A cottage with a lovely garden and white picket fence. Sunflowers bloom and grape vines grow wild.

Cottage

A cottage with a lovely garden and white picket fence. Sunflowers bloom and grape vines grow wild.

"The cross-wire system is another method of training which appears to be confined in this country to the Hudson River Valley, and even there it is used only to a limited extent. But at Juraçon, Bassess-Pyrénées, France, this system is regularly followed. Poles are used in place of the wires, however. [The image] represents vines trained in this manner."—Government Printing Office, 1897

Cross-Wire System of Grape Training

"The cross-wire system is another method of training which appears to be confined in this country to…

An illustration of a grapevine.

Grapevine

An illustration of a grapevine.

An illustration of a grapevine.

Grapevine

An illustration of a grapevine.

"For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that was a householder, who went out early in the morning to hire laborers into his vineyard. And when he had agreed with the laborers for a shilling a day, he sent them into his vineyard. And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing in the marketplace idle; and to them he said, Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give you. And they went their way. Again he went out about the sixth and the ninth hour, and did likewise. And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing; and he saith unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle? They say unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard. And when even was come, the lord of the vineyard saith unto his steward, Call the laborers, and pay them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first. And when they came that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every man a shilling. And when the first came, they supposed that they would receive more; and they likewise received every man a shilling. And when they received it, they murmured against the householder, saying, These last have spent but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us, who have borne the burden of the day and the scorching heat. But he answered and said to one of them, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me for a shilling? Take up that which is thine, and go thy way; it is my will to give unto this last, even as unto thee. Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? or is thine eye evil, because I am good? So the last shall be first, and the first last." Matthew 20:1-16 ASV
<p>The owner of a vineyard directs two laborers to join others already working in the background.

Laborers in the Vineyard Parable

"For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that was a householder, who went out early in the morning…

"A diminutive through osculum from os, meaning "a little face," was the term applied to faces or heads of Bacchus, which were suspended in the vineyards to be turned in every direction by the wind. Whichsoever way they looked they were supposed to make, the vines in that quarter fruitful. The figure represents the countenance of Bacchus with a beautiful, mild, and propitious expression. the other figure represents a tree with four oscilla hung upon its branches. A syrinx and a pedum are placed at the root of the tree." &mdash; Smith, 1873

Oscillum

"A diminutive through osculum from os, meaning "a little face," was the term applied to faces or heads…

A diagram of the horizontal arm spur system, depicting the various parts of a vine.

Horizontal Arm Spur System

A diagram of the horizontal arm spur system, depicting the various parts of a vine.

An image depicting a pruned vine that was trained according to the umbrella system. This system is also called the two-cane Kniffin.

Pruned System According to the Umbrella System

An image depicting a pruned vine that was trained according to the umbrella system. This system is also…

"In Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, and elsewhere the manufacture of wine from grapes is an important industry of the people." &mdash;The Popular Cyclopedia, 1888

Wine growing

"In Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, and elsewhere the manufacture of wine from grapes is an important…