The bust of Gaius Iulius Caesar.

Gaius Iulius Caesar

The bust of Gaius Iulius Caesar.

Bust of Gaius Iulius Caesar.

Gaius Iulius Caesar

Bust of Gaius Iulius Caesar.

Julius Caeser, Roman emperor.

Julius Caesar

Julius Caeser, Roman emperor.

Roman political leader, Julius Caesar.

Julius Caesar

Roman political leader, Julius Caesar.

An image depicting Julius Caesar, a Roman general and statesman. He was a key component to the shift of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. He emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world in 49 BC.

Julius Caesar

An image depicting Julius Caesar, a Roman general and statesman. He was a key component to the shift…

Roman emperor.

Caligula

Roman emperor.

"The Gonzaga Cameo. Ptolemy I. and Eurydice. Roman. In the St. Petersburg Museum." —D'Anvers, 1895

Gonzaga Cameo

"The Gonzaga Cameo. Ptolemy I. and Eurydice. Roman. In the St. Petersburg Museum." —D'Anvers,…

"S. Sominic's Orange Tree, with Campanile of S. Alessio." — Young, 1901

Campanile

"S. Sominic's Orange Tree, with Campanile of S. Alessio." — Young, 1901

"Campanile and Facade of SS Giovanni E Paolo." — Young, 1901

Campanile

"Campanile and Facade of SS Giovanni E Paolo." — Young, 1901

"Candelabrum in S. Paolo Fuori." — Young, 1901

Candelabrum

"Candelabrum in S. Paolo Fuori." — Young, 1901

The Roman candelabrum base is encircled with leaves and lion's claws as feet.

Roman Candelabrum Base

The Roman candelabrum base is encircled with leaves and lion's claws as feet.

The Renaissance candelabrum capital is made out of marble and terminates with a plate or table on top. It is intended for candles.

Renaissance Candelabrum Capital

The Renaissance candelabrum capital is made out of marble and terminates with a plate or table on top.…

The Roman candelabrum capital is made out of marble and terminates with a plate or table on top.

Roman Candelabrum Capital

The Roman candelabrum capital is made out of marble and terminates with a plate or table on top.

The Roman candelabrum shaft is a design made out of marble. It is richly decorated with foliage and human figures.

Roman Candelabrum Shaft

The Roman candelabrum shaft is a design made out of marble. It is richly decorated with foliage and…

The Roman candelabrum shaft is a design made out of marble. It is richly decorated with foliage and human figures.

Roman Candelabrum Shaft

The Roman candelabrum shaft is a design made out of marble. It is richly decorated with foliage and…

"The Composite or Roman order was the outcome of the attempt to improve the Corinthian, of which it was in fact a somewhat free version." —D'Anvers, 1895

Composite capital

"The Composite or Roman order was the outcome of the attempt to improve the Corinthian, of which it…

The Roman composite capital is a fusion of the ionic and corinthian capitals.

Roman Composite Capital

The Roman composite capital is a fusion of the ionic and corinthian capitals.

The Roman Corinthian capital is found in the palaces of the emperors in Rome. It is a design of spiral curves that rise from the rows of leaves and unite in pairs. The center of each sides of the abacus is decorated with palmettes or rosettes.

Roman Corinthian Capital

The Roman Corinthian capital is found in the palaces of the emperors in Rome. It is a design of spiral…

"The favorite order was the richly-decorated Corinthian, the beauty of which the Romans strove to increase by adding to it a fulness and strength such as the Greeks never succeeded in attaining." —D'Anvers, 1895

Roman-Corinthian Capital

"The favorite order was the richly-decorated Corinthian, the beauty of which the Romans strove to increase…

An illustration of a Romanesque capitals from the cloister of Monreale near Palermo, Sicily. In several traditions of architecture including Classical architecture, the capital (from the Latin caput, 'head') forms the crowning member of a column or a pilaster. The capital projects on each side as it rises, in order to support the abacus and unite the form of the latter (normally square) with the circular shaft of the column.

