Coin of Caesar showing bust on front, ax and amphora on back. Back

Coin of Cæsar

Coin of Caesar showing bust on front, ax and amphora on back. Back

Portrait of Caesar

Caesar

Portrait of Caesar

"All histories of England commence with the invasion of Julius Caesar, the earliest event in that quarter of which we have any authentic account. The Island of Britain was an unknown region to the Romans, and nearly so to the rest of mankind, at the period when Caesar's conquests had reduced the greater part of Gaul to the Roman government. Britain, lying within sight of the northern shores of Gaul, attracted his notice, and he began to meditate schemes of conquest." — Goodrich, 1844

Caesar in England

"All histories of England commence with the invasion of Julius Caesar, the earliest event in that quarter…

The bust of Gaius Iulius Caesar.

Gaius Iulius Caesar

The bust of Gaius Iulius Caesar.

Bust of Gaius Iulius Caesar.

Gaius Iulius Caesar

Bust of Gaius Iulius Caesar.

(100-44 B.C.) Reigned over Rome.

Julius Caesar

(100-44 B.C.) Reigned over Rome.

Julius Caeser, Roman emperor.

Julius Caesar

Julius Caeser, Roman emperor.

Julius Caesar riding on a horse.

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar riding on a horse.

Roman political leader, Julius Caesar.

Julius Caesar

Roman political leader, Julius Caesar.

An image depicting Julius Caesar, a Roman general and statesman. He was a key component to the shift of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. He emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world in 49 BC.

Julius Caesar

An image depicting Julius Caesar, a Roman general and statesman. He was a key component to the shift…

An illustration of Caesar. A politician of the populares tradition, he formed an unofficial triumvirate with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus which dominated Roman politics for several years, opposed in the Roman Senate by optimates like Marcus Porcius Cato and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus. His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world to the Atlantic Ocean, and he also conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC. The collapse of the triumvirate, however, led to a standoff with Pompeii and the Senate. Leading his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he became the undisputed master of the Roman world.

Julius Caesar (profile)

An illustration of Caesar. A politician of the populares tradition, he formed an unofficial triumvirate…

Roman emperor.

Caligula

Roman emperor.

"S. Sominic's Orange Tree, with Campanile of S. Alessio." — Young, 1901

Campanile

"S. Sominic's Orange Tree, with Campanile of S. Alessio." — Young, 1901

"Campanile and Facade of SS Giovanni E Paolo." — Young, 1901

Campanile

"Campanile and Facade of SS Giovanni E Paolo." — Young, 1901

The Capitoline Hill is a Roman hill between the Forum and the Campus Martius. The Cloaca Maxima was one of the world's earliest sewage systems. "The Capitoline and Cloaca Maxima. A restoration." -Allen, 1890

Capitoline and Cloaca Maxima

The Capitoline Hill is a Roman hill between the Forum and the Campus Martius. The Cloaca Maxima was…

The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. By the 16th century, Capitolinus had become Campidoglio in the Roman dialect. The English word capitol derives from Capitoline. The Capitoline contains few ancient ground-level ruins, as they are almost entirely covered up by Medieval and Renaissance palaces (now housing the Capitoline Museums) that surround a piazza, a significant urban plan designed by Michelangelo.

Capitoline Hill in Rome

The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. By…

Caracalla (188-217) was a Roman emperor from 211 to 217 infamous for his cruelty.

Caracalla

Caracalla (188-217) was a Roman emperor from 211 to 217 infamous for his cruelty.

Caracalla is remembered as one of the most notorious emperors of Rome.

Caracalla

Caracalla is remembered as one of the most notorious emperors of Rome.

The ground plan of the baths of Caracalla. The Baths of Caracalla were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between AD 212 and 216, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla.

