Skull and mandible, lateral view.

Skull and Mandible

Skull and mandible, lateral view.

Median section of the skull and mandible, viewed from the left.

Median Section of the Skull and Mandible

Median section of the skull and mandible, viewed from the left.

The skull at birth, from above.

Skull at Birth from Above

The skull at birth, from above.

The skull at birth, from before.

Skull at Birth from Before

The skull at birth, from before.

The skull at birth, lateral aspect.

Lateral Aspect of Skull at Birth

The skull at birth, lateral aspect.

Base of skull from above.

Base of Skull from Above

Base of skull from above.

Base of skull from below, the lower jaw is removed.

Base of Skull from Below

Base of skull from below, the lower jaw is removed.

The skull from the side.

Skull from Side

The skull from the side.

Base of skull from within.

Base of Skull from Within

Base of skull from within.

"Fig 63 - Skull of a duck (Clangula islandica), nat. size; Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A.   a, premaxillary bone; b, partly ossified internasal septum; b', pervious part of nostril; c, end of premaxillary, perforated form numerous branches of second division of the fifth cranial nerve; d, dentary bone of under mandible; e, groove of nerves, etc.; f, a vacuity between dentary and other pieces of the mandible; g, articular surface; h, recurved "angle of the jaw;" i, occipital protuberance; j, vacuity in supraoccipital bone; k, muscular impression on back of skull; l is over the black ear-cavity; m, post-frontal process; n, quadrate bone; o, pterygoid; p, palatine; q, quadrato-jugal; r, jugal; s, maxillary; t, fronto-parietal dome of the brain-cavity; u; u, the lacrymal bone, immense in a duck, nearly completing rim of the orbit by approaching m; v, vomer; w, supra-orbital depression for the nasal gland; x, cranio-facial hinge; y, optic foramen; z, etc. interorbital vacuities." Elliot Coues, 1884

Duck Skull

"Fig 63 - Skull of a duck (Clangula islandica), nat. size; Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. a, premaxillary…

The skull of a newly born child, from above.

Skull of a Newborn

The skull of a newly born child, from above.

Shown is the base of the skull seen from above. Labels: 1, frontal bone; 2, slit for nasal nerve; 3, anterior ethmoidal foramen; 4, posterior ethmoidal foramen; 5, optic foramen; 6, foramen for internal carotid artery formed by anterior and middle clinoid processes; 7, lesser wing of sphenoid; 8, anterior clinoid process, in this case united on its inner side to the middle clinoid process; 9, posterior clinoid process; 10, foramen ovale; 11, groove for middle meningeal artery; 12, foramen spinosum; 13, Hiatus Fallopii; 14, line of petro-squamosal suture; 15, internal auditory meatus; 16, groove for superior petrosal sinus; 17, groove for sigmoid part of lateral sinus; 18, jugular foramen; 19, anterior condylic foramen; 20, groove for lateral sinus; 21, internal occipital protuberance; 22, ridge for attachment of falx cerebri; 23, fossa for the lodgment of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum; 24, ridge for attachment of the falx cerebelli; 25, fossa for the lodgment of the left cerebellar hemisphere; 26, foramen magnum; 27, groove for the sigmoid sinus turning into the jugular foramen; 28, groove for the inferior petrosal sinus running along the line of the suture between the petrous temporal and the basioccipital; 29, depression for the Gasserian ganglion; 30, middle cranial fossa for lodgment of temporal lobe of cerebrum; 31, foramen lacerum medium; 32, carotid groove; 33, dorsum sellae of sphenoid; 34, leads into foramen rotundum; 35, pituitary fossa; 36, olivary eminence of sphenoid; 37, anterior cranial fossa for lodgment of frontal lobes of cerebrum; 38, cribriform plate of ethmoid; 39, crista galli of ethmoid; 40, foramen caecum; 41, crest for attachment of falx cerebri.

