"The spade was but little used in ancient husbandry, the ground having been broken and turned over by the plough, and also by the use of large hoes and rakes. The preceding woodcut, taken a deceased countryman with his falx and bidens, and also with a pala, modified by the addition of a strong cross-bar, by the use of which he was enabled to drive it nearly twice as deep into the ground, as he could have done without it." — Smith, 1873

Pala

"The spade was but little used in ancient husbandry, the ground having been broken and turned over by…

"An outer garment. The English cloak, though commonly adopted as the translation of these terms, conveys no accurate conception of the form, material, or use of that which they denoted. The article designated by them was always a rectangular piece of cloth, exactly, or at least nearly square. It was indeed used in the very form in which it was taken from the loom, being made entirely by the weaver, without and aid from the tailor except to repair the injuries which it sustained by time. Whatever additional richness and beauty it received from the art of the dyer, " — Smith, 1873

Pallium

"An outer garment. The English cloak, though commonly adopted as the translation of these terms, conveys…

A gardening tool used for digging or removing earth.

Spade

A gardening tool used for digging or removing earth.