Baths of Caracalla

The ground plan of the baths of Caracalla. The Baths of Caracalla were Roman public baths, or thermae,…

"Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Caracalla was eldest son of the Emperor Severus, born in Lyons, A.D. 188. On the death of his father he succeeded to the throne with his brother, Antoninus Geta, whom he speedily murdered. Among the buildings of Caracalla in Rome, the baths-Thermæ Caracallæ- near Porta Capena, were most celebrated, and their ruins are still magnificent."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Hall in Baths of Caracalla

"Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Caracalla was eldest son of the Emperor Severus, born in Lyons, A.D. 188.…

The ruins of the baths of Caracalla were roman public baths built in Rome, Italy between AD 212 and 216, during the reign of the emperor Caracalla. At the time the baths included marble seats for bathers, a public library, gymnasiums and restaurants.

Ruins of the Baths of Caracalla

The ruins of the baths of Caracalla were roman public baths built in Rome, Italy between AD 212 and…

The ruins of the baths of Caracalla were roman public baths built in Rome, Italy between AD 212 and 216, during the reign of the emperor Caracalla. At the time the baths included marble seats for bathers, a public library, gymnasiums and restaurants.

Ruins of the Baths of Caracalla

The ruins of the baths of Caracalla were roman public baths built in Rome, Italy between AD 212 and…

Coin of Piso with bust on front and bird on back. Front.

Coin of Cassius

Coin of Piso with bust on front and bird on back. Front.

Coin of Piso with bust on front and bird on back. Back.

Coin of Cassius

Coin of Piso with bust on front and bird on back. Back.

Roman catapulta war machine.

Catapulta

Roman catapulta war machine.

Charging cavalryman pictured trampling an enemy soldier and holding a spear in the Gallic War.

Cavalryman Charging

Charging cavalryman pictured trampling an enemy soldier and holding a spear in the Gallic War.

Cavalryman pictured on rearing horse with Vexillum.

Cavalryman with Vexillum

Cavalryman pictured on rearing horse with Vexillum.

A Centurio was a low-to-middle ranking officer in charge of a "century", ideally 100 men but ranging higher and lower than that number.

Roman Centurio

A Centurio was a low-to-middle ranking officer in charge of a "century", ideally 100 men but ranging…

"The cestus was used by boxers from the earliest times. It consisted of thongs of raw ox-hide, or of leather, tied round the hands of pugilists, in order to render their blows more powerful. Sometimes these bands were tied round the arms as high as the elbow." — Anthon, 1891

Boxer with cestus

"The cestus was used by boxers from the earliest times. It consisted of thongs of raw ox-hide, or of…

A section of chain mail from a suit of chain mail armor, lorica hamata.

Chain Mail

A section of chain mail from a suit of chain mail armor, lorica hamata.

A Roman chariot.

Chariot

A Roman chariot.

"The chariot was discovered in 1903 in an Ertuscan cemetery near Rome. It dates from perhaps 600 B.C. Almost every part of the vehicle is covered with thin plates of bronze, elaborately decorated. The wheels are only two feet in diameter. Since the chariot is too small and delicate for use in warfare, we may believe it to have been intended for ceremonial purposes only."—Webster, 1913

A Graeco-Ertuscan Chariot

"The chariot was discovered in 1903 in an Ertuscan cemetery near Rome. It dates from perhaps 600 B.C.…

The King of the Franks from 768 and the Emperor of the Romans from 800 until his death in 814.

Charlemagne

The King of the Franks from 768 and the Emperor of the Romans from 800 until his death in 814.

"More particularly was the new sect of Christians selected as the objects of vengeance. These people had already gained the intense dislike of Rome. The austerity of their manners, the severe tenets of their faith so opposed to the license of paganism, their customs and laws so antagonistic to the usages of the state, all combined to render them odious to the commonwealth."—Ridpath, 1885

Christians Given to the Lions in the Roman Amphitheater

"More particularly was the new sect of Christians selected as the objects of vengeance. These people…

Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, statesman, and lawyer.

Marcus Tullius Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, statesman, and lawyer.

"Chariot-racing was a favorite amusement, and the great circuses were arranged especially for such contests. The space was broad enough to accommodate three of four chariots side by side, each with four horses abreast."—Ridpath, 1885

Circus Maximus

"Chariot-racing was a favorite amusement, and the great circuses were arranged especially for such contests.…

"Part of the Fircoronian Cista. Third century B.C. Found near Palestrina in 1774. Now in the Museo Kircheriano, Rome." —D'Anvers, 1895

Fircoronian cista

"Part of the Fircoronian Cista. Third century B.C. Found near Palestrina in 1774. Now in the Museo Kircheriano,…

Roman emperor.