Base of the Skull Seen From Above

Shown is the base of the skull seen from above. Labels: 1, frontal bone; 2, slit for nasal nerve; 3,…

Shown is the inner aspect of the left half of the skull sagittally divided. Labels: 1, suture between parietal and temporal bone; 2, remains of subarcuate fossa; 3, grooves for branches of the middle meningeal artery; 4, dorsum sellae; 5, pituitary fossa; 6, anterior clinoid fossa; 7, optic foramen; 8, sphenoidal suture; 9, nasal surface of superior turbinated bone; 10, cribriform plate of ethmoid; 11, nasal surface of middle turbinated bone; 12, frontal sinus; 13, nasal spine; 14, nasal bone; 15, nasal process of superior maxilla; 16, middle meatus of nose; 17, directed towards opening of antrum; 18, nasal surface of inferior turbinated bone; 19, inferior meatus of nose; 20, anterior nasal spine; 21, anterior palatine canal; 22, palatal process of superior maxilla; 23, palatal process of palate bone; 24, posterior nasal spine; 25, hamular process of internal pterygoid plate; 26, external pterygoid plate; 27, superior meatus of nose; 28,sphenopalatine foramen; 29, pterygospinous ligament almost completely ossified to enclose a foramen; 30, styloid process of temporal bone; 31, alar spine of sphenoid; 32, mastoid process; 33, basion (midpoint of posterior border of foramen magnum); 34, internal auditory meatus; 35, anterior condylic foramen; 36, leading into jugular foramen; 37, opisthion (midpoint of posterior border of foramen magnum); 38, groove for sigmoid sinus; 39, opening of mastoid foramen; 40, for lateral sinus and attachment of tentorium cerebelli; 41, fossa for lodgment of cerebellar hemisphere; 42, internal occipital protuberance.

Skull Seen From Side

Shown is the inner aspect of the left half of the skull sagittally divided. Labels: 1, suture between…

Front section of skull through plane of outer border of orbits. Arrows pass through communication between atrum and middle meatus.

Frontal Section of Skull Showing Nasal Cavity

Front section of skull through plane of outer border of orbits. Arrows pass through communication between…

Inner aspect of outer wall of right nasal fossa.

Side View of Skull Showing Nasal Cavity

Inner aspect of outer wall of right nasal fossa.

Portion of right half of skull, showing posterior wall of sphenomaxillary fossa. The superior maxilla, ethmoid, and part of malar have been removed.

Skull Showing Posterior Wall of Sphenomaxillary Fossa

Portion of right half of skull, showing posterior wall of sphenomaxillary fossa. The superior maxilla,…

Lateral aspect of the skull, showing the various points.

Skull Showing Various Points

Lateral aspect of the skull, showing the various points.

Sutures of the skull. Labels: a,a, the coronal suture, from the Latin corona, crown, so called from its situation on that part of the head, upon which the ancients placed the laurel, or olive crown, given to the victors in their games. It connects the frontal to the parietal bones; b, the sagittal suture, from a Latin word, signifying arrow, from its straight course. It runs from the middle of the frontal to the angle of the occipital bone, connecting the two parietals; c, the lambdoidal suture, extending from the sagittal suture down to the base of the brain on each side; e,e, the scaly overlapping of the temporal upon the parietal bones; hence called squamous suture.

Skull Sutures

Sutures of the skull. Labels: a,a, the coronal suture, from the Latin corona, crown, so called from…

Adult skull, side view.

Adult skull

Adult skull, side view.

Front view of an adult skull.

Adult skull

Front view of an adult skull.

A bottom view of an adult human skull.

Adult skull

A bottom view of an adult human skull.

A top down view of a human skull.

Adult skull

A top down view of a human skull.

