passes through the first set of valves,…

"Liquid is drawn up the pipe through the valve H. Piston G pushes the liquid through pipe, M, and into the chamber, K which builds pressure from condensing air. Tube I leads to a manual release jet." —Quackenbos 1859

Forcing Pump

"Liquid is drawn up the pipe through the valve H. Piston G pushes the liquid through pipe, M, and into…

A mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction

Piston Type Pump

A mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction

"The suction pump uses suction, water pressure and one-way valves to suction water from a well or other source, and to expel water through A." —Hallock 1905

Suction Pump

"The suction pump uses suction, water pressure and one-way valves to suction water from a well or other…

"An apparatus used to determine pressures beyond those that the McLcod gauge can discern." —The Encyclopedia Britannica 1910

Radiometer

"An apparatus used to determine pressures beyond those that the McLcod gauge can discern." —The…

"The action of the siphon illustrates the effect of atmospheric pressure. It is simply a bent tube having unequal branches, open at both ends, and is used to convey a liquid from a higher point to a lower, over an intermediate point higher than either." — Hallock, 1905

Siphon

"The action of the siphon illustrates the effect of atmospheric pressure. It is simply a bent tube having…

"A siphon is used to draw off liquids from a higher elevation to a lower one. The siphon uses the vacuum created by the flowing liquid to continuously draw fresh liquid into the siphon." —Quackenbos 1859

The Siphon

"A siphon is used to draw off liquids from a higher elevation to a lower one. The siphon uses the vacuum…

"Illustration showing various forms of the siphon." —Hallock 1905

Various Siphons

"Illustration showing various forms of the siphon." —Hallock 1905

A stamp mill facilitates the crushing of ore (in this case, gold ore) into very small grains, with many mechanical parts, including: the ore car, to carry ore from the mine to the Mill (a); the trestle, the tunnel from the mine to the mill that the ore car travels through (b); the grizzly (c); the crushing floor (d); the bin for crushed ore (e); the stamp, a vertical iron rod having a cast-iron or steel shoe, which, falling on the mortar block, crushes the ore (f); the mortar (g); and the apron plate (h).

Stamp Mill for Gold Ores (Sectional View)

A stamp mill facilitates the crushing of ore (in this case, gold ore) into very small grains, with many…

"High volumes of steam were pumped into the hollow sphere. The steam would then escape through the many evenly spaced arms around the center of the sphere thus causing the engine to rotate." —Quackenbos 1859

Hero's Steam Engine

"High volumes of steam were pumped into the hollow sphere. The steam would then escape through the many…

Pressure upon an oblique surface. In the image, pressure acts on all sides of the surface equally.

Oblique Surfaces

Pressure upon an oblique surface. In the image, pressure acts on all sides of the surface equally.

This experiment showed that every surface exposed to the atmosphere sustains a normal pressure equal to the weight of a column of mercury whose base is this surface and whose height is 30 inches.

Torricellian Experiment

This experiment showed that every surface exposed to the atmosphere sustains a normal pressure equal…

"U-tube used in pressure experiments." -Avery 1895

U-tube

"U-tube used in pressure experiments." -Avery 1895

"U-tube used in pressure experiments." -Avery 1895

Double U-tube

"U-tube used in pressure experiments." -Avery 1895

The valve closet has a valve or flap at the exit of the bowl with a water-tight seal to retain a pool of water in the pan. When the toilet is flushed, the valve is opened and the water in the pan flows rapidly out of the bowl into the drains, carrying the waste with it.

Water Valve Closet

The valve closet has a valve or flap at the exit of the bowl with a water-tight seal to retain a pool…

This valve is a tool which is able to regulate the flow of either liquids or gases. Works by either opening, closing, or semi obstructing the current passageway of substance.

Faucet Valve

This valve is a tool which is able to regulate the flow of either liquids or gases. Works by either…

An automatic valve used to relief pressure.

Pop Valve

An automatic valve used to relief pressure.

An automatic valve used to relief pressure.

Pop Valve

An automatic valve used to relief pressure.

"Suppose we have a pipe A B laid in a horizontal position so that the centre line is exactly at the same level all along the pope, and differences of level may be neglected. Let water be delivered b this pipe at a steady from a reservoir provided with a constant supply which keeps the free surface level always the same.  If the pipe A B is of uniform sectional area throughout, and is at all points offers a uniform frictional resistance to the flow of the water, the pressure will gradually become less at points along it more and more distanct from the reservoir. This is no lonfer the case when the pipe is larger at one place than another, as shown in the [figure]." (Britannica, 1891)

Water Flow in Pipes

"Suppose we have a pipe A B laid in a horizontal position so that the centre line is exactly at the…

"When any liquid is placed in one or more of several vessels communicating with each other, it will not come to rest until it stands at the same height inall of thw vessels. This principle is emobodied in the familiar expression 'Water seeks its level.' the principle is illustrated, on a large scale, in the system of pipes by which water is distributed in cities." -Avery 1895

Water Level in Multiple Connected Vessels

"When any liquid is placed in one or more of several vessels communicating with each other, it will…

"Suppose the cistern a to be capable of holding one hundred gallons, and into its bottom there be fitted the tube b, bent, as seen in the figure, and capable of containing one gallon. The top of the cistern, and that of the tube, being open, pour water into the tube at c, and it will rise up through the perpendicular bend into the cistern, and if the process be continued, the cistern will be filled by pouring water into the tube. Now it is plain, that the gallon of water in the tube presses against the hundred gallons in the cistern, with a force equal to the pressure of the hundred gallons, otherwise, that in the tube would be forced upwards higher than that in the cistern, whereas, we find that the surfaces of both stand exactly at the same height." —Comstock, 1850

Water Pressure

"Suppose the cistern a to be capable of holding one hundred gallons, and into its bottom there be fitted…

"Suppose a number of vessels, of different shapes and sizes to have a communication between them, by means of a small tube, passing from the one to the other. If, now, one of these vessels be filled with water, or if water be poured into the tube A, all the other vessels will be filled at the same instant, up to the line B C. Therefore, the pressure of the water A, balances that in 1, 2, 3, while the pressure in each of these vessels is equal to that in the other, and so an equilibrium is produced throughout the whole series." —Comstock, 1850

Water Pressure

"Suppose a number of vessels, of different shapes and sizes to have a communication between them, by…

"Therefore, the small quantity in the spout balances the large quantity in the pot, or presses with the same force downwards, as that in the body of the pot presses upwards." -Comstock 1850

Water Pressure

"Therefore, the small quantity in the spout balances the large quantity in the pot, or presses with…

"If a vessel be filled with water, and three apertures be made in its sie at E F G, the fluid will be thrown out in jets, falling to the earth in the curved lines shown." -Comstock 1850

Water Velocity and Gravity

"If a vessel be filled with water, and three apertures be made in its sie at E F G, the fluid will be…

"As the mercury rises and lowers in the barometer, the float F turns the index, I. Index I points to the correct reading on the graduated scale S." —Quackenbos 1859

Wheel Barometer

"As the mercury rises and lowers in the barometer, the float F turns the index, I. Index I points to…