A potted clover plant, stunted as a result of a nitrogen deficiancy in the soil.

Potted and stunted clover

A potted clover plant, stunted as a result of a nitrogen deficiancy in the soil.

"The drag is a useful, light three-pronged tool which may be used for loosening the soil amongst vegetable crops as well as flower garden plants, and may also be sometimes employed, if the tines are sufficiently narrow and pointed, to drag off weeds from the surface." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Drag

"The drag is a useful, light three-pronged tool which may be used for loosening the soil amongst vegetable…

Dredging, the excavating or scooping out of soil, mud, sand or rock under water by a machine called a dredge. Dredging is used in deepening and widening the beds of rivers, canals, harbors. The forms of modern dredges are very numerous, different conditions requiring different forms.

Dredge

Dredging, the excavating or scooping out of soil, mud, sand or rock under water by a machine called…

Hilgard's "electriator," used in the mechanical analysis of soils.

Electriator

Hilgard's "electriator," used in the mechanical analysis of soils.

Goethite is a mineral composed of an iron hydrate crystallizing in soil and other low temperature environments.

Goethite

Goethite is a mineral composed of an iron hydrate crystallizing in soil and other low temperature environments.

This specification discloses a land leveler comprising a massive rectangular frame including reinforced side bars and three crossbars that engage the ground surface for leveling purposes.

Land Leveler

This specification discloses a land leveler comprising a massive rectangular frame including reinforced…

This particular invention relates to a mixing machine which is suited for mixing and kneading the raw ingredients for soils and fertilizers.

Mixing Machine

This particular invention relates to a mixing machine which is suited for mixing and kneading the raw…

An apparatus, used to demonstrate how root-hairs are used to take in soil-water

Osmosis apparatus

An apparatus, used to demonstrate how root-hairs are used to take in soil-water

"The pickfork or Canterbury hoe is a very useful tool for breaking up the surface soil, the three-pronged end being used for the looser parts, and the mattock end for breaking clods, or when the surface has become much consolidated." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pickfork

"The pickfork or Canterbury hoe is a very useful tool for breaking up the surface soil, the three-pronged…

A horse plow, well-suited to sandy soils.

Horse plow

A horse plow, well-suited to sandy soils.

Plowing is the initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting. Pictured is a man plowing a field with a horse and plow.

Plowing

Plowing is the initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting. Pictured is a…

the Sod Cutter is also known as the shave off technique, shovels, hoes, or similar machinery are used to shave off the surface of the existing lawn, which is then carted away. Once the grass has been removed, the surface is usually rotovated so as to loosen the ground somewhat. If the exposed soil is not of high quality, a layer or two of topsoil may be applied prior to the installation of the sod. The soil is then nicely graded and the sod is installed on top of it.

Combined Disk Harrow, Sod Cutter, and Roller

the Sod Cutter is also known as the shave off technique, shovels, hoes, or similar machinery are used…

"Make alternate layers of manure and of sods three inches thick, piling one upon the other, until you have a heap of the shape."—Heinrich, 1887

Section of Soil Heap

"Make alternate layers of manure and of sods three inches thick, piling one upon the other, until you…

An experiment testing the absorbancy of different types of soils.

Analyzing Soil

An experiment testing the absorbancy of different types of soils.

A patch of soil and grass which has cracked after having been worked too fine in the fall.

Cracks in the soil

A patch of soil and grass which has cracked after having been worked too fine in the fall.

"A crumb of soil (magnified). The white spaces represent air."—Finley, 1917

Crumb of soil

"A crumb of soil (magnified). The white spaces represent air."—Finley, 1917

A vial with a very small amount of gravel in it, and a cork stopper.

Nearly empty vial

A vial with a very small amount of gravel in it, and a cork stopper.

A vial, approximately one third full of a dark granular substance, with a cork stopper.

One-third full vial

A vial, approximately one third full of a dark granular substance, with a cork stopper.

A stoppered vial, two-thirds filled with a darkish granular substance.

Two-thirds full vial

A stoppered vial, two-thirds filled with a darkish granular substance.

A wheat plant grown in a pot, stunted as a result of nitrogen deficiency in the soil.

Wheat, potted and stunted

A wheat plant grown in a pot, stunted as a result of nitrogen deficiency in the soil.