"This term is applied indiscriminately to evaporators with steam-pipe, whether arranged in the form of a coil, or, as more commonly used, in a rectangular series, In some the steam is admitted through a main pipe, from which others lead off at right angles, terminating in a similar main, which receives and carries off the condensed water of all...Still another, and the most convenient plan, thought not without some objectives, consists in admitting the steam at one end of the coil allowing it to ass progressively through the whole, driving the condensed water, which it will do, though imperfectly, before it." -Commissioner, 1865

Steam-Coil Evaporator

"This term is applied indiscriminately to evaporators with steam-pipe, whether arranged in the form…

"Impure water is vaporized in the boiler, A. It travels to the vat and down pipe R where it condenses and distilled water finally collects at the bottom. Cold water enters the vat at P and warm water at the top escapes at Q." —Quackenbos 1859

Still

"Impure water is vaporized in the boiler, A. It travels to the vat and down pipe R where it condenses…

The suction-pump consists of a clindrical pump-barrel traversed by a piston, and communicating by means of a suction-tube with the water in the pump-well.

Suction-pump

The suction-pump consists of a clindrical pump-barrel traversed by a piston, and communicating by means…

A suction-pump with the upward and downward movement of the piston being effected by means of a lever.

Suction-pump

A suction-pump with the upward and downward movement of the piston being effected by means of a lever.

A suction-pump in which the alternate motion of the piston is effected by means of a rotary motion.

Suction-pump

A suction-pump in which the alternate motion of the piston is effected by means of a rotary motion.

A banner illustrated with the setting sun and ocean.

Sun and Ocean Banner

A banner illustrated with the setting sun and ocean.

"Carefully place a fine sewing needle upon the surface of the water. With care, and perhaps repitition, the needle may be made to float...Closely examine the surface of the water. Notice that the needle rests in a little depression or bed, just as it would if the surface of the water was a thin skin or membrane." -Avery 1895

Surface Tension and Needle

"Carefully place a fine sewing needle upon the surface of the water. With care, and perhaps repitition,…

The Swiss Family Robinson in their tub-boat from Johann David Wyss' novel.

Swiss Family Robinson

The Swiss Family Robinson in their tub-boat from Johann David Wyss' novel.

Water tanks are liquid storage containers, these tanks are usually storing water for human consumption. A water tank produces for the storage of drinking water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many other solutions.

Water Tank

Water tanks are liquid storage containers, these tanks are usually storing water for human consumption.…

The salt-water terrapin lives in salt or brackish water along the sea-coast, buying itself in the mud during winter.

Salt-water terrapin

The salt-water terrapin lives in salt or brackish water along the sea-coast, buying itself in the mud…

"And every living thing was destroyed that was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and creeping things, and birds of the heavens; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only was left, and they that were with him in the ark." Genesis 7:23 ASV
<p>People watch the flood waters rise around them as Noah's ark floats away in the distance. The people are huddled on a structure being taken over by the flood. An awning is seen barely above the water level. A woman sits with her lifeless child in her lap. Several people reach up to the heavens or out toward Noah. A horse and bird lie on a nearby raft.

The Deluge - Noah's Ark Floats into the Rising Flood Waters as People Trapped on Land Watch in Horror

"And every living thing was destroyed that was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and…

"Thermometers showing the corresponding points for water's freezing and boiling." -Avery 1895

Fahrenheit and Celcius scale Thermometers

"Thermometers showing the corresponding points for water's freezing and boiling." -Avery 1895

"Let m be the Moon, and E the Earth covered with water. As the Moon passes round the Earth, its solid and fluid parts are equally attracted by her influence according to their densities; but while the solid parts are at liberty to move only as a whole, the water obeys the slightest impulse, and thus tends towards the Moon where her attraction is the strongest. Consequently, the waters are perpetually elevated immediately under the Moon. If, therefore, the Earth stood still, the influence of the Moon's attraction would raise the tides only as she passed round the Earth. But as the Earth turns on her axis every 24 hours, and as the waters nearest the Moon, as at a, are constantly elevated, they will, in the course of 24 hours, move round the whole Earth, and consequently from this cause there will be high water at every place once in 24 hours." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Tides

"Let m be the Moon, and E the Earth covered with water. As the Moon passes round the Earth, its solid…

The totem or emblem of the Huron, a Native American tribe has a beaver on top of a log in the water.

