For safety, a rigid ladder should be leaned at an angle of about fifteen degrees to the vertical. In other words, the distance from the foot of the ladder to the wall should be about one quarter of the height of the top of the ladder. At steeper angles, the ladder is at risk of toppling backwards when the climber leans away from it

Four Wheeled Cart Mount for Ariel Ladder

For safety, a rigid ladder should be leaned at an angle of about fifteen degrees to the vertical. In…

A ladder is a vertical or inclined set of rungs or steps. There are two types: rigid ladders that can be leaned against a vertical surface such as a wall, and rope ladders that are hung from the top.

Six Step Ladder

A ladder is a vertical or inclined set of rungs or steps. There are two types: rigid ladders that can…

The pole lathe of 1800 is a wood turning tool that uses a pole as a return spring for the treadle (foot pedal).

Pole Lathe

The pole lathe of 1800 is a wood turning tool that uses a pole as a return spring for the treadle (foot…

A convenient screw cutting using a lathe to create threads on the metal rod.

Screw Cutting Device using Lathe

A convenient screw cutting using a lathe to create threads on the metal rod.

A spiral milling apparatus for a lathe to create drills and flutes. The working surface is fastened to the lathe by the bolt on the left. While the rod is spinning, a spindle is inserted in a hole at a desired angle.

Spiral Milling Lathe

A spiral milling apparatus for a lathe to create drills and flutes. The working surface is fastened…

"Where the lathe has no special taper turning attachment, the rig here described can readily be made and applied. The hand wheel of the cross feed is removed, and replaced by a hard—wood disk S that has a rim groove for a stout cord A. One end of this cord is attached to the tail stock at B, by means of a bent metal strip D. The conicity or degree of taper will be determined by the diameter of the disk S." —Grimshaw, 1902

Taper Turning and Boring Lathe Rig

"Where the lathe has no special taper turning attachment, the rig here described can readily be made…

The illustration shows a set up to turn irregular shaped materials using an ordinary lathe. The lathe is attached to the gear with a belt, where the gear turns the object in the tool holder.

Turning Irregular Shaped Materials using Ordinary Lathe

The illustration shows a set up to turn irregular shaped materials using an ordinary lathe. The lathe…

A lathe for turning wood to create a hole by fastening the material on to the faceplate.

Lathe, Wood Turning

A lathe for turning wood to create a hole by fastening the material on to the faceplate.

In the medical field this is used as a prosthesis or prosthetic limb. This device replaces a missing body part

Artificial Leg

In the medical field this is used as a prosthesis or prosthetic limb. This device replaces a missing…

A tool used to indicate whether a surface is level (horizontal) or plumb (vertical).

Spirit Level

A tool used to indicate whether a surface is level (horizontal) or plumb (vertical).

"The Lift Hammer." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Lift Hammer

"The Lift Hammer." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

A lister, used for planting corn in semi-arid regions.

Lister

A lister, used for planting corn in semi-arid regions.

A saw is a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials. The cutting edge of a saw is either a serrated blade or an abrasive.

Machine for Sawing Grooving

A saw is a tool that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials.…

A volute or flat spiral turning machine. The spiral patterns are created by cutting the wood adjusting the blade while rotating the wood with the lathe.

Turning Volute or Flat Spiral Machine

A volute or flat spiral turning machine. The spiral patterns are created by cutting the wood adjusting…

"By use of an instrument called a map measurer, set the hand on the face to read zero, roll the small wheel over the distance; now roll the wheel in an opposite direction along the graphical scale, noting the number of yards passed over. A map measurer is valuable for use in solving map problems in patrolling, advance guard, outpost, etc." — Moss, 1914

Map measurer

"By use of an instrument called a map measurer, set the hand on the face to read zero, roll the small…

This blackboard marker is a tool used to guide blackboard user while drawing horizontal, vertical and diagonal lines.

Blackboard Marker

This blackboard marker is a tool used to guide blackboard user while drawing horizontal, vertical and…

The double-row marker, used for marking off the rows where seed or plants are to be planted.

Double-row marker

The double-row marker, used for marking off the rows where seed or plants are to be planted.

A marking gauge is used in woodworking and metalworking to mark out lines for cutting or other operations. In metalworking it can be known as a scratch gauge. The purpose of the gauge is to scribe a line parallel to a reference edge or surface. It is used in joinery and sheetmetal operations.

