The Seal of the District of Alaska, 1911. The image on the seal shows Alaska's mountains and shore.

Seal of Alaska

The Seal of the District of Alaska, 1911. The image on the seal shows Alaska's mountains and shore.

"Apollo, the principal deity of the Dorians." — Smith, 1882

Apollo

"Apollo, the principal deity of the Dorians." — Smith, 1882

This medal shows that the people of Aradus venerated the sun, and were proud of the products of their territory, corn and wine.

Aradus

This medal shows that the people of Aradus venerated the sun, and were proud of the products of their…

"At sea the declination is generally observed by means of an azimuth compass invented by Kater. It consists of a magnet with a graduated compass card attached to it. At the side of the instrument opposite the eye there is a frame which projects upwards from the plane of the instrument in a nearly vertical direction, and this frame contains a wide rectangular slit cut into two parts by a wire extending lengthwise. The eye-piece is opposite this frame, and the observer is supposed to point the instrument in such a manner that the wire above mentioned shall bisect the sun's visible disk. There is a totally reflecting glass prism which throws into the eye-piece an image of the scale of the graduated card, so that the observer, having first bisected the sun's disk by the wire, must next read the division of the scale which is in the middle of the field of view." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Azimuth Compass

"At sea the declination is generally observed by means of an azimuth compass invented by Kater. It consists…

Decorative letter 'b', with a sun and polearm behind it.

B

Decorative letter 'b', with a sun and polearm behind it.

Girl with angel

Banner

Girl with angel

Sun and sea banner

Banner

Sun and sea banner

Seahorse and wave banner.

Banner

Seahorse and wave banner.

A pile of books in a field, under the sun.

Books

A pile of books in a field, under the sun.

A captain on his ship. "At high noon every day he makes an observation, telling by the sun just where we are." -Carpenter, 1912

Captain of a Ship

A captain on his ship. "At high noon every day he makes an observation, telling by the sun just where…

The trademark of prints published by William Caxton and Wynkyn de Worde.

Caxton and de Worde

The trademark of prints published by William Caxton and Wynkyn de Worde.

Head of Circe, daughter of the sun.

Circe

Head of Circe, daughter of the sun.

The Seal of Colorado, 1876. The seal shows The Eye of Providence and Colorado's motto 'Nil sine numine' meaning "Nothing without God's will.

Seal of Colorado

The Seal of Colorado, 1876. The seal shows The Eye of Providence and Colorado's motto 'Nil sine numine'…

"Daedalus and Icarus" —Bulfinch, 1897

Daedalus and Icarus

"Daedalus and Icarus" —Bulfinch, 1897

A kind of portable sundial, consisting of a metal ring, broad in proportion to its diameter, and having slits in the direction of its circumference.

Ring Dial

A kind of portable sundial, consisting of a metal ring, broad in proportion to its diameter, and having…

"Since A is producing light and larger than object B, the shadow of B continuously shrinks to a single point at C." —Quackenbos 1859

Diminish Shadow

"Since A is producing light and larger than object B, the shadow of B continuously shrinks to a single…

"Now it is the inclination of the Earth's axis, as above described, which causes the lengths of the days and nights to differ at the same place at different seasons of the year, for on reviewing the positions of the globe at A, it will be observed that the line formed by the enlightened and dark hemispheres, does not coincide with the line of the axis and the pole, but that the line formed by the darkness and the light, extends obliquely across the line of the Earth's axis, so that the north pole is in the light while the south is in the dark. In the position A, therefore, an observer at the north pole would see the sun constantly, while another at the south pole would not see it at all. Hence those living in the north temperate zone, at the season of the year when the earth is at A, or in the Summer, would have long days and short nights, in proportion as they approached the polar circle; while those who live in the south temperate zone, at the same time, and when it would be Winter there, would have long nights and short days in the same proportion." —Comstock, 1850

Earth Axis

"Now it is the inclination of the Earth's axis, as above described, which causes the lengths of the…