Huron Totem

The totem or emblem of the Huron, a Native American tribe has a beaver on top of a log in the water.

A town with old-fashioned boats.

Town

A town with old-fashioned boats.

An illustration of a small town with a boat tied up to a dock.

Town

An illustration of a small town with a boat tied up to a dock.

"Trading Ford. This view of the Trading Ford, where greene, with Morgan and his light troops, crossed the Yadkin, is from the east side of the river. It is just at the foot of an island, about a mile and a half below the great bridge on the road to Salisbury. The river is usually fordable between the island and the stakes seen in the picture; below that point the water is deep."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Trading Ford

"Trading Ford. This view of the Trading Ford, where greene, with Morgan and his light troops, crossed…

"The most efficient form of water-wheel is the turbine, one form of which is shown." &mdash; Avery, 1895

Turbine

"The most efficient form of water-wheel is the turbine, one form of which is shown." — Avery,…

"Turbine is, in mechanics, a term formerly confined to horizontal water wheels, the revolution of which is due to the pressure derived from falling water, but now applied generally to any wheel driven by water escaping through small orifices subject to such pressure. The turbine was invented by Fourneyron in 1823, and the first one was made in 1827. Air and steam turbines are also in use, air and steam being used instead of water to drive the impulse wheel."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Pelton Wheel Turbine

"Turbine is, in mechanics, a term formerly confined to horizontal water wheels, the revolution of which…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

A scene of turtles and water.

Turtles and Water

A scene of turtles and water.

"Thus constructed, this wheel moves equally well whether the water acts on one or the other side of the boards, and hence is employed for tide wheels, which turn in one direction when the tide is going out, and in the other when it is coming in." -Comstock 1850

Undershot Wheel

"Thus constructed, this wheel moves equally well whether the water acts on one or the other side of…

"Waterwheel where the lowest flat-board is submerged in the running water. The water is often given its power from a slight inclination. This wheel is also often powered by the running water issued by a dam." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Undershot Wheel

"Waterwheel where the lowest flat-board is submerged in the running water. The water is often given…

A concical valve.

Valve

A concical valve.

The valve closet has a valve or flap at the exit of the bowl with a water-tight seal to retain a pool of water in the pan. When the toilet is flushed, the valve is opened and the water in the pan flows rapidly out of the bowl into the drains, carrying the waste with it.

Water Valve Closet

The valve closet has a valve or flap at the exit of the bowl with a water-tight seal to retain a pool…

As you pour water into a Cup of Tantalus, the cup fills with water, but after it reaches a certain height, the water begins to drain through the siphon.

Vase of Tantalus

As you pour water into a Cup of Tantalus, the cup fills with water, but after it reaches a certain height,…

Lake George, also known as <em>Queen of American Lakes</em>, is a long narrow lake at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, northern New York. The lake extends about 32.2 miles on a north-south axis and varies from 1 to 3 miles in width.

View of Lake George, N.Y.

Lake George, also known as Queen of American Lakes, is a long narrow lake at the southeast…

Norsemen landing on the coast of Greenland.

Vikings

Norsemen landing on the coast of Greenland.

A boy and a girl wading in a river.

Children Wading in a River

A boy and a girl wading in a river.