Romanesque Capitals

An illustration of a Romanesque capitals from the cloister of Monreale near Palermo, Sicily. In several…

The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. By the 16th century, Capitolinus had become Campidoglio in the Roman dialect. The English word capitol derives from Capitoline. The Capitoline contains few ancient ground-level ruins, as they are almost entirely covered up by Medieval and Renaissance palaces (now housing the Capitoline Museums) that surround a piazza, a significant urban plan designed by Michelangelo.

Capitoline Hill in Rome

The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. By…

Caracalla is remembered as one of the most notorious emperors of Rome.

Caracalla

Caracalla is remembered as one of the most notorious emperors of Rome.

Caracalla (April 4, 188 – April 8, 217. Caracallus ), born Lucius Septimius Bassianus and later called Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus, was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Roman Emperor from 211 to 217. He was one of the most nefarious of Roman emperors.

Bust of Caracalla

Caracalla (April 4, 188 – April 8, 217. Caracallus ), born Lucius Septimius Bassianus and later called…

Coin of Piso with bust on front and bird on back. Front.

Coin of Cassius

Coin of Piso with bust on front and bird on back. Front.

Coin of Piso with bust on front and bird on back. Back.

Coin of Cassius

Coin of Piso with bust on front and bird on back. Back.

Roman catapulta war machine.

Catapulta

Roman catapulta war machine.

Charging cavalryman pictured trampling an enemy soldier and holding a spear in the Gallic War.

Cavalryman Charging

Charging cavalryman pictured trampling an enemy soldier and holding a spear in the Gallic War.

Cavalryman pictured on rearing horse with Vexillum.

Cavalryman with Vexillum

Cavalryman pictured on rearing horse with Vexillum.

A Centurio was a low-to-middle ranking officer in charge of a "century", ideally 100 men but ranging higher and lower than that number.

Roman Centurio

A Centurio was a low-to-middle ranking officer in charge of a "century", ideally 100 men but ranging…

"The cestus was used by boxers from the earliest times. It consisted of thongs of raw ox-hide, or of leather, tied round the hands of pugilists, in order to render their blows more powerful. Sometimes these bands were tied round the arms as high as the elbow." — Anthon, 1891

Boxer with cestus

"The cestus was used by boxers from the earliest times. It consisted of thongs of raw ox-hide, or of…

A section of chain mail from a suit of chain mail armor, lorica hamata.

Chain Mail

A section of chain mail from a suit of chain mail armor, lorica hamata.

The Antique chair included a statue of Jupiter on the chair.

Antique Chair

The Antique chair included a statue of Jupiter on the chair.

The Antique Pompeian chair included a cushion and a foot-stool.

Antique Pompeian Chair

The Antique Pompeian chair included a cushion and a foot-stool.

A Roman chariot.

Chariot

A Roman chariot.

"The chariot was discovered in 1903 in an Ertuscan cemetery near Rome. It dates from perhaps 600 B.C. Almost every part of the vehicle is covered with thin plates of bronze, elaborately decorated. The wheels are only two feet in diameter. Since the chariot is too small and delicate for use in warfare, we may believe it to have been intended for ceremonial purposes only."—Webster, 1913

A Graeco-Ertuscan Chariot

"The chariot was discovered in 1903 in an Ertuscan cemetery near Rome. It dates from perhaps 600 B.C.…

The Roman Chimaera is found in the Vatican.

Roman Chimaera

The Roman Chimaera is found in the Vatican.

