"Heroic conduct of Lieutenant Colonel Morrison, Seventy-Ninth New York Highlanders, on the parapet of the Tower Battery, James Island, S. C." —Leslie, 1896

Lieutenant Colonel Morrison

"Heroic conduct of Lieutenant Colonel Morrison, Seventy-Ninth New York Highlanders, on the parapet of…

Mortar practice- putting in the shell.

Mortar practice

Mortar practice- putting in the shell.

"Mortar practice- 13-inch shell mortar, as used by the Federal government- weight of mortar 17,000 pounds." —Leslie, 1896

Mortar practice

"Mortar practice- 13-inch shell mortar, as used by the Federal government- weight of mortar 17,000 pounds."…

"Mortar practice- rear view of 13-inch mortar, with its usual complement of seven gunners. The mortar is one of the most ancient forms of cannon, being used as early as 1495 by Charles VIII at the siege of Naples. In 1478 the first attempt was made to project hollow shot filled with powder; but owing to their clumsy make the accidents were so frequent as to cause their discontinuance. In 1634 a French mechanic overcame the difficulty, and mortars were revived in the French service. Our illustrations represent a 13-inch mortar, the largest in general practice, weight 17,000 pounds, exclusive of the carriage. The number of men required to work one of these guns is seven, for all of whom there is distinct and adequate occupation. Mortars are not used in hand-to-hand encounters, their value consisting in pitching shells into camps and towns, or shelling fortifications erected on elevations, against which cannons are of no avail." —Leslie, 1896

Mortar practice

"Mortar practice- rear view of 13-inch mortar, with its usual complement of seven gunners. The mortar…

"Skirmishing between the pickets of the two armies near Munson's Hill- the hill in the distance. Munson's Hill is about five miles from the Chain Bridge, on the northern side of the Leesburg Turnpike, about one mile from Bailey's Crossroads, where our pickets were stationed, and about three miles this side of Falls Church, which was in full possession of the enemy. In this neighborhood they had strong pickets, which frequently came into collision with those sent out upon the Federal side from Ball's Roads." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Munson's Hill

"Skirmishing between the pickets of the two armies near Munson's Hill- the hill in the distance. Munson's…

"Federal troops marching through Second Street, New Fernandina, Fla. Our sketch of New Fernandina in 1862 shows the principal business street in the city, called Second Street. There seemed to be quite a joke in numbering streets where there were not half a dozen in the place; but the spirit of imitation was strong, and as Philadelphia and New York, with their thousands of blocks, are simplified and rendered more easily fundable by the aid of arithmetic, so must be the villages of the South." —Leslie, 1896

New Fernandina

"Federal troops marching through Second Street, New Fernandina, Fla. Our sketch of New Fernandina in…

"Miss Florence Nightingale did remarkable work during the Crimean War for the relief of sick and wounded British soldiers. To her self-sacrificing labors are also due many improvements in hospital management, sanitation, and the training of nurses."—Webster, 1920

Florence Nightingale

"Miss Florence Nightingale did remarkable work during the Crimean War for the relief of sick and wounded…

"Camp of the Ninth Massachusetts Regiment in the woods, one mile from the Confederate fortifications, Yorktown, VA., April 10th, 1862. On the 5th of April, 1862, the Federal advance neared the centre of the Confederate position, and found that its fortifications commanded the approach to Yorktown. It was here that Captain Martin's Massachusetts battery opened upon the enemy's forts and made several splendid shots. The Confederates returned the fire, killing a Federal gunner; a second shot wounded another, and a third killed one and wounded two more. The excellence of this practice immediately convinced Captain Martin that he had unfortunately placed his battery in front of a Confederate target. He consequently withdrew to the camp in the woods. The scene our artist has sketched is about one mile from Yorktown, and is in that part of the peninsula where it is only eight miles from river to river." —Leslie, 1896

Camp of Ninth Massachusetts

"Camp of the Ninth Massachusetts Regiment in the woods, one mile from the Confederate fortifications,…

The officers were blindfolded and sent to Colonel Gansevoort's quarters.