"Reconnoissance of Warsaw Sound, December 5th, 1861, by a detachment of gunboats under Captain Rodgers, Savannah in the distance." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Warsow Sound

"Reconnoissance of Warsaw Sound, December 5th, 1861, by a detachment of gunboats under Captain Rodgers,…

"A water-Bear, or Bear-animalcule (Macrobiotus schultzei), one of the Arctisca or Tardigradam, much magnified. 1,2,3,4, the limbs; a, mouth with six oral papill&aelig;; b, gullet, calcified stylets; c, salivary glands; d, muscluar pharynx; e, ovary; f, vesicul seminalis; g, testes."-Whitney, 1902

Water Bear

"A water-Bear, or Bear-animalcule (Macrobiotus schultzei), one of the Arctisca or Tardigradam, much…

An Equadorian water-carrier.

Water carrier

An Equadorian water-carrier.

"An Indian water carrier." &mdash;Carpenter, 1902

Indian water carrier

"An Indian water carrier." —Carpenter, 1902

A toilet that disposes of the waste by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location.

Flushing Device for Water Closet

A toilet that disposes of the waste by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location.

"Water Cress (Nasturtium officinale)." &mdash; Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Water Cress

"Water Cress (Nasturtium officinale)." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

"As the ball of wood is dropped into the container or water, the water level rises and is caused to flow into the bucket. The water in the bucket, once weighed, is equal to the weight of the wooden ball." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Water Displacement

"As the ball of wood is dropped into the container or water, the water level rises and is caused to…

Also known as Planera aquatica. The branch of a Water Elm tree, native to the southeastern United States.

Branch of Water Elm

Also known as Planera aquatica. The branch of a Water Elm tree, native to the southeastern United States.

"The water in resovoirs A and B stands at different heights. As long as this difference of level is maintained, water from B will flow through the pipe R to A. If by means of a pump P the level in B be kept constant, flow through R will also be maintained. Here, by means f the work expended on the pump, the level in the resovoir is kept constant; and in the corresponding case of the electric current...a constant difference of potential is maintanied." -Hawkins, 1917

Analogy of Water Flow to Electric Current

"The water in resovoirs A and B stands at different heights. As long as this difference of level is…

An illustration of a coal fueled water heater and stove.

Coal Fueled Water Heater and Stove

An illustration of a coal fueled water heater and stove.

An illustration of water hemlock including the root and fruit.

Water hemlock

An illustration of water hemlock including the root and fruit.

"a, a, a, represents the water-level of a pond or reservoir upon elevated ground. From this pond a line or pipe is laid, passing over a bridge or viaduct at d, and under a river at c. The fountains, at b, b, show the stream rising to its level in the pond, a, at two points of very different elevation." &mdash; Wells, 1857

Water Level

"a, a, a, represents the water-level of a pond or reservoir upon elevated ground. From this pond a line…

"When any liquid is placed in one or more of several vessels communicating with each other, it will not come to rest until it stands at the same height inall of thw vessels. This principle is emobodied in the familiar expression 'Water seeks its level.' the principle is illustrated, on a large scale, in the system of pipes by which water is distributed in cities." -Avery 1895

Water Level in Multiple Connected Vessels

"When any liquid is placed in one or more of several vessels communicating with each other, it will…

"No matter what the size or shape of a body of water may be, its surface has the same level throughout." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Uniform Water Level

"No matter what the size or shape of a body of water may be, its surface has the same level throughout."…

"The pond is tapped with a pipe leading to two fountains and a home. The water provided by the pipe will extend upward in the home and fountains to the same level as the pond." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Tapped Water Level

"The pond is tapped with a pipe leading to two fountains and a home. The water provided by the pipe…

"Suppose the cistern a to be capable of holding one hundred gallons, and into its bottom there be fitted the tube b, bent, as seen in the figure, and capable of containing one gallon. The top of the cistern, and that of the tube, being open, pour water into the tube at c, and it will rise up through the perpendicular bend into the cistern, and if the process be continued, the cistern will be filled by pouring water into the tube. Now it is plain, that the gallon of water in the tube presses against the hundred gallons in the cistern, with a force equal to the pressure of the hundred gallons, otherwise, that in the tube would be forced upwards higher than that in the cistern, whereas, we find that the surfaces of both stand exactly at the same height." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Water Pressure

