"The contours are sketched lightly in pencil and the hachures drawn perpendicular to them, starting at the summit and making heavier strokes for steeper slopes. The rows of strokes should touch the pencil line, to avoid white streaks along the contours." —French, 1911

Shoreline Contour Map Method of Execution

"The contours are sketched lightly in pencil and the hachures drawn perpendicular to them, starting…

A map of a shoreline created by using contour lines creating hills.

Shoreline Contour Map

A map of a shoreline created by using contour lines creating hills.

"The showing of relief by means of hill shading gives a pleasing effect but is very difficult of execution, does not give exact elevations and would not be applied on maps to be used for engineering purposes. They may sometimes be used to advantage in reconnoissance maps, or in small scale maps for illustration." —French, 1911

Shoreline Hill Shading by Hachures Contour Map

"The showing of relief by means of hill shading gives a pleasing effect but is very difficult of execution,…

Large homes fringed by palm trees on a Florida shoreline.

Coastal homes

Large homes fringed by palm trees on a Florida shoreline.

An illustration of a lighthouse in the distance on a rocky shoreline.

Lighthouse

An illustration of a lighthouse in the distance on a rocky shoreline.

A perspective view of the shoreline illustrated by using contour lines.

Perspective View of Shoreline

A perspective view of the shoreline illustrated by using contour lines.