"A, Palate process of upper jawbone; B, zygoma, forming zygomatic arch; C, condyle, for forming articulation with atlas; D, foramen magnum; E, occipital bone" — Blaisedell, 1904

Base of skull

"A, Palate process of upper jawbone; B, zygoma, forming zygomatic arch; C, condyle, for forming articulation…

The base of the skull. "The lower jaw has been removed. At the lower part of the figure is the hard palate forming the roof of the mouth and surrounded by the upper set of teeth. Above this are the paired opening of the posterior nares, and a short way above the middle of the figure is the large median foramen magnum, with the bony convexities (or occipital condyles) which articular with the atlas, on its sides. It will be seen that the part of the skull behind the occipital condyles is about equal in size to that in front of them; in an ape the portion in front of the occipital condyles would be much larger than that behind them." —Newell, 1900

Base of the Skull

The base of the skull. "The lower jaw has been removed. At the lower part of the figure is the hard…

The base of the skull. The lower jaw has been removed. At the lower part of the figure is the hard palate forming the roof of the mouth and surrounded by the upper set of teeth

Base of the Skull

The base of the skull. The lower jaw has been removed. At the lower part of the figure is the hard palate…

Base of skull.

Base of Skull

Base of skull.

Shown is norma basalis, which refers to the base of the cranium. Labels: 1, external occipital crest; 2, superior curved line of the occipital bone; 3, foramen magnum; 4, occipital condyle; 5, digastric groove; 6, mastoid process; 7, external auditory meatus; 8, styloid process; 9, glenoid fossa; 10, foramen spinosum; 11, sphenoidal spine; 12, foramen ovale; 13, external pterygoid plate; 14, hamular process of internal pterygoid plate; 15, nasal septum; 16, posterior nasal spine; 17, horizontal plate of palate bone; 18, palatal process of superior maxilla; 19, anterior palatine canal; 20, intermaxillary suture; 21, posterior palatine canal; 22, malar process of superior maxilla; 23, spheno-maxillary fissure; 24, zygomatic fossa; 25, zygomatic arch; 26, posterior openings of left nasal fossa; 27, pterygoid fossa; 28, scaphoid fossa; 29, foramen lacerum medium; 30, opening of osseous Eustachian canal; 31, carotid canal; 32, jugular fossa; 33, stylo-mastoid foramen; 34, jugular process of the occipital bone; 35, groove for occipital artery; 36, mastoid foramen; 37, posterior condylic foramen; 38, inferior curved line of occipital bone; 39, external occipital protuberance.

Base of the Skull

Shown is norma basalis, which refers to the base of the cranium. Labels: 1, external occipital crest;…

Skull of the Beaver.

Beaver Skull

Skull of the Beaver.

The bones of the skull.

The Bones of the Skull

The bones of the skull.

Shown is a coronal section passing inferiorly through interval between between the first and second molar teeth. Labels: 1, groove of superior longitudinal sinus; 2,crest for attachment of falx cerebri; 3, crista galli of ethmoid; 4, cristiform plate of ethmoid; 5, perpendicular plate of ethmoid, assisting in the formation of nasal septum; 6, lateral mass of ethmoid consisting of the ethmoidal cells; 7, os planum of ethmoid; 8, middle meatus of nose; 9, middle turbinated bone; 10, opening from the middle meatus; 11, orbital plate of superior maxilla; 12, frontomalar suture; 13, infraorbital groove; 14, antrum or maxillary sinus; 15, canal for anterior dental nerve and vessels exposed; 16, inferior meatus of nose; 17, alveolar process of the superior maxilla; 18, nasal surface of inferior turbinated bone; 19, groove for anterior palatine nerve and vessels; 20, palatal process of superior maxilla; 21, maxillary crest forming part of nasal septum; 22, vomer forming part of nasal septum.

Coronal Section of Skull

Shown is a coronal section passing inferiorly through interval between between the first and second…

Skull of <em>corvus corone</em>, or carrion crow, showing the brain cavity.

Crow skull

Skull of corvus corone, or carrion crow, showing the brain cavity.

"Showing how the Bones of the Skull may be artificially deformed by "head-binding." From the photograph of a "triangular" skull found in an Indian grave in Ancon, Peru." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Deformed skull

"Showing how the Bones of the Skull may be artificially deformed by "head-binding." From the photograph…

The skull of the Indian Elephant. (i) tusk-like upper incisors; (m) lower jaw, with grinding molars, but without incisors; (n) nostrils, placed at the extremity of the proboscis.