"Now it is the inclination of the Earth's axis, as above described, which causes the lengths of the days and nights to differ at the same place at different seasons of the year, for on reviewing the positions of the globe at A, it will be observed that the line formed by the enlightened and dark hemispheres, does not coincide with the line of the axis and the pole, but that the line formed by the darkness and the light, extends obliquely across the line of the Earth's axis, so that the north pole is in the light while the south is in the dark. In the position A, therefore, an observer at the north pole would see the sun constantly, while another at the south pole would not see it at all. Hence those living in the north temperate zone, at the season of the year when the earth is at A, or in the Summer, would have long days and short nights, in proportion as they approached the polar circle; while those who live in the south temperate zone, at the same time, and when it would be Winter there, would have long nights and short days in the same proportion." —Comstock, 1850

Earth Axis

"Now it is the inclination of the Earth's axis, as above described, which causes the lengths of the…

"Were the Earth's orbit a perfect circle, and her axis perpendicular to the plane of this orbit, the days would be of a uniform length, and there would be no difference between the clock and the Sun." -Comstock 1850

Suns in the Equator and Ecliptic

"Were the Earth's orbit a perfect circle, and her axis perpendicular to the plane of this orbit, the…

"An Eclipse is an interception or obscuration of the light of the sun, moon, or other heavenly body by the intervention of another and non-luminous heavenly body or by its shadow."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Eclipse

"An Eclipse is an interception or obscuration of the light of the sun, moon, or other heavenly body…

"The elliptical circle being supposed to be the Earth's orbit, with the Sun, S, in one of the foci. Now the spaces, 1, 2, 3, etc., though of different shapes, are of the same dimensions, or contain the same quantity of surface. The Earth, we have already seen, in its journey round the Sun, describes an ellipse, and moves more rapidly in one part of its orbit than in another. But whatever may be its actual velocity, its comparative motion is through equal areas in equal times. Thus its center passes from E to C, and from C to A, in the same period of time, and so of all the other divisions marked in the figure." —Comstock, 1850

Elliptical Orbit

"The elliptical circle being supposed to be the Earth's orbit, with the Sun, S, in one of the foci.…

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on March 21 (spring equinox) and September 21 (autumn equinox) as seen from the position occupied by the earth on June 21 (summer solstice). Rays of light and heat meet the earth vertically on the Equator, and the days and nights are everywhere of equal length." -Wiswell, 1913

Spring Equinox and Autumn Equinox

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on March 21 (spring equinox) and September 21 (autumn equinox)…

A crossing US flag and sword with a sun in the background.

Flag and Sun

A crossing US flag and sword with a sun in the background.

"Helios the Sun-God." —Bulfinch, 1897

Helios

"Helios the Sun-God." —Bulfinch, 1897

"The Sun-god." —Bulfinch, 1897

Helios or sol

"The Sun-god." —Bulfinch, 1897

An illustration of a heliostat or a device that tracks the movement of the sun.

Heliostat

An illustration of a heliostat or a device that tracks the movement of the sun.

The heliotropes (Heliotropium) is a genus of plants in the family Boraginaceae with 250 to 300 species. The name "heliotrope" derives from the fact that these plants turn their leaves to the sun. Helios is Greek for "sun", tropein means "to turn". The old English name "turnsole" has the same etymology.

Heliotropium

The heliotropes (Heliotropium) is a genus of plants in the family Boraginaceae with 250 to 300 species.…

Capital letter I with sun and clouds.

I, Letter

Capital letter I with sun and clouds.

"In Summer heat, when brightly shines the sun, / To make your hay, the proper time is come: / Spread round the new mown grass, and do it right, / Work while the sky is clear, and sun is bright."—Barber, 1857

Make Hay While the Sun Shines

"In Summer heat, when brightly shines the sun, / To make your hay, the proper time is come: / Spread…

The only medal known to inscribe the name of the town.  It depicts a crab, which holds in its claws the symbols of the sun and moon.

