"New Jersey Camp at Arling, Va., designated as Camp Princeton in honor of one of the Revolutionary battle grounds of New Jersey. This picture is of Runyon's aid-de-camp, Captain James B. mulligan, of Elizabeth, N. J." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Aid-de-camp

"New Jersey Camp at Arling, Va., designated as Camp Princeton in honor of one of the Revolutionary battle…

The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the First Battle of Manassas, was the first major land battle of the American Civil War, fought on July 21, 1861, near Manassas, Virginia.

Battle of Bull Run

The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the First Battle of Manassas, was the first major land battle…

The First Battle of Bull Run is also known as the First Battle of Manassas and was the first major land battle of the Civil War fought on July 21, 1861 near Manassas, Virginia. Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell advanced his Union Army troops across Bull Run against the Confederate Army under Brig. Gens. Joseph E. Johnston and P.G.T. Buearegard. The Union was forced to retreat back to Washington, D.C.

First Battle of Bull Run

The First Battle of Bull Run is also known as the First Battle of Manassas and was the first major land…

Castle Thunder, located in Richmond, Virginia, was a former tobacco warehouse located on Tobacco Row, converted into a prison used by the Confederacy to house civilian prisoners, including captured Union spies, political prisoners and those charged with treason during the American Civil War.

Castle Thunder

Castle Thunder, located in Richmond, Virginia, was a former tobacco warehouse located on Tobacco Row,…

"Battle of Cedar Mountain, fought Saturday, August 9th, 1862, between the Federal troops commanded by General Banks and the Confederate Army led by Generals Jackson, Ewell, Winder, etc.- final repulse of the Confederates. General Pope's report of the battle is as follows: "On Saturday, August 9th, 1862, the enemy advanced rapidly to Cedar Mountain, the sides of which they occupied in heavy force. General Banks was instructed to take up his position on the ground occupied by Crawford's brigade, of his command, which had been thrown out the day previous to observe the enemy's movements. He was directed not to advance beyond that point, and if attacked by the enemy to defend his position and send back timely notice. The artillery of the enemy was opened early in the afternoon, but he made no advance until nearly five o'clock, at which time a few skirmishers were thrown forward on each side under cover of the heavy wood in which his force was concealed. The enemy pushed forward a strong force in the rear of his skirmishers, and General Banks advanced to the attack. The engagement did not fairly open until after six o'clock, and for an hour and a half was furious and unceasing. I arrived personally on the field at 7 P.M., and found the action raging furiously. The infantry fire was incessant and severe. I found General Banks holding the position he took up early in the morning. His losses were heavy. Ricketts's division was immediately pushed forward and occupied the right of General Banks, the brigades of Crawford and Gordon being directed to change their position from the right and mass themselves in the centre. Before this change could be effected it was quite dark, though the artillery fire continued at short range without intermission. The artillery fire, at night, by the Second and Fifth Maine batteries in Ricketts's division of General McDowell's corps was most destructive, as was readily observable the next morning in the dead men and horses and broken gun carriages of the enemy's batteries which had been advanced against it. Our troops rested on their arms during the night in line of battle, the heavy shelling being kept up on both sides until midnight. At daylight the next morning the enemy fell back two miles from our front, and still higher up the mountain."" —Leslie, 1896

Battle of Cedar Mountain

"Battle of Cedar Mountain, fought Saturday, August 9th, 1862, between the Federal troops commanded by…

The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War, fought near the village of Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia, from April 30 to May 6, 1863.

Ruins of Chancellorsville

The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War, fought near the village…

St. John's Church in Virginia overlooking a cemetery.

St. John's Church

St. John's Church in Virginia overlooking a cemetery.

Fight between Clayborne and the St. Mary's ship.

Clayborne Fight

Fight between Clayborne and the St. Mary's ship.

William Clayborne was secretary of the Virginia colony.

William Clayborne

William Clayborne was secretary of the Virginia colony.

The Colonial Seal of Virginia.

Colonial Virginia

The Colonial Seal of Virginia.