Elephant Skull

The skull of the Indian Elephant. (i) tusk-like upper incisors; (m) lower jaw, with grinding molars,…

Shown is norma frontalis, which refers to the front of the skull. Labels: 1, mental protuberance; 2, body of lower jaw; 3, ramus of lower jaw; 4, anterior nasal spine; 5, canine fossa; 6, infraorbital canal; 7, malar canal; 8 orbital surface of superior maxilla; 9, temporal fossa; 10, os planum of ethmoid; 11, sphenoidal fissure; 12, lachrymal bone and groove; 13, optic foramen; 14, orbital foramina; 15, temporal ridge; 16, supraorbital notch; 17, glabella; 18, frontal eminence; 19, superciliary ridge; 20, parietal bone; 21, front-nasal suture; 22, pterion; 23, great wing of sphenoid; 24, orbital surface of great wing of sphenoid; 25, squamous temporal; 26, left nasal bone; 27, malar bone; 28, sphenomaxillary fissure; 29, zygomatic arch; 30, anterior nasal aperture, displaying nasal septum and inferior and middle turbinated bones; 31, mastoid process; 32, incisor fossa; 33, angle of jaw; 34, mental foramen; 35, symphysis.

Front of the Skull

Shown is norma frontalis, which refers to the front of the skull. Labels: 1, mental protuberance; 2,…

A side view of the howler monkey skull. The monkey have four sharp canines, long teeth on skull, on top and bottom of the jaw.

Side View of Howler Monkey

A side view of the howler monkey skull. The monkey have four sharp canines, long teeth on skull, on…

"A, frontal bone; B, parietal bone; C, temporal bone; D, sphenoid bone; E, malar bone; F, upper jawbone; G, lower jawbone" &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Human skull

"A, frontal bone; B, parietal bone; C, temporal bone; D, sphenoid bone; E, malar bone; F, upper jawbone;…

The skull. Labels: a, nasal bone; b, superior maxillary; c, inferior maxillary; d, occipital; e, temporal; f, parietal; g, frontal bone.

Human Skull

The skull. Labels: a, nasal bone; b, superior maxillary; c, inferior maxillary; d, occipital; e, temporal;…

A side view of the human skull at birth.

Infant skull

A side view of the human skull at birth.

A top down view of the human skull at birth.

Infant skull

A top down view of the human skull at birth.

Skull of langur monkey viewed at the side and bottom view. The eyes of the monkey is surrounded by bone and located at the front of the skull. The lower jaw moves vertically.

Lateral and Lower Views of Langur Monkey Skull

Skull of langur monkey viewed at the side and bottom view. The eyes of the monkey is surrounded by bone…

Lateral view of skull with zygomatic arch removed.

Lateral View of Skull

Lateral view of skull with zygomatic arch removed.

An illustration of the skull of a megalosaurus. Megalosaurus is a genus of large meat-eating theropod dinosaurs of the Middle Jurassic period (Bathonian) of Europe (Southern England, France, Portugal). It is significant as the first genus of dinosaur (outside of birds) to be described and named.

Megalosaurus Skull

An illustration of the skull of a megalosaurus. Megalosaurus is a genus of large meat-eating theropod…

An illustration of an adult male orangutan viewed from the side. The orbit part of the skull is more rounded than humans. The cranium, top part of the skull, and the mouth area are elongated compared to humans.

Adult Male Orangutan Skull Viewed from Side

An illustration of an adult male orangutan viewed from the side. The orbit part of the skull is more…

An illustration of the skull of a rat-kangaroo.

Rat-Kangaroo Skull

An illustration of the skull of a rat-kangaroo.