Officers Blindfolded

The officers were blindfolded and sent to Colonel Gansevoort's quarters.

"'Fresh Bread!'- Impromptu oven built by the Nineteenth Regiment, New York Volunteers, in General Banks's division, Western Maryland. The impromptu oven which we illustrate testified to the Federal cleverness, and ministered to the wants of the brave defenders of the Union. The regiment undoubtedly contained men whose means gave them every epicurean indulgence; but we question if any French bread, fresh butter, with all the appliances of Delmonico, ever tasted so sweet as the newly baked bread they got from the primitive oven." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Oven

"'Fresh Bread!'- Impromptu oven built by the Nineteenth Regiment, New York Volunteers, in General Banks's…

A stone wall or embarkment used to help protect soldiers and cannons.

Parapet

A stone wall or embarkment used to help protect soldiers and cannons.

"Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., fought March 6th, 7th and 8th, 1862, between the Federal forces, 13,000 strong, under Generals Curtis, Sigel, and Asboth, and the combined Confederate army of the Southwest, 25,000 strong, under Generals Van Dorn, Price and McCulloch- total defeat of the Confederates. The official report of this battle by General Curtis is as follows: "On Thursday, March 6th, the enemy commenced an attack on my right wing, assailling and following the rear guard of a detachment under General Sigel to my main lines on Sugar Creek Hollow, but ceased firing when he met my re-enforcements about 4 P.M. Early on the 7th I ordered an immediate advance of the cavalry and light artillery, under Colonel Osterhaus, with orders to attack and break what I supposed would be the re-enforced line of the enemy. This movement was in progress when the enemy commenced an attack on my right. The fight continued mainly at these points during the day, the enemy having gained the point held by the command of Colonel Carr at Cross Timber Hollow, but was entirely repulsed, with the fall of the commander, McCulloch. At sunrise on the 8th my right and centre renewed the firing, which was immediately answered by the enemy with renewed energy. I immediately ordered the centre and right wing forward, the right turning the left of the enemy and cross firing on his centre. This final position of the enemy was in the arc of a circle. A charge of infantry extending throughout the whole line completely routed the entire Confederate force, which retired in great confusion, but rather safely through the deep, impassable defiles of cross timber."" — Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Pea Ridge

"Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., fought March 6th, 7th and 8th, 1862, between the Federal forces, 13,000…

"Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., fought March 6th, 7th and 8th, 1862, between the Federal forces, 13,000 strong, under Generals Curtis, Sigel, and Asboth, and the combined Confederate army of the Southwest, 25,000 strong, under Generals Van Dorn, Price and McCulloch- total defeat of the Confederates. The official report of this battle by General Curtis is as follows: 'On Thursday, March 6th, the enemy commenced an attack on my right wing, assailling and following the rear guard of a detachment under General Sigel to my main lines on Sugar Creek Hollow, but ceased firing when he met my re-enforcements about 4 P.M. Early on the 7th I ordered an immediate advance of the cavalry and light artillery, under Colonel Osterhaus, with orders to attack and break what I supposed would be the re-enforced line of the enemy. This movement was in progress when the enemy commenced an attack on my right. The fight continued mainly at these points during the day, the enemy having gained the point held by the command of Colonel Carr at Cross Timber Hollow, but was entirely repulsed, with the fall of the commander, McCulloch. At sunrise on the 8th my right and centre renewed the firing, which was immediately answered by the enemy with renewed energy. I immediately ordered the centre and right wing forward, the right turning the left of the enemy and cross firing on his centre. This final position of the enemy was in the arc of a circle. A charge of infantry extending throughout the whole line completely routed the entire Confederate force, which retired in great confusion, but rather safely through the deep, impassable defiles of cross timber.'" — Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Pea Ridge

"Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., fought March 6th, 7th and 8th, 1862, between the Federal forces, 13,000…

"Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., fought March 6th, 7th and 8th, 1862, between the Federal forces, 13,000 strong, under Generals Curtis, Sigel, and Asboth, and the combined Confederate army of the Southwest, 25,000 strong, under Generals Van Dorn, Price and McCulloch- total defeat of the Confederates. The official report of this battle by General Curtis is as follows: 'On Thursday, March 6th, the enemy commenced an attack on my right wing, assailling and following the rear guard of a detachment under General Sigel to my main lines on Sugar Creek Hollow, but ceased firing when he met my re-enforcements about 4 P.M. Early on the 7th I ordered an immediate advance of the cavalry and light artillery, under Colonel Osterhaus, with orders to attack and break what I supposed would be the re-enforced line of the enemy. This movement was in progress when the enemy commenced an attack on my right. The fight continued mainly at these points during the day, the enemy having gained the point held by the command of Colonel Carr at Cross Timber Hollow, but was entirely repulsed, with the fall of the commander, McCulloch. At sunrise on the 8th my right and centre renewed the firing, which was immediately answered by the enemy with renewed energy. I immediately ordered the centre and right wing forward, the right turning the left of the enemy and cross firing on his centre. This final position of the enemy was in the arc of a circle. A charge of infantry extending throughout the whole line completely routed the entire Confederate force, which retired in great confusion, but rather safely through the deep, impassable defiles of cross timber.'" — Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Pea Ridge

"Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., fought March 6th, 7th and 8th, 1862, between the Federal forces, 13,000…

"General Fremont's Division crossing the Pontoon Bridge over the Shenandoah River in pursuit of the Confederate General Jackson and his army." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Pontoon bridge

"General Fremont's Division crossing the Pontoon Bridge over the Shenandoah River in pursuit of the…

Men in the Civil War building a pontoon bridge across a river.

Pontoon Bridge

Men in the Civil War building a pontoon bridge across a river.

"Engagement between the Federal troops and the Confederates on the Virginia side of the Potomac, opposite Edward's Ferry, October 22nd, 1861- battery of Parrott Guns on the Maryland shore. Early in the evening the news of the death of Colonel Baker, and of the presence of an overwhelming Confederate force on the opposite bank, reached Edward's Ferry, and at once orders were given for bringing back to the Maryland shore the troops which had been passed in the scows, etc., during the day. This was effected by the same means, occupying until midnight. At this time word was received at Edward's Ferry that General Banks was approaching with his column to support the movement of the day, and immediately the same troops, which had crossed and recrossed, were again sent across the river in the same scows. Give hundred feet of fortifications were thrown up to support the lodgment, with only a slight brush with a detachment of Confederates, in which General Lander was wounded. During the night, Tuesday, October 22nd, the full epressing news of Baker's disaster became known, and the whistle of the Leesburg railway, bringing up Confederate re-enforcements from Manassas, sounded constantly in the ears of the Federals. On Tuesday morning, however, General McClellan had arrived at Edward's Ferry, and both with reference to further advance or a retreat, as circumstances might justify or require, ordered a bridge of boats to be thrown across the river. He, however, received such intelligence on Wednesday of the number and designs of the Confederates, that he resolved to withdraw the Federal forces from the Virginia side, which was effected silently and safely on the same night. Our engraving illustrates the position of the Federal troops on the Virginia shore, on Tuesday, during the attack in which General Lander was wounded." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle at Potomac

"Engagement between the Federal troops and the Confederates on the Virginia side of the Potomac, opposite…

"A street in Harper's Ferry, VA., during the passage of the Potomac by the Federal troops from Maryland, October 24th, 1862. We give a specimen of the grotesque in war. Experience proves that where there is much excitement there is always a rollicking gayety in proportion to the excitement. The terrible stimulus of war constantly produced scenes which almost approached those of a carnival. Among the younger of the Federal soldiers this was very apparent, more especially among some of the zouave regiments." —Leslie, 1896

Passage of the Potomac

"A street in Harper's Ferry, VA., during the passage of the Potomac by the Federal troops from Maryland,…

This is a Hans Burgmair print that was created in 1516 in Augsburg, Germany. It seems to depict two soldiers in discussion.

