"Reconnoissance of the Confederate poistion at Strasburg, VA., by a detachment of cavalry under General Bayard, previous to its occupation by General Fremont." —Leslie, 1896

Strasburg

"Reconnoissance of the Confederate poistion at Strasburg, VA., by a detachment of cavalry under General…

"In the Shenandoah Valley- General Fremont's division marching through the woods to attack the Confederates. This exciting pursuit commenced on Saturday, May 31st, 1862, when the first collision occurred between the hostile armies in the lower valley, near Strasburg, to which place Jackson had fallen back from the Potomac upon hearing that Fremont was on the march to intercept him. In this retreat the indomitable and daring Ashby, the "Murat of the Confederates," occupied the post of danger, dashing against the Federal troops whenever they pressed the retreating enemy too closely. At ten o'clock on the 31st the First Jersey Cavalry, led by the gallant Wyndham, and Ashby's men had a desperate skirmish, in which the Confederates were driven back with some loss. Jackson rested his Confederate troops in Strasburg this night, and next morning resumed his retreat, when the Ashby cavalry and the First Jersey had another and heavier conflict, in which artillery was used. That night the enemy occupied Woodstock, having made fourteen miles in their retreat this day. So close was the Federal advance on the Confederates that General Bayard's cavalry, when they entered Strasburg, captured the Confederate provost marshal and two hundred men. At the village of Edinburgh, five miles from Woodstock, the Confederate General Ashby, by Jackson's orders, after seeing the rear guard safely across the bridge over Stony Creek, fired the wooden structure, and it was soon enveloped in flames." —Leslie, 1896

Strasburg woods

"In the Shenandoah Valley- General Fremont's division marching through the woods to attack the Confederates.…

A Roman rider battling a Sueve. Suevi were Germanic people that posed a threat to the Romans.

Sueve and Roman Rider

A Roman rider battling a Sueve. Suevi were Germanic people that posed a threat to the Romans.

"A sutler's store, Harper's Ferry, Va. The sutler's store at Harper's Ferry represents one of those apparently inevitable evils which attend even the best-arranged armies. The negligence and delay of the government in settling with the troops rendered the sutler's a necessary evil, which a more regular course would have obviated. As a study of human life, a sutler's store is full of the most sorrowful reflections, and demands the most earnest care of the superior officers. A little pure stimulant, when administered with the rations, is capable of warding off many ills which flesh is heir to, more especially when under the prostration of fatigue or privation." —Leslie, 1896

Sutler's store

"A sutler's store, Harper's Ferry, Va. The sutler's store at Harper's Ferry represents one of those…

"And with him they crucify two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left." Mark 15:27 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus on the cross with a robber on his left and right. Mary Magdalene is at Jesus' feet. Jesus' mother, Mary, stands at the foot of the cross with another woman. Soldiers cast lots for Jesus' clothing (left). A soldier with a spear stands beside the cross.

The Crucifixion of Jesus with Two Robbers

"And with him they crucify two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left." Mark 15:27 ASV…

"And they platted a crown of thorns and put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews!" Matthew 27:29 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus as a solider places a crown of thorns on his head. A robe is around his shoulders and a reed is in his hand. A soldier plays a small horn and tambourine on Christ's left side. Another soldier kneels mockingly in front of him, as if to worship him. A fourth soldier leans behind them to Christ's right. Two holy men watch from behind a wall in the background.

The Crowning of Thorns - Jesus is Made a Mock King

"And they platted a crown of thorns and put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they…

"Then the high priest rent his garments, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy: what further need have we of witnesses? behold, now ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? They answered and said, He is worthy of death." Matthew 26:65-66 ASV
<p>Illustration of Jesus standing in trial before the High Priest, Caiaphas, and the other priests in the temple. Caiaphas rents his robe and points at Jesus in accusation. A soldier kneels at Jesus' feet with the rope that binds Jesus' feet. The soldier looks up at Jesus with arms open.

