"The illustration shows seven copper wires (4) forming a conductor; a wrapping of thread (3) soaked in pitch; several layers of gutta percha (2); and the covering of twisted wires (1)."—Webster, 1920

The Original Atlantic Cable

"The illustration shows seven copper wires (4) forming a conductor; a wrapping of thread (3) soaked…

Telegraph cable laid at the bottom of the ocean or through festoons, allowing for gradual setting.

Telegraph Cable

Telegraph cable laid at the bottom of the ocean or through festoons, allowing for gradual setting.

An American businessman who helped create the Atlantic Telegraph Company, as well as lay the first telegraphic cable across the Atlantic Ocean.

Cyrus W. Field

An American businessman who helped create the Atlantic Telegraph Company, as well as lay the first telegraphic…

An American businessman who created the Atlantic Telegraph Company.

Cyrus W. Field

An American businessman who created the Atlantic Telegraph Company.

(1821-1876) Lead figure in Americans telegraph industry

Marshall Lefferts

(1821-1876) Lead figure in Americans telegraph industry

"Morse magnetic telegraph will be understood by reference to the accompanying diagram, which represents the construction and arrangement of this form of telegraph. F and E are pieces of soft iron surrounded by coils of wire, which are connected at a and b with wires proceeding from a galvanic battery. When a current is transmitted from a battery located one, two, or three hundred miles, as the case may be, it passes along the wires and into the coils surrounding the pieces of soft iron F and E, thereby converting them into magnets. Above these pieces of soft iron is a metallic bar or lever, A, supported on its center, and haing at one end the arm D, and at the other a small steel point, o. A ribbon of paper, p h, rolled on the cylinder B, is drawn slowly and steadily off by a train of clock-work, K, moved by the action of the weight P on the cord C. This clock-work gives motion to two metal rollers, G and H, between which the ribbon of paper passes, and which, turnin in opposite directions, draw the paper from the cylinder B. The roller H has a groove arond its circumference (not represented in the engraving) above which the paper passes. The steel point, r, or the lever, A, is also directly opposite this groove. The spring r prevents the point from resting upon the paper when the telegraph is not in operation." —Wells, 1857

Magnetic Telegraph

"Morse magnetic telegraph will be understood by reference to the accompanying diagram, which represents…

An Italian inventor who is best known for his development of a radio telegraph system.

Guglielmo Marconi

An Italian inventor who is best known for his development of a radio telegraph system.

Samuel F. B. Morse independently developed an electrical telegraph in 1837, an alternative design that was capable of transmitting over long distances using poor quality wire.

Morse Apparatus, Circuit and Battery

Samuel F. B. Morse independently developed an electrical telegraph in 1837, an alternative design that…

Telegraph key, also known as a Morse key, are generic terms for any switching device used primarily to send Morse code.

Morse Key

Telegraph key, also known as a Morse key, are generic terms for any switching device used primarily…

An electronic device used to record Morse code on a roll of paper.

Morse Register

An electronic device used to record Morse code on a roll of paper.

A form of long-distance communication, which used electricity to send and receive messages.

Morse's First Telegraph Instrument

A form of long-distance communication, which used electricity to send and receive messages.

Samuel Morse explaining his telegraph to members of Congress.

Samuel Morse

Samuel Morse explaining his telegraph to members of Congress.

Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code.

Samuel Finley Breese Morse

Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter of portraits…

"The machine itself is sufficiently simple, and will be comprehended at once, by those who have made electro-magnetic experiments, by the annexed diagram and description. The temporary magnet a, enveloped with its insulated copper wire, is fastened to the wooden frame b, g, by means of cords or otherwise. The frame also supports the standard h, which sustains the revolving drum f, on which the paper to receive the emblematical alphabet is fixed, m being the edge of the paper. To the arm g, is appended the lever c, of wood, which has a slight vertical motion, in one direction by the steel spring d, and in the other, by the armature of soft iron e." —Comstock, 1850

Morses Telegraph

"The machine itself is sufficiently simple, and will be comprehended at once, by those who have made…

An illustration of a small perforating machine used in telegraphing.

Perforating Machine (small)

An illustration of a small perforating machine used in telegraphing.

Telegraph and Railroad

Railroad

Telegraph and Railroad

An electronic device used to record morse code on a roll of paper.

Morse Recorder

An electronic device used to record morse code on a roll of paper.

telegraph, morse, wireless

Wireless Telegraph Station

telegraph, morse, wireless

"Under side of a modern switchboard, showing 2,000 telegraph wires."—E. Benjamin Andrews 1895

switchboard

"Under side of a modern switchboard, showing 2,000 telegraph wires."—E. Benjamin Andrews 1895

Samuel F. B. Morse's original model of the telegraph insrument.

