An Italian philosopher best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments, which condemned torture and the death penality.

Beccaria

An Italian philosopher best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments, which condemned torture…

The torture of a free mason. Caption below illustration: "They next set my back against a thick board, at each extremity of which was pulley; through which a rope ran, that was fastened at the end of the chain at my wrist. The tormentors then, stretching these ropes by means of a roller, pressed and bruised my stomach in proportion as the ropes were drawn tighter.

Torture of a Free Mason

The torture of a free mason. Caption below illustration: "They next set my back against a thick board,…

"As he sang these tender strains, the very ghosts shed tears. Tantalus, in spite of his thirst, stopped for a moment his efforts for water, Ixion's wheel stood still, the vulture ceased to tear the giant's liver, the daightrs of Danaus rested from their task of drawing water in a sieve, and Sisyphus sat on his rock to listen." —Bulfinch, 1897

Tantalus, Sisyphus, and Ixion

"As he sang these tender strains, the very ghosts shed tears. Tantalus, in spite of his thirst, stopped…

Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England, on the north bank of the River Thames. The Tower of London is often identified with the White Tower, the original stark square fortress built by William the Conqueror in 1078. However, the tower as a whole is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. The tower's primary function was a fortress, a royal palace, and a prison (particularly for high status and royal prisoners).

Procession to the Tower of London

Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically…

The name Traitors' Gate has been used since the early seventeenth century, prisoners were brought by barge along the Thames, passing under London Bridge, where the heads of recently executed prisoners were displayed on pikes. Anne Boleyn, Sir Thomas More, Queen Catherine Howard, and Anne Boleyn's daughter, Elizabeth I, all entered the Tower by Traitors' Gate.

Traitor's Gate, Tower of London

The name Traitors' Gate has been used since the early seventeenth century, prisoners were brought by…