Also known as Planera aquatica. The branch of a Water Elm tree, native to the southeastern United States.

Branch of Water Elm

Also known as Planera aquatica. The branch of a Water Elm tree, native to the southeastern United States.

"The water in resovoirs A and B stands at different heights. As long as this difference of level is maintained, water from B will flow through the pipe R to A. If by means of a pump P the level in B be kept constant, flow through R will also be maintained. Here, by means f the work expended on the pump, the level in the resovoir is kept constant; and in the corresponding case of the electric current...a constant difference of potential is maintanied." -Hawkins, 1917

Analogy of Water Flow to Electric Current

"The water in resovoirs A and B stands at different heights. As long as this difference of level is…

An illustration of a coal fueled water heater and stove.

Coal Fueled Water Heater and Stove

An illustration of a coal fueled water heater and stove.

An illustration of water hemlock including the root and fruit.

Water hemlock

An illustration of water hemlock including the root and fruit.

"a, a, a, represents the water-level of a pond or reservoir upon elevated ground. From this pond a line or pipe is laid, passing over a bridge or viaduct at d, and under a river at c. The fountains, at b, b, show the stream rising to its level in the pond, a, at two points of very different elevation." — Wells, 1857

Water Level

"a, a, a, represents the water-level of a pond or reservoir upon elevated ground. From this pond a line…

"When any liquid is placed in one or more of several vessels communicating with each other, it will not come to rest until it stands at the same height inall of thw vessels. This principle is emobodied in the familiar expression 'Water seeks its level.' the principle is illustrated, on a large scale, in the system of pipes by which water is distributed in cities." -Avery 1895

Water Level in Multiple Connected Vessels

"When any liquid is placed in one or more of several vessels communicating with each other, it will…

"No matter what the size or shape of a body of water may be, its surface has the same level throughout." —Quackenbos 1859

Uniform Water Level

"No matter what the size or shape of a body of water may be, its surface has the same level throughout."…

"The pond is tapped with a pipe leading to two fountains and a home. The water provided by the pipe will extend upward in the home and fountains to the same level as the pond." —Quackenbos 1859

Tapped Water Level

"The pond is tapped with a pipe leading to two fountains and a home. The water provided by the pipe…

"Suppose the cistern a to be capable of holding one hundred gallons, and into its bottom there be fitted the tube b, bent, as seen in the figure, and capable of containing one gallon. The top of the cistern, and that of the tube, being open, pour water into the tube at c, and it will rise up through the perpendicular bend into the cistern, and if the process be continued, the cistern will be filled by pouring water into the tube. Now it is plain, that the gallon of water in the tube presses against the hundred gallons in the cistern, with a force equal to the pressure of the hundred gallons, otherwise, that in the tube would be forced upwards higher than that in the cistern, whereas, we find that the surfaces of both stand exactly at the same height." —Comstock, 1850

Water Pressure

"Suppose the cistern a to be capable of holding one hundred gallons, and into its bottom there be fitted…

"Suppose a number of vessels, of different shapes and sizes to have a communication between them, by means of a small tube, passing from the one to the other. If, now, one of these vessels be filled with water, or if water be poured into the tube A, all the other vessels will be filled at the same instant, up to the line B C. Therefore, the pressure of the water A, balances that in 1, 2, 3, while the pressure in each of these vessels is equal to that in the other, and so an equilibrium is produced throughout the whole series." —Comstock, 1850

Water Pressure

"Suppose a number of vessels, of different shapes and sizes to have a communication between them, by…

"Therefore, the small quantity in the spout balances the large quantity in the pot, or presses with the same force downwards, as that in the body of the pot presses upwards." -Comstock 1850

Water Pressure

"Therefore, the small quantity in the spout balances the large quantity in the pot, or presses with…

"Invented by Montgolfier in 1796, this only allows water to pass when the current is steady, or still, and closes when there are spurts." -Comstock 1850

Water Ram

"Invented by Montgolfier in 1796, this only allows water to pass when the current is steady, or still,…

"If a vessel be filled with water, and three apertures be made in its sie at E F G, the fluid will be thrown out in jets, falling to the earth in the curved lines shown." -Comstock 1850

Water Velocity and Gravity

"If a vessel be filled with water, and three apertures be made in its sie at E F G, the fluid will be…

An illustration of a "sacred water vessel of zuni indians." -Jenks, 1911

Water vessel

An illustration of a "sacred water vessel of zuni indians." -Jenks, 1911

"Take a piece of ivory, or any other substance that will sink in water, and weigh it accurately in the usual manner; then suspend it by a thread, or hair, in the empty cup a, and balance it. Now pour water into the cup, and it will be found that the suspended body will lose a part of its weight, so that a certain number of grains must be taken from the opposite scale, in order to make the scales balance as before the water was poured in. The number of grains taken from the opposite scale, show the weight of a quantity of water equal to the bulk of the body so suspended." —Comstock, 1850