Medal of Gebal

The only medal known to inscribe the name of the town. It depicts a crab, which holds in its claws the…

"When the Moon falls into the shadow of the Earth, the rays of the Sun are intercepted, or hid from her, and she then becomes eclipsed. when the Earth's shadow covers a part of her face, as seen by us, she suffers only a partial eclipse, one part of her disc being obscured, while the other part reflects the Sun's light. But when her whole surface is obscured by the Earth's shadow, she then suffers a total eclipse, and of a duration proportionate to the distance she passes through the Earth's shadow." —Comstock, 1850

Moon Eclipse

"When the Moon falls into the shadow of the Earth, the rays of the Sun are intercepted, or hid from…

"Let S be the Sun, E the Earth, and A, B, C, D, F, the Moon in different parts of her orbit. Now when the Moon changes, or is in conjunction with the Sun, as at A, her dark side is turned towards the Earth, and she is invisible, as represented at a. The Sun always shines on one half of the Moon, in every direction, as represented at A and B, on the inner circle; but we at the Earth can see only such portions of the enlightened part as are turned towards us. After her change, when she has moved from A to B, a small part of her illuminated side comes in sight, and she appears horned, as at b, and is then called the new Moon. When she arrives at C, severel days afterwards, one half of her disc is visible, and she appears as at c, her appearance being the same in both circles. At this point she is said to be in her first quarter, because she has passed through a quarter of her orbit, and is 90 degrees from the place of her conjunction with the Sun. At D, she shows us still more of her enlightened side, and is then said to appear gibbous as at d. When she comes to F, her whole enlightened side is turned towards the Earth, and she appears in all the spendor of a full Moon." —Comstock, 1850

Moon Phases

"Let S be the Sun, E the Earth, and A, B, C, D, F, the Moon in different parts of her orbit. Now when…

"The elevation of the tides at c and d is produced by the causes already explained; but their elevation is not so great as normal, since the influence of the Sun acting in the direction a b, tends to counteract the Moon's attractive influence. These small tides are called neap tides, and happen only when the Moon is in her quadartures." —Comstock, 1850

Neap Tides

"The elevation of the tides at c and d is produced by the causes already explained; but their elevation…

"Two stars in the Big Dipper opposite the handle indicate the direction toward the North Star, which, though not very bright, is the first very noticeable star in line." -Wiswell, 1913

Finding the North Star

"Two stars in the Big Dipper opposite the handle indicate the direction toward the North Star, which,…

"Osiris was worshipped as the god of the sun, the source of warmth, life, and fruitfulness, in addition to which he was also regarded as god of the Nile, who annually visited his wide Isis (the Earth), by means of an inundation." —Bulfinch, 1897

Osiris

"Osiris was worshipped as the god of the sun, the source of warmth, life, and fruitfulness, in addition…

"Then Phaethon beheld the world on fire, and felt the heat intolerable. The air he breathed was like the air of a furnace, and full of burning ashes, and the smoke was of a pitchy darkness." —Bulfinch, 1897

Phaethon

"Then Phaethon beheld the world on fire, and felt the heat intolerable. The air he breathed was like…

"Relative distance of the Planets. Having now given a short account of each planet composing the solar system, the relative situation of their several orbits, with the exception of those of the Asteroids, are shown in this figure. The orbits are marked by the signs of each planet, of which the first, or that nearest the Sun, is Mercury, the next Venus, the third the Earth, the fourth Mars then come those of the Asteroids, then Jupiter, then Saturn and lastly Herschel." —Comstock, 1850

Planet Distance

"Relative distance of the Planets. Having now given a short account of each planet composing the solar…

"Circular Motion of the Planets." —Comstock, 1850

Planet Motion

"Circular Motion of the Planets." —Comstock, 1850

"Elliptical Orbits.—It has been supposed that the Sun's attraction, which constitutes the Earth's gravity, was at all times equal, or that the Earth was at an equal distance from the Sun, in all parts of its orbit." —Comstock, 1850

Planet Motion

"Elliptical Orbits.—It has been supposed that the Sun's attraction, which constitutes the Earth's…

"The motion of Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars with respect to Earth." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Planet Rotations

"The motion of Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars with respect to Earth." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

"The comparative dimensions of the planets." —Comstock, 1850

Planet Sizes

"The comparative dimensions of the planets." —Comstock, 1850

"Azure, a ray of the sun issuing out of the dexter corner of the escutcheon. The lines on each side are not noticed. RAY. A stream of light proceeding from a luminous body." -Hall, 1862

Ray of Sun

"Azure, a ray of the sun issuing out of the dexter corner of the escutcheon. The lines on each side…

A polished surface of metal, or any other suitable material, applied for the purpose of reflecting rays of light, heat, or sound in any required direction.

