Tension is the force which a gas always exerts when confined to a limited space. In the example, a partially filled football is placed in a glass jar (a receiver) from which air has been exhausted. The football immediately expands. This experiment also works with a bladder. A branch of mechanics that deals with the properties of gases is called pneumatics.

Pneumatics

Tension is the force which a gas always exerts when confined to a limited space. In the example, a partially…

"Carefully place a fine sewing needle upon the surface of the water. With care, and perhaps repitition, the needle may be made to float...Closely examine the surface of the water. Notice that the needle rests in a little depression or bed, just as it would if the surface of the water was a thin skin or membrane." -Avery 1895

Surface Tension and Needle

"Carefully place a fine sewing needle upon the surface of the water. With care, and perhaps repitition,…

"Since the strength of the fibers in adhesion is very much less than in tension and compression, adhesion enters into nearly every test as an important factor. Thus, if a piece of wood consisting of several fibers is tested in tension, the fibers a and b would probably not break at all, but be merely pulled out, the failure, as far as they are concerned, being due to lack of adhesion and not to a lack of tensile strength. Every tension test presents numerous cases of this king, the broken fibers presenting no even fracture, but being splintered and drawn out especially if the wood is good."—Government Printing Office, 1897

Behavior of Fibers in Tension Test

"Since the strength of the fibers in adhesion is very much less than in tension and compression, adhesion…