Hans Burgmais Print

This is a Hans Burgmair print that was created in 1516 in Augsburg, Germany. It seems to depict two…

"The humors of a prison- scene in a station-house cell, Washington, D. C., after the appointment of the provost marshall, General Porter, October 1861. After the appointment of General Porter as provost marshal there was a marked improvement in the public thoroughfares of Washington. Till then too many officers imbibed at Willard's and other fashionable bars, while their men drank at the lower grogshops. The result was a saturnalia of drunkenness and military insurbordination which culminated at Bull Run. Our sketch represents the incongruous elements found one early morning the cell of a station house." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Prison

"The humors of a prison- scene in a station-house cell, Washington, D. C., after the appointment of…

This is an illustration of the Fairy Queen by English artist Walter Crane in 1896. It is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser. This illustration shows two soldiers fighting.

Fairy Queen

This is an illustration of the Fairy Queen by English artist Walter Crane in 1896. It is an English…

"The battering ram was a large beam, made of the trunk of a tree, and having a mass of bronze or iron fastened to one end, and resembling a ram's head. This shape, as well as its name, was given to the engine in question, on account of the resemblence of its mode of action to that of a ram butting with its forehead. In an improved form, the ram was surrounded with iron bands, to which rings were attached for the purpose of suspending it by ropes or chains to a beam fixed transversely over it. See the lower figure." — Anthon, 1891

Battering ram

"The battering ram was a large beam, made of the trunk of a tree, and having a mass of bronze or iron…

"Reconnoissance by Colonel Max Weber's Turner rifles in the vicinity of Newmarket Bridge, on the road to Yorktown, Va."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Reconnoissance

"Reconnoissance by Colonel Max Weber's Turner rifles in the vicinity of Newmarket Bridge, on the road…

An illustration of the sixth Massachusetts regiment in Baltimore.

Sixth Massachusetts Regiment in Baltimore

An illustration of the sixth Massachusetts regiment in Baltimore.

"View of Rolla, Mo., taken from the fort." —Leslie, 1896

Rolla

"View of Rolla, Mo., taken from the fort." —Leslie, 1896

"Encampment of the Federal army near Rolla, Mo. The city of Rolla has been famous since the death of heroic Lyon, when the scattered forces of that glorious but disastrous day, under the guidance of General Siegel, made their first secure resting place. Our illustration is particularly interesting, as it takes in the last encampment of the Federal Army, showing the positions of the chief divisions of Generals Asboth, Siegel and Wymans. Rolla is on the direct route of the railroad from St. Louis to Springfield, being about midway between those cities. It is about sixty miles from Pilot Knob and fifty from Jefferson City. Our artist said: "The high rolling country around Rolla is admirably adapted for a camping ground. Fine streams of clear water intersect in all directions; the ground is gravelly and dry, and all the hills are covered with oak timber. The camping grounds are all gently sloping, facing the south, and are well protected from the cold north and northwest winds by the high ridges on the north."" —Leslie, 1896

Rolla camp

"Encampment of the Federal army near Rolla, Mo. The city of Rolla has been famous since the death of…

Encampments of Burgoyne's army, Saratoga and Stillwater.

Saratoga and Stillwater - Encampments of Burgoyne's Army

Encampments of Burgoyne's army, Saratoga and Stillwater.

"Battle of Secessionville, James Island, S. C.- bayonet charge of Federal troops, commanded by General Stevens, upon the Confederate batteries on James Island, June 16th, 1862. Our sketch represents the desperate bayonet charge of the Federal troops which drove back the Confederates; but the Federals were so exhausted with their victory that the reconnoissance for the next day was postponed and some heavy guns having arrived, it was proposed to put them in battery in advance of General Steven's camp and try their effect upon the Confederate fort before renewing the project of an assault. The battery produced no effect upon the Confederate fort; and as its shells and shot commanded the Federal position and rendered its camp insecure, it became necessary to recur again to the old plan of the reconnoissance, and to attempt to reduce it by assault. The Federals were met by a murderous fire of grape and canister. Two regiments only reached the front, much cut up- the Eighth Michigan and the Seventy-ninth New York "Highlanders." The Twenty-eighth Massachusetts broke and scattered, while the Forty-sixth New York did little better. The first two drove the gunners from their guns; some mounted the parapet, and some even penetrated the work; but the other regiments, there being two besides those named, not rushing up to their support, they were obliged to retire after having really held it for nearly twenty minutes." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of Secessionville

