"A centrifugal pump differing from an ordinary centrifugal pumps in one feature only. The water rises through a suction pipe S, which divides so as to enter the pump wheel at the center on each side. The pump disk or wheel is very similar to a turbine wheel. it is keyed on a shaft driven by a belt on a fast and loose pulley arrangement at P. The water rotating in the pump disk presses outwards, and if the speed is sufficient a continuous flow is maintained through the pump and into the discharge pipe D. The special feature in this pump is that the water, discharged by the pump disk with a whirling velocity of not inconsiderable magnitude, is allowed to continue rotation in a chamber somewhat larger than the pump. The use of this whirlpool chamber was first suggested by Professor James Thomson." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Centrifugal Pump

"A centrifugal pump differing from an ordinary centrifugal pumps in one feature only. The water rises…

"Irrigating young orchard with furrows. a, sluice; b, head ditch; c, furrow." -Department of Agriculture

Irrigating with Furrows

"Irrigating young orchard with furrows. a, sluice; b, head ditch; c, furrow." -Department of Agriculture

"The sectional form of the guideblade chamber and the wheel and the curves of the wheel vanes and guideblades, when drawn on a plane development of the cylindrical section of the wheel; a, a, a are the sluices for cutting off the water; b, b, are apertures by which the entrance of exit of air is facilitated as the buckets empty and fill." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Guideblade Chamber

"The sectional form of the guideblade chamber and the wheel and the curves of the wheel vanes and guideblades,…

"The sectional form of the guideblade chamber and the wheel and the curves of the wheel vanes and guideblades, when drawn on a plane development of the cylindrical section of the wheel; a, a, a are the sluices for cutting off the water; b, b, are apertures by which the entrance of exit of air is facilitated as the buckets empty and fill." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Guideblade Chamber

"The sectional form of the guideblade chamber and the wheel and the curves of the wheel vanes and guideblades,…

"One of the simplest forms of sluice as used in river diggings in the north-west of America. A rectangular trough of boards, whose dimensions depend chiefly on the size of the planks available, is set up on the higher part of the ground at one side of the claim to be worked, upon trestles or piers of rough stone-work, at such an inclination that the stream may carry off all but the largest stones, which are kept back by a grating of boards about 2 inches apart at a." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Sluice

"One of the simplest forms of sluice as used in river diggings in the north-west of America. A rectangular…

"The general sectionl elevation of a Girard turbine, in which the flow is axial. The water, admitted above a horizontal floor, passes down through the annular wheel containing the guide-blades, G, and thence into the revolving wheel WW. The revolving wheel is fixed to a hollow shaft suspended from the pivot p. The solid internal shaft ss is merely a fixed column supporting the pivot. The advantage of this is that the pivot is accessible for lubrication and adjustment. B is the mortise bevel wheel by which the power of the turbine is given off. The sluices are worked by the hand wheel h, which raises them successively, in a way to be described presently. a is the sluice rods." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Girard Turbine

"The general sectionl elevation of a Girard turbine, in which the flow is axial. The water, admitted…

"When a water fall ranges between 10 and 70 feet, and the water supply is from 3 to 25 cubic feet per second, it is possible to construct a bucket wheel on which the water acts chiefly by its weight. If the variation of the head-water level does not exceed 2 feet, an overshot wheel may be used. The water is then projected over the summit of the wheel, and falls in a parabolic path into the buckets. With greater variation of head-water level, a pitch-back or high breast wheel is better. The water falls over the top of a sliding sluice into the wheel, on the same side as the head race channel. By adjusting the height of the sluice, the requisite supply is given to the wheel in all positions of the head-water level. The wheel consists of a cast-iron or wrought-iron axle C supporting the weight of the wheel. To this are attached two sets of arms A of wood or iron, which support circular segmental plates termed shrouds B. A cylindrical sole plate dd extends between the shrouds on the inner side. The buckets are formed by wood planks or curved wrought-iron plates extending from shroud to shroud, the back of the buckets being formed by the sole plate." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Water Wheel

"When a water fall ranges between 10 and 70 feet, and the water supply is from 3 to 25 cubic feet per…