Parabolic, Reflector

A polished surface of metal, or any other suitable material, applied for the purpose of reflecting rays…

A large reptile sunning itself on a rocky island.

Reptile

A large reptile sunning itself on a rocky island.

"The rose argent of the House of York, surrounded with rays, as of the sun."—Aveling, 1891

Rose-en-Soleil

"The rose argent of the House of York, surrounded with rays, as of the sun."—Aveling, 1891

Sailor and his ship

Sailor and Ship

Sailor and his ship

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun during the spring equinox, the summer solstice, the autumn equinox, and the winter solstice." -Wiswell, 1913

Seasons from Earth's Orbit

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun during the spring equinox, the summer solstice, the autumn…

"A slender length of brass resting in a small brass button and designed to stand vertically on the center of a compass glass. From the shadow cast by it the sun's bearing is determined. It may also be used to take compass bearings of other objects." -Whitney, 1911

Shadow Pin

"A slender length of brass resting in a small brass button and designed to stand vertically on the center…

Roman god of the sun

Sol

Roman god of the sun

"Solar Spectrum.—If a ray, proceeding from the sun, be admitted into a darkened chamber, through an aperture in the window shutter, and allowed to pass through a triangular shaped piece of glass, called a prism, the light will be decomposed, and instead of a spot of white, there will be seen, on the opposite wall, a most brilliant display of colors, including all those seen in the rainbow." —Comstock, 1850

Solar Spectrum

"Solar Spectrum.—If a ray, proceeding from the sun, be admitted into a darkened chamber, through…

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on June 21, the summer solstice. Summer and long days north of the Equator; winter and short days south of it." -Wiswell, 1913

Summer Solstice

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on June 21, the summer solstice. Summer and long days north…

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on December 21, the winter solstice. Winter and short days north of the Equator; summer and long days south of it. 1, North Frigid Zone; 2, North Temperate Zone; 3, Torrid Zone; 4, South Temperate Zone; 5, South Frigid Zone." -Wiswell, 1913

Winter Solstice

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on December 21, the winter solstice. Winter and short days…

An Egyptian sun.

Sun

An Egyptian sun.

The sun setting over the ocean with birds flying in the air.

Sun and Ocean

The sun setting over the ocean with birds flying in the air.

A banner illustrated with the setting sun and ocean.

Sun and Ocean Banner

A banner illustrated with the setting sun and ocean.

"When the moon psses between the Earth and Sun, there happens an eclipse of the Sun, because then the Moon's shadow falls upon the Earth. A total eclipse of the Sun happens often, but when it occurs, the total obscurity is confined to a small part of the Earth; since the dark portion of the Moon's shadow never exceeds 200 miles in diameter on the Earth. But the Moon's partial shadow, or penumbra, may cover a space on the Earth of more than 4,000 miles in diameter, within all which space the Sun will be more or less eclipsed. When the penumbra first touches the Earth, the eclipse begins at that place, and ends when the penumbra leaves it. But the eclipse will be total only where the dark shadow of the Moon touches the earth." —Comstock, 1850

Sun Eclipse

"When the moon psses between the Earth and Sun, there happens an eclipse of the Sun, because then the…

"Sun, rising, preceded by Dawn" — Gayley, 1893

Sun Rising

"Sun, rising, preceded by Dawn" — Gayley, 1893

An illustration of the sun rising over the horizon.

Sun Rising Over Horizon

An illustration of the sun rising over the horizon.

This medal with two images which seem to honor the sun. Apollo is pictured on it.

Sun Worship

This medal with two images which seem to honor the sun. Apollo is pictured on it.

"Corona (a crown) in astronomy is a halo or luminous circle round one of the heavenly bodies; specifically the portion of the aureola observed during total eclipses of the sun, which lies outside the chromosphere or region of colored prominences. "—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Corona of the Sun

"Corona (a crown) in astronomy is a halo or luminous circle round one of the heavenly bodies; specifically…