Political cartoon from the <em>Boston Intependent Chronicle</em> June 12, 1788 regarding Virginia's ratification of the Constitution

Constitution Ratification Cartoon

Political cartoon from the Boston Intependent Chronicle June 12, 1788 regarding Virginia's…

Craney Island is a point of land in the independent city of Portsmouth in the South Hampton Roads region of eastern Virginia in the United States. The location, formerly in Norfolk County, is near the mouth of the Elizabeth River opposite Lambert's Point on Hampton Roads.

The Block-House in Craney Island, 1813

Craney Island is a point of land in the independent city of Portsmouth in the South Hampton Roads region…

During this early period Virginia's population grew with the introduction of settlers and servants into the burgeoning plantation economy. Land from the Native Americans was appropriated by force and treaty, including the Treaty of 1677, which made the signatory tribes tributary states. In 1619 the House of Burgesses was established as the colony's elected governance, and African servants were first introduced, with slavery being codified in 1661.

Early Settlers

During this early period Virginia's population grew with the introduction of settlers and servants into…

The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place on May 31 and June 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War.

Fair Oaks

The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place on…

Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron (October 22, 1693 &ndash; December 9, 1781). Various place names in Northern Virginia and West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle are named after him&mdash;most notably Fairfax County, Virginia.

Thomas Fairfax

Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron (October 22, 1693 – December 9, 1781). Various place…

Fort Harrison was an important component of the Confederate defenses of Richmond during the American Civil War.

Fort Harrison, on the Wabash

Fort Harrison was an important component of the Confederate defenses of Richmond during the American…

"Section of Fort Runyon, Va., guarding the road to Alexandria, occupied by the Twenty-first Regiment, New York Volunteers, August 1861. For Runyon, named after the commander of the New Jersey Regiments which were formerly stationed there, entirely commanded the road to Alexandria. Our sketch shows the battery erected on this important point. The spot was a most picturesque one, commanding a splendid view all around, the background being the Potomac and Washington." —Leslie, 1896

Fort Runyon

"Section of Fort Runyon, Va., guarding the road to Alexandria, occupied by the Twenty-first Regiment,…

The Battle of Fredericksburg, fought in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, from December 11 to December 15, 1862, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, is remembered as one of the most one-sided battles of the American Civil War.

The Attack on Fredericksburg

The Battle of Fredericksburg, fought in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, from December 11 to December…

The Battle of Fredericksburg, fought in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, from December 11 to December 15, 1862, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, is remembered as one of the most one-sided battles of the American Civil War.

Scene in Fredericksburg on the Morning of Dec. 12, 1862

The Battle of Fredericksburg, fought in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, from December 11 to December…

Fredericksburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia located 50 miles south of Washington, D.C., and 58 miles north of Richmond. As of the 2000 census, the city had a population of 19,279. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Fredericksburg with neighboring Spotsylvania County for statistical purposes. It is a part of the Washington Metropolitan Area.

Fredericksburg, VA

Fredericksburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia located 50 miles south of Washington,…

An illustration of Fredericksburg, Virginia.

Fredericksburg, Virginia

An illustration of Fredericksburg, Virginia.

State house in Fredricksburg.

State House, Fredricksburg VA

State house in Fredricksburg.

"Headquarters of General Butterfield, near Harrison's Landing, James River, Va." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Headquarters of General Butterfield

"Headquarters of General Butterfield, near Harrison's Landing, James River, Va." —Leslie, 1896

An illustration of George Washington's grave.

George Washington's Grave

An illustration of George Washington's grave.

Greenway Court was an estate of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron in Clarke County, Virginia, USA.

Greenway Court

Greenway Court was an estate of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron in Clarke County, Virginia,…

Hanover County Courthouse is the place where Patrick Henry practiced law and argued the case accusing King George III of tyranny in overturning colonial law without regard to the wishes of his subjects.

Hanover Courthouse

Hanover County Courthouse is the place where Patrick Henry practiced law and argued the case accusing…

A brick building, where a battle would later take place.