Marking Gauge

A marking gauge is used in woodworking and metalworking to mark out lines for cutting or other operations.…

"For very small beds, drills, or furrows may be made by a simple marking-stick." — Baily, 1898

Marking-stick

"For very small beds, drills, or furrows may be made by a simple marking-stick." — Baily, 1898

This is a tool used to mash potatoes.

Potato Mashing Tool

This is a tool used to mash potatoes.

This is a tool used to measure circular bodies, very similar to how current calipers work. This tool features a perpendicular ruler to the circular opening.

Circular Body Measure Tool

This is a tool used to measure circular bodies, very similar to how current calipers work. This tool…

This machine was used prepare small cuts of meat, a tool commonly used by butchers.

Cutter, Meat

This machine was used prepare small cuts of meat, a tool commonly used by butchers.

This sign is used to indicate that a mechanic is located nearby.

Mechanic, Black and White

This sign is used to indicate that a mechanic is located nearby.

This sign is used to indicate that a mechanic is located nearby.

Mechanic, Color

This sign is used to indicate that a mechanic is located nearby.

This sign is used to indicate that a mechanic is located nearby.

Mechanic, Outline

This sign is used to indicate that a mechanic is located nearby.

This sign is used to indicate that a mechanic is located nearby.

Mechanic, Silhouette

This sign is used to indicate that a mechanic is located nearby.

A middle-buster for cotton fields.

Middle-buster

A middle-buster for cotton fields.

"The workpiece is fastened on a round platen, which in turn is attached to the table of a large and heavy vertical boring machine. The mill arbor bears a profile mill with inserted teeth, and the table has power feed. The operation is cheaper than turning in the lathe." —Grimshaw, 1902

Ring Milling

"The workpiece is fastened on a round platen, which in turn is attached to the table of a large and…

"The moulding plane." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Moulding Plane

"The moulding plane." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

A needle used in sewing to pull thread through cloth

Sewing Needle

A needle used in sewing to pull thread through cloth

"A square used by carpenters, masons, and other artificers to make their work rectangular. It was made by taking three flat wooden rulers of equal thickness, one of them being two feet ten inches long, the others each two feet long, and joining them together by their extremities, so as to assume the form of a right-angled triangle. This method, though only a close approximation, must have been quite sufficient for all common purposes. For the sake of convenience, the longest side, i. e. the hypotenuse of the triangle, was discarded, and the instrument then assumed the form in which it is exhibited, among other tools, on a tomb found at Rome, and which resembles that in modern use. A square of a still more simple fashion made by merely cutting a rectangular piece out of a board is shown on another sepulchral monument and copied in the woodcut which is here introduced." — Smith, 1873

Norma

"A square used by carpenters, masons, and other artificers to make their work rectangular. It was made…

A rusted nut is removed by splitting it with a cold chisel by placing the chisel along the fiber it wiill split easily.

Removing Rusted Nuts using Chisel

A rusted nut is removed by splitting it with a cold chisel by placing the chisel along the fiber it…

Although preservation of food using tin cans had been practiced since at least 1772 in the Netherlands, the first can openers were patented only in 1855 in England and in 1858 in the United States. Those openers were basically variations of a knife, and the 1855 design continues to be produced.

Rotating Cutting Wheel Tin Can Opener

Although preservation of food using tin cans had been practiced since at least 1772 in the Netherlands,…

"On rolling land it is better to use one that has 3 sections with 6 to 10 wheels per section."—The Federal Digest, 1921

16-Wheel Sub-Surface Packer

"On rolling land it is better to use one that has 3 sections with 6 to 10 wheels per section."—The…

Padlocks are portable locks used to protect against theft, vandalism, sabotage, espionage, unauthorized use, and harm. They are designed to protect against some degree of forced and surreptitious entry.

Mechanism Depiction of a, Padlock

Padlocks are portable locks used to protect against theft, vandalism, sabotage, espionage, unauthorized…

"The English parallel vice is little used except for small work." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Parallel Vice

"The English parallel vice is little used except for small work." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"The pickfork or Canterbury hoe is a very useful tool for breaking up the surface soil, the three-pronged end being used for the looser parts, and the mattock end for breaking clods, or when the surface has become much consolidated." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pickfork

"The pickfork or Canterbury hoe is a very useful tool for breaking up the surface soil, the three-pronged…

For removing a hinge pin, a tool having a wedge-shaped head mounted on a shank equipped with a support projection to receive the hinge. The head includes an impact surface for hammering the wedge portion between the hinge and the head of the hinge pin. A striker plate perpendicular to the tool shank receives impact blows to dislodge the pin from the hinge.

