"This image gives a good idea of how these drawf trees are to be manipulated, a showing the first year's development from the maiden tree after being headed back, and b the form assumed a year or two later." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Dwarf-Tree Pruning

"This image gives a good idea of how these drawf trees are to be manipulated, a showing the first year's…

"Training en quenouille." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

En Quenouille

"Training en quenouille." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Fan Training." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fan Training

"Fan Training." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Pruning for a Fan-Shaped Tree." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fan-Shaped Pruning

"Pruning for a Fan-Shaped Tree." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Pruning for a Fan-Shaped Tree, Third Year." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fan-Shaped Pruning

"Pruning for a Fan-Shaped Tree, Third Year." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Pruning for a Fan-Shaped Tree, Fourth Year." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fan-Shaped Pruning

"Pruning for a Fan-Shaped Tree, Fourth Year." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Pruning for Horizontally-Trained Tree." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Horizontal Shaped Pruning

"Pruning for Horizontally-Trained Tree." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Pruning for Horizontally-Trained Tree, Third Year." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Horizontal Shaped Pruning

"Pruning for Horizontally-Trained Tree, Third Year." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Pruning for Horizontally-Trained Tree, Fifth Year." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Horizontal Shaped Pruning

"Pruning for Horizontally-Trained Tree, Fifth Year." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Horizontal Training." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Horizontal Training

"Horizontal Training." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Forms of Horizontal Training." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Horizontal Training

"Forms of Horizontal Training." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Modified Fan Training." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Modified Fan Training

"Modified Fan Training." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"By the time [olive trees] are well grown the form of the young tree is established, and further pruning for form may be done in a general manner to obtain the following results: (1) Maintenance of a comparatively open center to the tree; (2) exposure to the sun and air as large a number as possible of last year's branches around the circumference of the tree; (3) removal of all ground suckers and water sprouts; (4) preservation of outward-growing and drooping basal and lateral fruit branches; (5) heading back of upward-growing limbs, which consume much, but produce little; and, (6) the removal of all diseased or injured wood. In pruning for form the rules governing pruning for fruit should be kept in mind."—Government Printing Office, 1897

An Olive Tree

"By the time [olive trees] are well grown the form of the young tree is established, and further pruning…

A mostly pruned peach trees. Saplings pruned such as this will grow back largest.

Completely pruned peach tree

A mostly pruned peach trees. Saplings pruned such as this will grow back largest.

A mostly pruned peach tree.

Mostly pruned peach tree

A mostly pruned peach tree.

A slightly pruned peach tree.

Slightly pruned peach tree

A slightly pruned peach tree.

Unpruned peach tree.

Unpruned peach tree

Unpruned peach tree.

"Some plants, like pelargoniums, can only be kept handsomely formed and well furnished by cutting them down severely every season, after the blooming is over. The plants should be prepared for this by keeping them rather dry at the root, and after cutting they must stand with little or no water till the stems heal over, and produce yound shoots, or "break," as it is technically termed." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pelargoniums

"Some plants, like pelargoniums, can only be kept handsomely formed and well furnished by cutting them…

"This pruning or shortening of the roots causes the production of a new set of fibres from the severed ends. It also causes other roots to push out near the crown, and if a plant thus pruned be taken up in a few weeks after planting, its roots will appear somewhat as shown." —Fuller, 1910

Plant with roots pruned

"This pruning or shortening of the roots causes the production of a new set of fibres from the severed…

"If the plants are too tall or spindling, and you wish to have them dwarf and bushy, cut off the crown or center stalk as low as you wish to have the plant. This will force the plant to start or send out new branches from the sides of the old stalk."—Heinrich, 1887

When to Prune

"If the plants are too tall or spindling, and you wish to have them dwarf and bushy, cut off the crown…

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees, than at first signt may appear. The branches should be separated by a clean cut at an angle of abouot 45 degrees, just at the back of a bud, the cut entering on a level with the base of the bud and passing out on a level with its top, for when cut in this way the wound becomes rapidly covered with new wood, as soon as growth recommences, whereas if the cut is too close the bud is starved, or if less close an ugly and awkward snag is left." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pruning

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees,…

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees, than at first signt may appear. The branches should be separated by a clean cut at an angle of abouot 45 degrees, just at the back of a bud, the cut entering on a level with the base of the bud and passing out on a level with its top, for when cut in this way the wound becomes rapidly covered with new wood, as soon as growth recommences, whereas if the cut is too close the bud is starved, or if less close an ugly and awkward snag is left." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pruning