"Battle of Secessionville, James Island, S. C.- bayonet charge of Federal troops, commanded by General…

"Taking away the colors of the Seventy-ninth New York Regiment for insubordination and mutiny, Washington, D. C., August 14th, 1861. The scene during the reading of the order of General McClellan was exceedingly impressive. The sun was just going down, and in hazy mountain twilight the features and forms of officers and men could scarcely be distinguished. Immediately behind his aid was General Porter, firm and self-possessed. Colonel Stevens was in front of the regiment, endeavoring to quiet his rather nervous horse. In the rear of the regulars, and a little distance apart, General Sickles sat carelessly on horseback, cooly smoking a cigar and conversing with some friends. At one time during the reading a murmur passed through the lines of the mutineers; and when the portion of the order directing the regiment to surrentder its colors was read a private in one of the rear lines cried out, in broad Scotch tones, "Let's keep the colors, boys!" No response was made by the remainder of the regiment. Major Sykes at once rode up the line to where the voice was heard. It would have been more than the soldier's life was worth had he been discovered at the moment in pistol range by any of the officers." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Seventy-ninth Regiment

"Taking away the colors of the Seventy-ninth New York Regiment for insubordination and mutiny, Washington,…

"Colonel Pilson's Battery shelling the rear guard of the Confederate General Jackson's Army, at the Crossing of the Shenandoah River, Tuesday, June 3rd, 1862. As soon as colonel Pilson could bring up his guns they were unlimbered on either side of the road and opened on the Confederate batteries. Beyond the river stretched a broad plain, the further end of which sloped gradually up into an irregular eminence, along which the enemy had placed its artillery on its further side, and in the neighboring woods its troops were quietly encamped, out of range, and with the Shenandoah River in their rear were safe for the night, as they supposed. It was soon found that the distance was too great for the guns. Colonel Albert, chief of staff, was in advance, and reconnoitring the position, with a soldier's eye saw that the river bent suddenly half a mile beyond the bridge, and sent Schirmer's battery to a hill on this side, which flanked the confederate camp, and at once forced them to withdraw to a more secure position." —Leslie, 1896

Crossing of Shenandoah River

"Colonel Pilson's Battery shelling the rear guard of the Confederate General Jackson's Army, at the…

Sheridan's ride

Sheridan

Sheridan's ride

An illustration of General Sheridan with soldiers on horses.

Philip Sheridan

An illustration of General Sheridan with soldiers on horses.

Soldiers lined up and firing.

Soldiers

Soldiers lined up and firing.

Soldiers talking

Soldiers

Soldiers talking

The English and French crowded on the two banks.

Soldiers

The English and French crowded on the two banks.

An illustration of a group of soldiers.

Soldiers

An illustration of a group of soldiers.

An illustration of a group of soldiers in front of a house with slaves.

Soldiers & House

An illustration of a group of soldiers in front of a house with slaves.

A decorative illustration with soldiers on the left side and nurses tending to a soldier on the right.

Soldiers & Nurses

A decorative illustration with soldiers on the left side and nurses tending to a soldier on the right.

"Soldiers Foraging." — Greenough, 1899

Soldiers Foraging

"Soldiers Foraging." — Greenough, 1899

An illustration of two soldiers hiking.

Soldiers Hiking

An illustration of two soldiers hiking.

An illustration of soldiers on horses.

Soldiers on Horses

An illustration of soldiers on horses.

An illustration of soldiers training.

Soldiers Training

An illustration of soldiers training.

An illustration of two male soldiers wearing helmets.

Soldiers with Helmets

An illustration of two male soldiers wearing helmets.

African American Soldiers lined up being commanded by a white man.

African American Soldiers

African American Soldiers lined up being commanded by a white man.

"A group of Greek soldiers, drawn from sculptured figures in the temple pediment."—Gordy, 1912

Greek Soldiers

"A group of Greek soldiers, drawn from sculptured figures in the temple pediment."—Gordy, 1912

Soldiers of the Persian bodyguard. From frieze in the audience hall of Darius at Susa.