Shown is norma lateralis, which refers to the side of the skull. Labels: 1, mental foramen; 2, body of lower jaw; 3, superior maxillary; 4, ramus of lower jaw; 5, zygomatic arch; 6, styloid process; 7, external auditory meatus; 8, mastoid process; 9, asterion; 10, superior curved line of occipital bone; 11, external occipital protuberance; 12, lambdoid suture; 13, occipital bone; 14, lambda; 15, obelion placed between the two parietal foramina; 16, parietal bone; 17, lower temporal ridge; 18, upper temporal ridge; 19, squamous part of temporal bone; 20, bregma; 21, coronal suture; 22, stephanion; 23, frontal bone; 24, pterion; 25, temporal fossa; 26, great wing of sphenoid; 27, malar bone; 28, malar canal; 29, lachrymal bone; 30, nasal bone; 31, infraorbital canal; 32, anterior nasal aperture.

Side of the Skull

Shown is norma lateralis, which refers to the side of the skull. Labels: 1, mental foramen; 2, body…

A side view of the skull. Labels: O, occipital bone; T, temporal; Pr, parietal; F, frontal; S, sphenoid; Z, malar; Mx, maxilla; N, nasal; E, ethmoid; L, lachrymal; Md, inferior maxilla.

Side View of the Skull

A side view of the skull. Labels: O, occipital bone; T, temporal; Pr, parietal; F, frontal; S, sphenoid;…

Side view of a fetal skull. The coronal suture extends from the top of the head downwards on either side to the point E; the lambdoidal suture from the back forward, on either side to the point F. The sagittal suture is not shown, but is indicated by the upper margin of the illustration, beginning at the base of the nose, passing backward across the coronal suture (anterior fontanelle), and ending at the lambdoidal suture (posterior fontanelle).

Side View of Fetal Skull

Side view of a fetal skull. The coronal suture extends from the top of the head downwards on either…

"The Top of the Skull, showing the Sutures." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Top of skull

"The Top of the Skull, showing the Sutures." — Blaisedell, 1904

An illustration of a Wallaby's skull.

Wallaby Skull

An illustration of a Wallaby's skull.

"Desmognathous skull of mallard duck, Anas boscas, nat. size, from nature, by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. Letters before. In the "bound-palate" type, the vomer in either abortive, or so small that it disappears; when existing it is usually slender and tapers to a point in front; the maxillo-palatines are united across the median line, either directly or by means of ossification in the nasal septum; the posterior ends of the palatines and the anterior ends of the pterygoids articulate directly with the rostrum (as in schizognathism). This type is simply and perfectly exhibited by a duck in which the maxillo-palatine is a broad flat plate united with its fellow in mid-line; the oval sessile basipterygoid facets are far forward, opposite the very ends of the pterygoids." Elliot Coues, 1884

Mallard Duck Skull

"Desmognathous skull of mallard duck, Anas boscas, nat. size, from nature, by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A.…

"Skull of two-toed sloth." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Sloth Skull

"Skull of two-toed sloth." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

A bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital.

Sphenoid Bone

A bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital.

A bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital.

Sphenoid Bone

A bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital.

A bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital.

Sphenoid Bone

A bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital.

The sphenoid bone of the skull, seen from in the front.

Sphenoid Bone

The sphenoid bone of the skull, seen from in the front.

Sphenoid bone, situated the anterior part of the base of the skull, articulating with all the other cranial bones, which it binds firmly and solidly together. Labels: a, greater wing; b, lesser wing.

Sphenoid Bone of the Human Skull

Sphenoid bone, situated the anterior part of the base of the skull, articulating with all the other…

The sphenoid as seen from behind.

Sphenoid Viewed from Behind

The sphenoid as seen from behind.

The sphenoid as seen from the front.

Sphenoid Viewed from the Front

The sphenoid as seen from the front.

"One of two skulls discovered in 1886 in the cave of Spy (Belgium). Notice the prominent eyebrow ridges, the low, retreating forehead, the strong and well-developed lower jaw."&mdash;Webster, 1913

Skull of the Man of Spy

"One of two skulls discovered in 1886 in the cave of Spy (Belgium). Notice the prominent eyebrow ridges,…

"Top and side views. The cartilaginous cranium shaded, is supposed to be seen through the unshded canial bones."-Whitney, 1902

Sturgeon Skull

"Top and side views. The cartilaginous cranium shaded, is supposed to be seen through the unshded canial…