Hanover Courthouse, Virginia

A brick building, where a battle would later take place.

Harrison's Landing at Berkeley Plantation is one of the first great estates in America located on the banks of the James River on State Route 5 in Charles City County, Virginia. During the Civil War, Union troops occupied Berkeley Plantation at Harrison's Landing.

Harrison's Landing

Harrison's Landing at Berkeley Plantation is one of the first great estates in America located on the…

Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 - June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered for his "Give me Liberty, or give me Death!" speech.

Patrick Henry

Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 - June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known…

A drawing of the courtroom scene when Patrick Henry said his famous speech, "Give me liberty or give me death."

"Give me liberty or give me death!"

A drawing of the courtroom scene when Patrick Henry said his famous speech, "Give me liberty or give…

Statue of Patrick Henry, American Revolutionary, in Richmond, Virginia.

Statue of Patrick Henry at Richmond, VA

Statue of Patrick Henry, American Revolutionary, in Richmond, Virginia.

The grave of Thomas Jefferson in Charlottesville, Virginia.

Thomas Jefferson's Grave

The grave of Thomas Jefferson in Charlottesville, Virginia.

(1835-1905) Soldier in the Civil War for the Confederates. Governor of Virginia.

Fithugh Lee

(1835-1905) Soldier in the Civil War for the Confederates. Governor of Virginia.

Henry Lee III (January 29, 1756–March 25, 1818) was an early American patriot who served as the Governor of Virginia and as the Virginia Representative to the United States Congress. During the American Revolution, Lee served as a cavalry officer in the Continental Army and earned the name Light Horse Harry.

Henry Lee

Henry Lee III (January 29, 1756–March 25, 1818) was an early American patriot who served as the Governor…

Libby Prison was a Confederate Prison at Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War.

Libby Prison, Richmond

Libby Prison was a Confederate Prison at Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War.

Loading tobacco in Virginia

Loading Tobacco

Loading tobacco in Virginia

An illustration of soldiers guarding Long Bridge in Arlington, Virginia.

Soldiers Guarding Long Bridge

An illustration of soldiers guarding Long Bridge in Arlington, Virginia.

The burial place of President James Madison in Montpelier, Virginia.

Tomb of President Madison

The burial place of President James Madison in Montpelier, Virginia.

Montpelier was the estate of James Madison, fourth President of the United States.

Montpelier: The Home of James Madison

Montpelier was the estate of James Madison, fourth President of the United States.

A council of war at Massaponax Church in Virginia.

Massaponax Church

A council of war at Massaponax Church in Virginia.

The Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, also known as the Battle of Mechanicsville or Ellerson's Mill, took place on June 26, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia as the first major engagement of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War.

Mechanicsville, 1862

The Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, also known as the Battle of Mechanicsville or Ellerson's Mill, took…

Battle between the ironclads Monitor and Merrimac.

Monitor and Merrimac

Battle between the ironclads Monitor and Merrimac.

The residence of President James Monroe in Oak Hill, Virginia.

Monroe's Residence at Oak Hill, VA

The residence of President James Monroe in Oak Hill, Virginia.

The tomb of President James Monroe in Richmond, Virginia.

Tomb of President Monroe

The tomb of President James Monroe in Richmond, Virginia.

Thomas Jefferson's estate near Charlottesville, Virginia.

Monticello

Thomas Jefferson's estate near Charlottesville, Virginia.

Monticello, located near Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, the third President of the United States.

Monticello, Jefferson's Home

Monticello, located near Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal…

Montpelier was James Madison's estate in Orange, Virginia. It was built in 1724.

Montpelier, Madison's Estate

Montpelier was James Madison's estate in Orange, Virginia. It was built in 1724.

An illustration of Mount Vernon which is located near what is now Alexandria, Virginia. Mt. Vernon was the plantation home of the first President of the United States, George Washington. The mansion is built of wood in neoclassical Georgian architecture style, and the estate is located on the banks of the Potomac River.