Telegraph

Samuel F. B. Morse's original model of the telegraph insrument.

A man operating an electro-magnetic telegraph.

Telegraph

A man operating an electro-magnetic telegraph.

An instrument to send messages by means of electricity, either at short or long distances. An instrument of this kind is frequently called the electric telegraph.

Telegraph

An instrument to send messages by means of electricity, either at short or long distances. An instrument…

"The first telegraphic instrument, as exhibited in 1837 by Morse."—E. Benjamin Andrews 1895

telegraph instrument

"The first telegraphic instrument, as exhibited in 1837 by Morse."—E. Benjamin Andrews 1895

Telegraph key is a general term for any switching device used primarily to send Morse code. Similar keys are used for all forms of manual telegraphy, such as an electrical telegraph and radio telegraphy.

Telegraph Key

Telegraph key is a general term for any switching device used primarily to send Morse code. Similar…

"A transmitter or key is a current interrupter manipulated by the operator. It consists essentially of a metal layer, L, pivoted at aa, and conneted to the line by the screw at m which is insultated from the base, and the screw at n which is connected to the base and lever." -Avery 1895

Telegraph Transmitter

"A transmitter or key is a current interrupter manipulated by the operator. It consists essentially…

"Instead of the telephone receivers normally used in telegraphs, substitute with galvanoscopes. When 1 is pressed, the needles at G and G' will be turned in one direction; when 2 is depressed, teh needles will be turned in the other direction." -Avery 1895

Telegraph Using Galvanoscopes

"Instead of the telephone receivers normally used in telegraphs, substitute with galvanoscopes. When…

"A long ribbon of white paper is attached on a spool, and connected to a receiver that is wired to a switch. When the switch is closed, a signal is sent to the receiver, and it marks either a dot or dash on the paper." -Avery 1895

One Way Telegraph

"A long ribbon of white paper is attached on a spool, and connected to a receiver that is wired to a…

"The Morse register is represented [here]. The armature, A , is supported at the end of a lever, and over the cores of the magnet bobbins, M. A spring, S, lifts the armature when the cores are demagnetized on the breaking of the circuit by the operator at the key. When A is pulled down by M, a style or pencil at P is pressed against R, a paper ribbon that is drawn along by clock work. this style may be made to record upon the paper a dot-and-dash communication sent by the operator at a key, perhaps hundreds of miles away." -Avery 1895

Morse Telegraph Register

"The Morse register is represented [here]. The armature, A , is supported at the end of a lever, and…

"With a long main-line and many instruments in circuit, the resistance may be so great as to render the main-battery current so feeble that it cannot operate the sounder with sufficient energy to render the signals distinctly audible. This difficulty is met by introducing a 'local battery,' and a 'relay' at each station on the line." -Avery 1895

Telegraph Relay

"With a long main-line and many instruments in circuit, the resistance may be so great as to render…

"The electric telegraph in its simplest form, consists of an electric circuit connecting he points between which telegraphic intercourse is established, a battery at each point, connected wih this circuit, and two instruments, one for transmitting and the other for receiving electric impluses by with arbitrary sign representing written language are produced." -Atkinson 1903

Simple Telegraph

"The electric telegraph in its simplest form, consists of an electric circuit connecting he points between…

"A simple telegraph consisting of two telephone receivers, two batteries, and two keys." -Avery 1895

Simple Telegraph

"A simple telegraph consisting of two telephone receivers, two batteries, and two keys." -Avery 1895

"A variation of the telegraph sounder that uses a pool of mercury to close the circuit to produce the sound when a click is received." -Avery 1895

Telegraph Sounder

"A variation of the telegraph sounder that uses a pool of mercury to close the circuit to produce the…

"A complete telegraph system, displaying batteries, keys, receivers, relays and local batteries on both ends." -Avery 1895

Complete Telegraph System

"A complete telegraph system, displaying batteries, keys, receivers, relays and local batteries on both…

"...two stations...each being furnished with a neutral relay, connected as [shown] and also each with a sounder and key, at each of which an operator is seated..." -Atkinson 1903

Telegraph with Neutral Relay

"...two stations...each being furnished with a neutral relay, connected as [shown] and also each with…

Telegraphy is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters. A telegraph is a device for transmitting and receiving messages over long distances.

The Inner Workings of Telegraphy

Telegraphy is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters.…

Yeate's dial telegraph from 1875.

Yeate's Telegraph

Yeate's dial telegraph from 1875.