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees,…

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees, than at first signt may appear. The branches should be separated by a clean cut at an angle of abouot 45 degrees, just at the back of a bud, the cut entering on a level with the base of the bud and passing out on a level with its top, for when cut in this way the wound becomes rapidly covered with new wood, as soon as growth recommences, whereas if the cut is too close the bud is starved, or if less close an ugly and awkward snag is left." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pruning

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees,…

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees, than at first signt may appear. The branches should be separated by a clean cut at an angle of abouot 45 degrees, just at the back of a bud, the cut entering on a level with the base of the bud and passing out on a level with its top, for when cut in this way the wound becomes rapidly covered with new wood, as soon as growth recommences, whereas if the cut is too close the bud is starved, or if less close an ugly and awkward snag is left." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pruning

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees,…

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees, than at first signt may appear. The branches should be separated by a clean cut at an angle of abouot 45 degrees, just at the back of a bud, the cut entering on a level with the base of the bud and passing out on a level with its top, for when cut in this way the wound becomes rapidly covered with new wood, as soon as growth recommences, whereas if the cut is too close the bud is starved, or if less close an ugly and awkward snag is left." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pruning

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees,…

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees, than at first signt may appear. The branches should be separated by a clean cut at an angle of abouot 45 degrees, just at the back of a bud, the cut entering on a level with the base of the bud and passing out on a level with its top, for when cut in this way the wound becomes rapidly covered with new wood, as soon as growth recommences, whereas if the cut is too close the bud is starved, or if less close an ugly and awkward snag is left." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pruning

"The nature of the cut itself in pruning is of more consequence, especially in the case of fruit trees,…

The florist and gardener use scissors with a curved blade for pruning, and a delicate pair for gathering flowers, and large shears, called pruning shears, for trimming hedge plants.

Pruning Shears

The florist and gardener use scissors with a curved blade for pruning, and a delicate pair for gathering…

"a shows a young tree with its second year's growth, the upright shoot of the maiden tree having been moderately headed back, being left longer if the buds near the base promise to break freely, or cut shorter if they are weak and wanting in vigour. The winter pruning, carried out with the view to shape the tree into a well-grown pyramid, would be effected at the places marked by a cross line." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pyramid Pruning

"a shows a young tree with its second year's growth, the upright shoot of the maiden tree having been…

"Pyramidal Training." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pyramidal Training

"Pyramidal Training." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

A pair of pruning shears used for larger plants.

Pruning Shears

A pair of pruning shears used for larger plants.

"Summer Pruning should be performed while the shoots are yet young and succulent, so that they may be in most cases be nipped off with the thumb-nail. It is very necessary in the case of trees trained to a flat surface, as a wall or espalier rail, to prevent undue crowding. In some cases, as, for example, with peaches, the superfluous shoots are wholly removed, and certain selected shoots reserved to supply bearing wood for the next year." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Summer Pruning

"Summer Pruning should be performed while the shoots are yet young and succulent, so that they may be…

"Summer Pruning should be performed while the shoots are yet young and succulent, so that they may be in most cases be nipped off with the thumb-nail. It is very necessary in the case of trees trained to a flat surface, as a wall or espalier rail, to prevent undue crowding. In some cases, as, for example, with peaches, the superfluous shoots are wholly removed, and certain selected shoots reserved to supply bearing wood for the next year." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Summer Pruning

"Summer Pruning should be performed while the shoots are yet young and succulent, so that they may be…

a top, or spinning top, is a toy that can be spun on an axis, balancing on a point. This motion is produced by holding the axis firmly while pulling a string. An internal weight then rotates, producing an overall circular motion.

Spinning Top

a top, or spinning top, is a toy that can be spun on an axis, balancing on a point. This motion is produced…

A slender tree, in need of pruning.

Tree

A slender tree, in need of pruning.

A horizontally trained tree

Horizontally Trained Tree

A horizontally trained tree

The fifth year of pruning a horizontally trained tree.

Pruned Tree

The fifth year of pruning a horizontally trained tree.

An image depicting a pruned vine that was trained according to the umbrella system. This system is also called the two-cane Kniffin.

Pruned System According to the Umbrella System

An image depicting a pruned vine that was trained according to the umbrella system. This system is also…

"Represents the <em>falx vinitoria</em>, or pruning-knife for vines, to which the <em>ensis falcatus</em> have a close resemblence." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Falx vinitoria

"Represents the falx vinitoria, or pruning-knife for vines, to which the ensis falcatus