"More particularly was the new sect of Christians selected as the objects of vengeance. These people had already gained the intense dislike of Rome. The austerity of their manners, the severe tenets of their faith so opposed to the license of paganism, their customs and laws so antagonistic to the usages of the state, all combined to render them odious to the commonwealth."—Ridpath, 1885

Christians Given to the Lions in the Roman Amphitheater

"More particularly was the new sect of Christians selected as the objects of vengeance. These people…

(106BC-43) Roman orator, statesman and man of letters

Cicero

(106BC-43) Roman orator, statesman and man of letters

(106 - 43 B.C.) Roman orator, statesman and man of letters

Marcus Tullius Cicero

(106 - 43 B.C.) Roman orator, statesman and man of letters

Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, statesman, and lawyer.

Marcus Tullius Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, statesman, and lawyer.

"Chariot-racing was a favorite amusement, and the great circuses were arranged especially for such contests. The space was broad enough to accommodate three of four chariots side by side, each with four horses abreast."—Ridpath, 1885

Circus Maximus

"Chariot-racing was a favorite amusement, and the great circuses were arranged especially for such contests.…

An illustration of a Roman cithara.

Roman Cithara

An illustration of a Roman cithara.

A Roman clipeus.

Roman clipeus

A Roman clipeus.

"The following cut represents a Roman clypeus, from the column of Trajan. The projection in the centre was called the <em>umbo</em>, or boss, and sometimes a spike or other prominent excrescence, was placed upon this." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Roman clypeus

"The following cut represents a Roman clypeus, from the column of Trajan. The projection in the centre…

Coin of the old Roman Empire.

Ancient Roman coin

Coin of the old Roman Empire.

A Roman coin.

Roman coin

A Roman coin.

Two Carthaginian coins. Front and back of each.

Carthaginian Coins

Two Carthaginian coins. Front and back of each.

"Roman coins showing various styles of hair-dressing."&mdash;Webster, 1913

Roman Coins

"Roman coins showing various styles of hair-dressing."—Webster, 1913

This Roman column is a fragment taken from the Vatican, Rome.

Roman Column

This Roman column is a fragment taken from the Vatican, Rome.

"The columns of <em>cipollino</em>, which belonged to the Palace of Domitian." &mdash; Young, 1901

Columns of Domitian

"The columns of cipollino, which belonged to the Palace of Domitian." — Young, 1901

"Columns of Temple of Castor, Temple of Augustus, and Palatine Hill." &mdash; Young, 1901

Columns of Temple of Castor

"Columns of Temple of Castor, Temple of Augustus, and Palatine Hill." — Young, 1901

This Roman console is shown in the front and side view. It is a design that includes two decorative swans found at the Vatican in Rome, Italy.

Roman Console

This Roman console is shown in the front and side view. It is a design that includes two decorative…

This Roman console is shown in its front and side view. It is found in the Temple of Jupiter Stator in Rome, Italy.

Roman Console

This Roman console is shown in its front and side view. It is found in the Temple of Jupiter Stator…

This Roman console is shown in its front and side view. It is found in the Vatican, Rome, Italy.

Roman Console

This Roman console is shown in its front and side view. It is found in the Vatican, Rome, Italy.

Roman emperor, declared Christianity state religion.

Constantine

Roman emperor, declared Christianity state religion.

Emperor of Rome from 306 to 337. He is best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor.

Constantine the Great

Emperor of Rome from 306 to 337. He is best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor.

"This arch is the most modern and the best preseved of all the buildings which remain of the Imperial period. Probably it owes its preservation to the Christianity of its hero." &mdash; Young, 1901

Arch of Constantine

"This arch is the most modern and the best preseved of all the buildings which remain of the Imperial…

The Arch of Constantine was erected to celebrate Constantine's victory of Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge. It is situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill.

Arch of Constantine

The Arch of Constantine was erected to celebrate Constantine's victory of Maxentius at the Battle of…

In the streets of Constantinople one might find lemonade sands, sweetmeats, coffee, and pipes and at all hours can be seen the native smoking accompanied by no end of dogs.

Life in Constantinople

In the streets of Constantinople one might find lemonade sands, sweetmeats, coffee, and pipes and at…

A Roman Corinthian Column.

Corinthian Column

A Roman Corinthian Column.