Claudius, Tiberius

Roman emperor.

A Roman clipeus.

Roman clipeus

A Roman clipeus.

"The following cut represents a Roman clypeus, from the column of Trajan. The projection in the centre was called the <em>umbo</em>, or boss, and sometimes a spike or other prominent excrescence, was placed upon this." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Roman clypeus

"The following cut represents a Roman clypeus, from the column of Trajan. The projection in the centre…

Coin of the old Roman Empire.

Ancient Roman coin

Coin of the old Roman Empire.

A Roman coin.

Roman coin

A Roman coin.

A Roman coin.

Roman coin

A Roman coin.

Two Carthaginian coins. Front and back of each.

Carthaginian Coins

Two Carthaginian coins. Front and back of each.

"Roman coins showing various styles of hair-dressing."&mdash;Webster, 1913

Roman Coins

"Roman coins showing various styles of hair-dressing."—Webster, 1913

Ruins of the Coliseum in Rome.

Coliseum

Ruins of the Coliseum in Rome.

The details of the reconstructed facade of the Coliseum at Rome.

Coliseum Facade

The details of the reconstructed facade of the Coliseum at Rome.

The Colosseum in Rome.

Colosseum

The Colosseum in Rome.

An illustration of the Roman Colosseum.

Colosseum

An illustration of the Roman Colosseum.

This Roman Colosseum is located in Rome, Italy. It is the largest elliptical amphitheater that was built during the Roman Empire. Its construction was completed in 80 A.D. during the rule of Emperor Titus. The Colosseum was used for Gladiator contests and public spectacles.

Roman Colosseum

This Roman Colosseum is located in Rome, Italy. It is the largest elliptical amphitheater that was built…

The Trajan's column is a monument in honor of Emperor Trajan located in Rome, Italy. The column is a continuous bas-relief design (raised art) that winds up around the capital from the base to the top of the capital. The relief designs depict Emperor Trajan's two victorious wars against the Dacian's.

Trajan's Column

The Trajan's column is a monument in honor of Emperor Trajan located in Rome, Italy. The column is a…

"The columns of <em>cipollino</em>, which belonged to the Palace of Domitian." &mdash; Young, 1901

Columns of Domitian

"The columns of cipollino, which belonged to the Palace of Domitian." — Young, 1901

"Columns of Temple of Castor, Temple of Augustus, and Palatine Hill." &mdash; Young, 1901

Columns of Temple of Castor

"Columns of Temple of Castor, Temple of Augustus, and Palatine Hill." — Young, 1901

This Roman console is shown in the front and side view. It is a design that includes two decorative swans found at the Vatican in Rome, Italy.

Roman Console

This Roman console is shown in the front and side view. It is a design that includes two decorative…

This Roman console is shown in its front and side view. It is found in the Temple of Jupiter Stator in Rome, Italy.

Roman Console

This Roman console is shown in its front and side view. It is found in the Temple of Jupiter Stator…

Roman emperor, declared Christianity state religion.

Constantine

Roman emperor, declared Christianity state religion.

Emperor of Rome from 306 to 337. He is best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor.

Constantine the Great

Emperor of Rome from 306 to 337. He is best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor.

"This arch is the most modern and the best preseved of all the buildings which remain of the Imperial period. Probably it owes its preservation to the Christianity of its hero." &mdash; Young, 1901

Arch of Constantine

"This arch is the most modern and the best preseved of all the buildings which remain of the Imperial…

"The vast Arch of Constantine owes much of its interest to its sculptures having been borrowed from a Trajan monument of earlier date." &mdash;D'Anvers, 1895

Arch of Constantine

"The vast Arch of Constantine owes much of its interest to its sculptures having been borrowed from…

The Arch of Constantine was erected to celebrate Constantine's victory of Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge. It is situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill.

Arch of Constantine

The Arch of Constantine was erected to celebrate Constantine's victory of Maxentius at the Battle of…