An illustration of a man sitting on a rock.

Man Sitting on Rock

An illustration of a man sitting on a rock.

An illustration of a man standing on a rock preaching.

Man Standing on Rock

An illustration of a man standing on a rock preaching.

Two men with hammers and a pile of rocks.

Men at work

Two men with hammers and a pile of rocks.

"When rock is reached, a curb or crib of either wood or iron is inserted."—Finley, 1917

Mining crib

"When rock is reached, a curb or crib of either wood or iron is inserted."—Finley, 1917

"Rupture of a Mountain.—There is no doubt, but in the operations of nature, great effects are sometimes produced among mountains, by a small quantity of water finding its way to a reservoir in the crevices of the rocks far beneath. Suppose, in the interior of a mountain, there should be a space of ten yards square, and an inch deep, filled with water, and closed up on all sides; and suppose that, in the course of time, a small fissure, no more than an inch in diameter, should be openeing by the water, from the height of two hundred feet above, down to this little reservoir. The consequence might be, that the side of the mountain would burst asunder, for the pressure, under the circumstances supposed, would be equal to the weight of five thousand tons." —Comstock, 1850

Mountain Rupture

"Rupture of a Mountain.—There is no doubt, but in the operations of nature, great effects are…

"The second class, those cut in the rock, have either sculptured facades, or a kind of frame standing out from the rock." —D'Anvers, 1895

Tomb at Myra

"The second class, those cut in the rock, have either sculptured facades, or a kind of frame standing…

An osprey, perched on a rock with a freshly caught fish pinned under one foot.

Osprey

An osprey, perched on a rock with a freshly caught fish pinned under one foot.

Diagram illustrating width of outcrop AB of the bed, the thickness of which is AC; its depth at X is measured by the length of XY.

Width of Outcrop

Diagram illustrating width of outcrop AB of the bed, the thickness of which is AC; its depth at X is…

Well-rounded quartz grains from ancient eolian rock, enlarged by secondary addition of silica in optical continuity with the old quartz.

Quartz Grains

Well-rounded quartz grains from ancient eolian rock, enlarged by secondary addition of silica in optical…

Rock in the water.

Rock

Rock in the water.

Arched rock is a natural limestone arch formed during the Nipissing post-glacial period, a period of high Lake Huron levels following the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Arch Rock stands on the Lake Huron shoreline 146 feet above the water.

Arched Rock

Arched rock is a natural limestone arch formed during the Nipissing post-glacial period, a period of…

Sugar Loaf is a 75-foot-high landlocked rock or stack in the interior of Mackinac Island in Lake Huron. Created by erosion during the period of postglacial Lake Algonquin, Sugar Loaf is the largest post-glacial erosion feature in the Straits of Mackinac.

Sugar Loaf Rock

Sugar Loaf is a 75-foot-high landlocked rock or stack in the interior of Mackinac Island in Lake Huron.…

"A genus of exogenous plants, which gives its name to the natural order Cistaceae; an order allied to Cruciferae and Capparideae, and containing about 200 known species of shrubs and herbaceous plants, chiefly natives of the south of Europe and north of Africa." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Rock-Rose

"A genus of exogenous plants, which gives its name to the natural order Cistaceae; an order allied to…

Diagram showing the interrelations of the Endogenetic rocks.

Endogenetic Rocks

Diagram showing the interrelations of the Endogenetic rocks.

A rose cut is a cut of gemstone. In this cut, the upper surface is shaped into triangular facets of nearly equal size throughout.

Rose Cut

A rose cut is a cut of gemstone. In this cut, the upper surface is shaped into triangular facets of…

A piece of rock in which slaty cleavage has been developed, as shown by the fine lines; the coarser bands represent the original bedding planes, now compressed and contorted.

Slaty Cleavage

A piece of rock in which slaty cleavage has been developed, as shown by the fine lines; the coarser…

A split cut is a cut of gemstone. It is similar to a trap cut.

Split Cut

A split cut is a cut of gemstone. It is similar to a trap cut.

Three pictures of early stone implements during the Mousterian age.

Mousterian Age stone implements

Three pictures of early stone implements during the Mousterian age.

Early stone implements use by true men during the Reindeer age. These stones include scrapers and points.

Reindeer Age Stone Implements

Early stone implements use by true men during the Reindeer age. These stones include scrapers and points.

Three views of a rostro-carinate (earliest period) Paleolithic stone implement. All roughly drawn to scale.

Paleolithic Stone

Three views of a rostro-carinate (earliest period) Paleolithic stone implement. All roughly drawn to…

"In some places a series of strata A, having a certain dip, rest directly upon the eroded surface of another series, having the same dip." — Hinman, 1888

Uncomformable strata

"In some places a series of strata A, having a certain dip, rest directly upon the eroded surface of…

The different layers or strata are shown by the shadling's. Stratified rocks are the most common of rock's found near the earth's surface. Stratified rocks are largely composed of fragments of older rocks; for this reason they are sometimes called <em>fragmental</em> rocks.

Stratified Rock

The different layers or strata are shown by the shadling's. Stratified rocks are the most common of…

Two of the interlocking prisms or stylolites, showing the striated sides produced by friction during the process of interpenetration.

Stylolites

Two of the interlocking prisms or stylolites, showing the striated sides produced by friction during…

Eroded fold, symmetrical anticline, from the axis of which the higher beds have been eroded down to a harder stratum.

Symmetrical Anticline

Eroded fold, symmetrical anticline, from the axis of which the higher beds have been eroded down to…

"Rock-cut temple at Ipsambul, on the Nile." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Egyptian temple

"Rock-cut temple at Ipsambul, on the Nile." —D'Anvers, 1895

Inhabiting the higher reaches of Southern Europe, the rock thrush descends to lower altitudes during the winter.

Rock Thrush

Inhabiting the higher reaches of Southern Europe, the rock thrush descends to lower altitudes during…

Trachyte is an igneous, volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture.

Trachyte-phonolite

Trachyte is an igneous, volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture.

A Trap Cut is a cut of gemstone. Emeralds are commonly cut this way.

Trap Cut

A Trap Cut is a cut of gemstone. Emeralds are commonly cut this way.

The turnstone is found along coasts. It gets its name from its habit of flipping over small stones, searching for insects or small crustaceans to eat.

Turnstone

The turnstone is found along coasts. It gets its name from its habit of flipping over small stones,…

"The internal structure of many cones has been laid bare by prolonged erosion after the volcano has become extinct." — Hinman, 1888

Section of a volcano

"The internal structure of many cones has been laid bare by prolonged erosion after the volcano has…

The Seal of the State of West Virginia. This seal depicts two men representing agriculture and industry standing on the sides of a boulder inscribed with the date West Virginia became a state, June 20, 1863. The state motto is below reading 'Montani Semper Liberi' meaning "Mountaineers Always Free."

Seal of West Virginia

The Seal of the State of West Virginia. This seal depicts two men representing agriculture and industry…

In masonry, is a term applied where surface of a wall shows groves between the different courses of stones, thus giving the appearance of open joints. There are many varieties of it.

Rustic Work Depictions

In masonry, is a term applied where surface of a wall shows groves between the different courses of…

A cartoon of a young boy sitting on rocks next to a cow.

Young Boy and a Cow

A cartoon of a young boy sitting on rocks next to a cow.