Pin Removal Tool

For removing a hinge pin, a tool having a wedge-shaped head mounted on a shank equipped with a support…

"Where pins or studs that are in place are to be milled on their ends as well as on their circumference, and where great accuracy in diameter and length are required, the best tool to use is that here shown." —Grimshaw, 1902

Hollow Mill for Pins

"Where pins or studs that are in place are to be milled on their ends as well as on their circumference,…

A wrench with two serrated jaws, one adjustable, for gripping and turning pipe.

Adjustable Pipe Wrench

A wrench with two serrated jaws, one adjustable, for gripping and turning pipe.

A plane is a tool for shaping wood. Planes are used to flatten, reduce the thickness of, and impart a smooth surface to a rough piece of lumber or timber. Planing is used to produce horizontal, vertical, or inclined flat surfaces on workpieces usually too large for shaping. Special types of planes are designed to cut joints or decorative mouldings.

Plane Tool

A plane is a tool for shaping wood. Planes are used to flatten, reduce the thickness of, and impart…

A planker, used for crushing clods of soil.

Planker

A planker, used for crushing clods of soil.

The Cole corn planter, well-suited for planting large acreages of corn.

Cole corn planter

The Cole corn planter, well-suited for planting large acreages of corn.

This corn planter featured an adjustable dropping device. This allowed the operator to drop the corn in the intended place on the furrows.

Corn Planter

This corn planter featured an adjustable dropping device. This allowed the operator to drop the corn…

"For large plants, a broader dibber may be used." — Baily, 1898

Strawberry planter

"For large plants, a broader dibber may be used." — Baily, 1898

This design features an adjustable plough allowing for the wing to pivot.

Landscaping Plough

This design features an adjustable plough allowing for the wing to pivot.

A good plow.

Plow

A good plow.

A farm implement consisting of a heavy blade at the end of a beam, usually hitched to a draft team or motor vehicle and used for breaking up soil and cutting furrows in preparation for sowing.

Agricultural Plow

A farm implement consisting of a heavy blade at the end of a beam, usually hitched to a draft team or…

The plow is a tool used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in reparation for sowing seed or planting. It has been a basic instrument for most of recorded history, and represents one of the major advances in agriculture.

Cultivation Plow

The plow is a tool used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in reparation for sowing seed or…

A four-horse gang plow. One man can plow nearly as fast as two ment with two-horse plows.

Four-horse gang plow

A four-horse gang plow. One man can plow nearly as fast as two ment with two-horse plows.

A double-wheeled hand plow.

Hand plow

A double-wheeled hand plow.

A horse plow, well-suited to sandy soils.

Horse plow

A horse plow, well-suited to sandy soils.

A farm implement consisting of a heavy blade at the end of a beam, usually hitched to a draft team or motor vehicle and used for breaking up soil and cutting furrows in preparation for sowing.

Tool Plow

A farm implement consisting of a heavy blade at the end of a beam, usually hitched to a draft team or…

"Potato digger with agitating rear rack and vine separator."—The Federal Digest, 1921

Potato Digger

"Potato digger with agitating rear rack and vine separator."—The Federal Digest, 1921

This cotton press design allowed for cotton to filter through a windlass, later received by the hoop.

Cotton Press

This cotton press design allowed for cotton to filter through a windlass, later received by the hoop.

A protractor is a semicircular tool for measuring angles in degrees.

Protractor

A protractor is a semicircular tool for measuring angles in degrees.

This is a tool used to pull tacks or other objects that puncture through tire walls.

Tack Puller

This is a tool used to pull tacks or other objects that puncture through tire walls.

"The belt is thrown on to set the machine in motion, the loose pulley is pressed aside by the spiral springs on the bolts, its rim entirely touches that of the fast pulley and helps to set this latter in motion by friction." —Grimshaw, 1902

Loose Driving Pulley

"The belt is thrown on to set the machine in motion, the loose pulley is pressed aside by the spiral…

A tool used to gather leaves, hay, grass, and other items.

Garden Rake

A tool used to gather leaves, hay, grass, and other items.

A long-handled tool with a row of teeth at its head; used to move leaves or loosen soil

Multipurpose Rake

A long-handled tool with a row of teeth at its head; used to move leaves or loosen soil