Persian Soldiers

Soldiers of the Persian bodyguard. From frieze in the audience hall of Darius at Susa.

"The Spanish soldiers of Pizarro seize the Inca."—Gordy, 1912

Spanish Soldiers

"The Spanish soldiers of Pizarro seize the Inca."—Gordy, 1912

"United States troops landing at Baiquiri, Cuba." -Gordy, 1916

Spanish-American War

"United States troops landing at Baiquiri, Cuba." -Gordy, 1916

"Each even number of the front rank grasps his piece with the left hand at the upper band and rests the butt between his feet." — Moss, 1914

Stack arms

"Each even number of the front rank grasps his piece with the left hand at the upper band and rests…

"Reconnoissance of the Confederate poistion at Strasburg, VA., by a detachment of cavalry under General Bayard, previous to its occupation by General Fremont." —Leslie, 1896

Strasburg

"Reconnoissance of the Confederate poistion at Strasburg, VA., by a detachment of cavalry under General…

"In the Shenandoah Valley- General Fremont's division marching through the woods to attack the Confederates. This exciting pursuit commenced on Saturday, May 31st, 1862, when the first collision occurred between the hostile armies in the lower valley, near Strasburg, to which place Jackson had fallen back from the Potomac upon hearing that Fremont was on the march to intercept him. In this retreat the indomitable and daring Ashby, the "Murat of the Confederates," occupied the post of danger, dashing against the Federal troops whenever they pressed the retreating enemy too closely. At ten o'clock on the 31st the First Jersey Cavalry, led by the gallant Wyndham, and Ashby's men had a desperate skirmish, in which the Confederates were driven back with some loss. Jackson rested his Confederate troops in Strasburg this night, and next morning resumed his retreat, when the Ashby cavalry and the First Jersey had another and heavier conflict, in which artillery was used. That night the enemy occupied Woodstock, having made fourteen miles in their retreat this day. So close was the Federal advance on the Confederates that General Bayard's cavalry, when they entered Strasburg, captured the Confederate provost marshal and two hundred men. At the village of Edinburgh, five miles from Woodstock, the Confederate General Ashby, by Jackson's orders, after seeing the rear guard safely across the bridge over Stony Creek, fired the wooden structure, and it was soon enveloped in flames." —Leslie, 1896

Strasburg woods

"In the Shenandoah Valley- General Fremont's division marching through the woods to attack the Confederates.…

A Roman rider battling a Sueve. Suevi were Germanic people that posed a threat to the Romans.

Sueve and Roman Rider

A Roman rider battling a Sueve. Suevi were Germanic people that posed a threat to the Romans.

"A sutler's store, Harper's Ferry, Va. The sutler's store at Harper's Ferry represents one of those apparently inevitable evils which attend even the best-arranged armies. The negligence and delay of the government in settling with the troops rendered the sutler's a necessary evil, which a more regular course would have obviated. As a study of human life, a sutler's store is full of the most sorrowful reflections, and demands the most earnest care of the superior officers. A little pure stimulant, when administered with the rations, is capable of warding off many ills which flesh is heir to, more especially when under the prostration of fatigue or privation." —Leslie, 1896

Sutler's store

"A sutler's store, Harper's Ferry, Va. The sutler's store at Harper's Ferry represents one of those…

French Campaign in the Tyrol.Caption below illustration: "Thousands of my Comrades in arms were crushed, buried and overwhelmed by an incredible heap of broken rocks, stones, and trees, hurled down upon us from the top of the mountains."

French Campaign in the Tyrol

French Campaign in the Tyrol. Caption below illustration: "Thousands of my Comrades in arms were crushed,…

Although he did not explicitly seek the office of commander and even claimed that he was not equal to it, there was no serious competition. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775; the next day, on the nomination of John Adams of Massachusetts, Washington was appointed Major General and elected by Congress to be Commander-in-chief.

Washington Taking Command of the Army

Although he did not explicitly seek the office of commander and even claimed that he was not equal to…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…