Jesus Appears Before Caiaphas, the High Priest

"Then the high priest rent his garments, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy: what further need have we…

"But Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew. And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how that he said unto him, Before the cock crow this day thou shalt deny me thrice." Luke 22:60-61 ASV
<p>Illustration of Peter sitting in front of a fire with a woman and some soldiers. His arms are raised as he denies knowing Jesus. A rooster is standing in the window above them. On the right, Jesus is walking down stairs, hands bound, followed by soldiers in armor and with swords. Jesus looks at Peter in the courtyard.

Peter Denies Jesus Three Times Before the Rooster Crows

"But Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew.…

French Campaign in the Tyrol.Caption below illustration: "Thousands of my Comrades in arms were crushed, buried and overwhelmed by an incredible heap of broken rocks, stones, and trees, hurled down upon us from the top of the mountains."

French Campaign in the Tyrol

French Campaign in the Tyrol. Caption below illustration: "Thousands of my Comrades in arms were crushed,…

Although he did not explicitly seek the office of commander and even claimed that he was not equal to it, there was no serious competition. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775; the next day, on the nomination of John Adams of Massachusetts, Washington was appointed Major General and elected by Congress to be Commander-in-chief.

Washington Taking Command of the Army

Although he did not explicitly seek the office of commander and even claimed that he was not equal to…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle at Willis Church, Monday, June 30th, 1862- the Federal forces, under General Heintzelman, engaged with the enemy. This desperate battle between the Confederates on one hand and the divisions of General Heintzelman and Franklin on the other was fought on the morning of Monday, June 30th, 1862, at Willis Church, a place midway between the White Oak Swamp Bridge and Turkey Bend, where, later in the day, another fierce fight raged, the week of combat being closed next day by the deadly but drawn battle of Malvern Hill. Our sketch represents the position of part of the Federal army at ten o'clock in the morning, just as the battle was commencing. The baggage train is in the foreground, and the enemy is advancing upon the Federal lines, and covering the advance with a heavy shower of shells. Willis Church is on the left of the illustration, being what most of the Southern places of worship were, mere wooden barns." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Battle at Willis Church

"Battle at Willis Church, Monday, June 30th, 1862- the Federal forces, under General Heintzelman, engaged…

"Battle at Willis Church, Monday, June 30th, 1862- the Federal forces, under General Heintzelman, engaged with the enemy. This desperate battle between the Confederates on one hand and the divisions of General Heintzelman and Franklin on the other was fought on the morning of Monday, June 30th, 1862, at Willis Church, a place midway between the White Oak Swamp Bridge and Turkey Bend, where, later in the day, another fierce fight raged, the week of combat being closed next day by the deadly but drawn battle of Malvern Hill. Our sketch represents the position of part of the Federal army at ten o'clock in the morning, just as the battle was commencing. The baggage train is in the foreground, and the enemy is advancing upon the Federal lines, and covering the advance with a heavy shower of shells. Willis Church is on the left of the illustration, being what most of the Southern places of worship were, mere wooden barns." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Battle at Willis Church

"Battle at Willis Church, Monday, June 30th, 1862- the Federal forces, under General Heintzelman, engaged…

Soldiers outside a few tents.

Winter Scene in Camp

Soldiers outside a few tents.

A World War I American soldier wearing a gas mask.

WWI Soldier

A World War I American soldier wearing a gas mask.

"Encampment of Colonel Ellsworth's New York Fire Zuoaves, on the heights opposite the Navy Yard, Washington, D. C. This famous body of fiery and active soldiers at length got free from the trammels and confinement of their city quarters, a change which was both pleasant and beneficial to them. They were encamped on the heights opposite the Navy Yard, Washington, D. C., and, as our sketch will show, were most comfortably situated. Colonel Ellsworth was indefatigable in drilling his regiment, and his men most willingly seconded his efforts by close attention to duty and alacrity in the performance of all the details of camp life. The Zuoaves proved to be one of the most effective regiments in the field; they rendered efficent service in building breastworks on the outskirts of Alexandria, thereby preyenting the possibility of a surprise from the enemy, and distinguished themselves at the Battle of Bull Run in their successful assault on a confederate battery at the point of the bayonet." —Leslie, 1896

Zouaves

"Encampment of Colonel Ellsworth's New York Fire Zuoaves, on the heights opposite the Navy Yard, Washington,…