Mount Vernon

An illustration of Mount Vernon which is located near what is now Alexandria, Virginia. Mt. Vernon was…

Mount Vernon, located near Alexandria, Virginia, was the plantation home of the first President of the United States, George Washington. The mansion is built of wood in neoclassical Georgian architectural style, and the estate is located on the banks of the Potomac River.

Mount Vernon

Mount Vernon, located near Alexandria, Virginia, was the plantation home of the first President of the…

The servant's quarters of George Washington's Mount Vernon plantation in Virginia.

Mount Vernon

The servant's quarters of George Washington's Mount Vernon plantation in Virginia.

Mount Vernon, located near Alexandria, Virginia, was the plantation home of the first President of the United States, George Washington. The mansion is built of wood in neoclassical Georgian architectural style, and the estate is located on the banks of the Potomac River.

Mt. Vernon

Mount Vernon, located near Alexandria, Virginia, was the plantation home of the first President of the…

Natural Bridge in Rockbridge County, Virginia is a geological formation in which Cedar Creek has carved a gorge of the limestone forming an arch 215 ft high with a span of 90 ft.

The Natural Bridge in Virginia

Natural Bridge in Rockbridge County, Virginia is a geological formation in which Cedar Creek has carved…

"Naval hospital and battery at Portsmouth, VA." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Naval hospital

"Naval hospital and battery at Portsmouth, VA." — Frank Leslie, 1896

"Nelson House, Yorktown, VA. Which was occupied as headquarters by General Cornwallis.

Nelson House

"Nelson House, Yorktown, VA. Which was occupied as headquarters by General Cornwallis.

"Occupation of Norfolk, VA., by the Federal troops- view of the city- Federal vessels at anchor." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Occupation of Norfolk

"Occupation of Norfolk, VA., by the Federal troops- view of the city- Federal vessels at anchor." —Leslie,…

Oak Hill Plantation was James Monroe's estate in Loudoun County, Virginia. It was built for the fifth U.S. president in 1808.

Oak Hill Plantation, Monroe's Estate

Oak Hill Plantation was James Monroe's estate in Loudoun County, Virginia. It was built for the fifth…

"New Jersey Camp at Arling, Va., designated as Camp Princeton in honor of one of the Revolutionary battle grounds of New Jersey. This picture is a representation of the officers' tents of the Jersey City Zouave Company, acting as guard of honor to General Runyon." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Officer's tents

"New Jersey Camp at Arling, Va., designated as Camp Princeton in honor of one of the Revolutionary battle…

"Landing of Federal troops at Parkersburg, Western Virginia. Parkersburg, Va., in 1861 was a thriving post village on the Ohio River, situated at the mouth of the Little Kanawha River, and altogether presented a most picturesque appearance, the houses being very neatly built and well placed. It is about one hundred miles from Wheeling and two hundred and fifty-eight miles from Richmond in a direct W.N.W. line. It contained a courthouse, churches of several denominations, a bank, a printing office and several steam mills. Its population was nearly four thousand. It has excellent turnpike roads to Staunton and Winchester and the Northwestern branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad terminates here. Our view represents the arrival of Federal troops previous to the total clearance of the Kanawha Valley from the presence of Wise and his Confederate troops." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Landing at Parkersburg

"Landing of Federal troops at Parkersburg, Western Virginia. Parkersburg, Va., in 1861 was a thriving…

The Reading of "Paul and Virginia."

Paul

The Reading of "Paul and Virginia."

"A street in Harper's Ferry, VA., during the passage of the Potomac by the Federal troops from Maryland, October 24th, 1862. We give a specimen of the grotesque in war. Experience proves that where there is much excitement there is always a rollicking gayety in proportion to the excitement. The terrible stimulus of war constantly produced scenes which almost approached those of a carnival. Among the younger of the Federal soldiers this was very apparent, more especially among some of the zouave regiments." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Passage of the Potomac

"A street in Harper's Ferry, VA., during the passage of the Potomac by the Federal troops from Maryland,…