Water Weighing

"Take a piece of ivory, or any other substance that will sink in water, and weigh it accurately in the…

"When a water fall ranges between 10 and 70 feet, and the water supply is from 3 to 25 cubic feet per second, it is possible to construct a bucket wheel on which the water acts chiefly by its weight. If the variation of the head-water level does not exceed 2 feet, an overshot wheel may be used. The water is then projected over the summit of the wheel, and falls in a parabolic path into the buckets. With greater variation of head-water level, a pitch-back or high breast wheel is better. The water falls over the top of a sliding sluice into the wheel, on the same side as the head race channel. By adjusting the height of the sluice, the requisite supply is given to the wheel in all positions of the head-water level. The wheel consists of a cast-iron or wrought-iron axle C supporting the weight of the wheel. To this are attached two sets of arms A of wood or iron, which support circular segmental plates termed shrouds B. A cylindrical sole plate dd extends between the shrouds on the inner side. The buckets are formed by wood planks or curved wrought-iron plates extending from shroud to shroud, the back of the buckets being formed by the sole plate." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Water Wheel

"When a water fall ranges between 10 and 70 feet, and the water supply is from 3 to 25 cubic feet per…

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

Water Wheel

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

Water Wheel

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

A collage of different water scenes.

Water, Collage of

A collage of different water scenes.

"The animal in this case is inclosed in a cacareous tube, the anterior extremity of which is closed by a curious perforated disk; the other end is ornamented with several ruffle-like bands." — Goodrich, 1859

Tube of the water-pot shell magnified

"The animal in this case is inclosed in a cacareous tube, the anterior extremity of which is closed…

"A wheel driven by water shot over the top. The buckets of the wheel receive the water as nearly as possible at the top, and retain it until they approach the lowest point of the decent. The water acts principally by its gravity, though some effect is of course due to the velocity with which it arrives." — Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Water-wheel

"A wheel driven by water shot over the top. The buckets of the wheel receive the water as nearly as…

An illustration of Horse Shoe and Birmingham Falls.

Waterfall

An illustration of Horse Shoe and Birmingham Falls.

Toccoa Falls waterfall is located on the campus of Toccoa Falls College in Stephens County, Georgia. Toccoa is the Cherokee Indian name for "beautiful."

Toccoa Falls

Toccoa Falls waterfall is located on the campus of Toccoa Falls College in Stephens County, Georgia.…

An illustration showing that 1 milliliter of water weighs the same as a 1 gram.

Weight Measures

An illustration showing that 1 milliliter of water weighs the same as a 1 gram.

A man using a well to draw water from the ground.

Well

A man using a well to draw water from the ground.

How the well often becomes impure and carries disease. A well near a barnyard or cesspool is likely to be unsafe for use. The liquids enter the soil, and sometimes follow along the crevice in rocks a hundred feet or more. Sewage, which is household waste, garbage, or dead animals cast into a stream, or placed near a well or spring, may cause many deaths among those using the water.

Well Water

How the well often becomes impure and carries disease. A well near a barnyard or cesspool is likely…

An illustration of a stone well.

Stone Well

An illustration of a stone well.

"In the overshot wheel, the water falls into buckets at the top, and by its weight, aided by the force of the current, turns the wheel. Such wheels have been made 100 feet in diameter." — Avery, 1895

Overshot wheel

"In the overshot wheel, the water falls into buckets at the top, and by its weight, aided by the force…

"Windlass.—The common windlass for drawing water is another modification of the wheel and axle. The winch, or crank, by which it is turned, is moved around by the hand, and there is no difference in the principle, whether a whole wheel is turned, or a single spoke. The winch, therefore, answers to the wheel, while the rope is taken up, and the weight raised by the axle, as already described." —Comstock, 1850

Windlass

"Windlass.—The common windlass for drawing water is another modification of the wheel and axle.…

"Devices for lifting water are older than written history, and various forms of pumps are used on almost every farm in the country, every citizen being familiar with a number of ways of lifting water."—Government Printing Office, 1897

Homemade Jumbo Windmill

"Devices for lifting water are older than written history, and various forms of pumps are used on almost…

An illustration of a woman dumping a bucket of water on a jester from a window.

Woman Dumping Water on Jester

An illustration of a woman dumping a bucket of water on a jester from a window.

"Woodchuck (Arctomys monax)."-Whitney, 1902

Woodchuck

"Woodchuck (Arctomys monax)."-Whitney, 1902