"Suppose the cistern a to be capable of holding one hundred gallons, and into its bottom there be fitted…

"Suppose a number of vessels, of different shapes and sizes to have a communication between them, by means of a small tube, passing from the one to the other. If, now, one of these vessels be filled with water, or if water be poured into the tube A, all the other vessels will be filled at the same instant, up to the line B C. Therefore, the pressure of the water A, balances that in 1, 2, 3, while the pressure in each of these vessels is equal to that in the other, and so an equilibrium is produced throughout the whole series." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Water Pressure

"Suppose a number of vessels, of different shapes and sizes to have a communication between them, by…

"Therefore, the small quantity in the spout balances the large quantity in the pot, or presses with the same force downwards, as that in the body of the pot presses upwards." -Comstock 1850

Water Pressure

"Therefore, the small quantity in the spout balances the large quantity in the pot, or presses with…

"Invented by Montgolfier in 1796, this only allows water to pass when the current is steady, or still, and closes when there are spurts." -Comstock 1850

Water Ram

"Invented by Montgolfier in 1796, this only allows water to pass when the current is steady, or still,…

"If a vessel be filled with water, and three apertures be made in its sie at E F G, the fluid will be thrown out in jets, falling to the earth in the curved lines shown." -Comstock 1850

Water Velocity and Gravity

"If a vessel be filled with water, and three apertures be made in its sie at E F G, the fluid will be…

An illustration of a "sacred water vessel of zuni indians." -Jenks, 1911

Water vessel

An illustration of a "sacred water vessel of zuni indians." -Jenks, 1911

"Take a piece of ivory, or any other substance that will sink in water, and weigh it accurately in the usual manner; then suspend it by a thread, or hair, in the empty cup a, and balance it. Now pour water into the cup, and it will be found that the suspended body will lose a part of its weight, so that a certain number of grains must be taken from the opposite scale, in order to make the scales balance as before the water was poured in. The number of grains taken from the opposite scale, show the weight of a quantity of water equal to the bulk of the body so suspended." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Water Weighing

"Take a piece of ivory, or any other substance that will sink in water, and weigh it accurately in the…

"When a water fall ranges between 10 and 70 feet, and the water supply is from 3 to 25 cubic feet per second, it is possible to construct a bucket wheel on which the water acts chiefly by its weight. If the variation of the head-water level does not exceed 2 feet, an overshot wheel may be used. The water is then projected over the summit of the wheel, and falls in a parabolic path into the buckets. With greater variation of head-water level, a pitch-back or high breast wheel is better. The water falls over the top of a sliding sluice into the wheel, on the same side as the head race channel. By adjusting the height of the sluice, the requisite supply is given to the wheel in all positions of the head-water level. The wheel consists of a cast-iron or wrought-iron axle C supporting the weight of the wheel. To this are attached two sets of arms A of wood or iron, which support circular segmental plates termed shrouds B. A cylindrical sole plate dd extends between the shrouds on the inner side. The buckets are formed by wood planks or curved wrought-iron plates extending from shroud to shroud, the back of the buckets being formed by the sole plate." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Water Wheel

"When a water fall ranges between 10 and 70 feet, and the water supply is from 3 to 25 cubic feet per…

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

Water Wheel

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

Water Wheel

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

A collage of different water scenes.

Water, Collage of

A collage of different water scenes.

"The animal in this case is inclosed in a cacareous tube, the anterior extremity of which is closed by a curious perforated disk; the other end is ornamented with several ruffle-like bands." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Tube of the water-pot shell magnified

"The animal in this case is inclosed in a cacareous tube, the anterior extremity of which is closed…

"A wheel driven by water shot over the top. The buckets of the wheel receive the water as nearly as possible at the top, and retain it until they approach the lowest point of the decent. The water acts principally by its gravity, though some effect is of course due to the velocity with which it arrives." &mdash; Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Water-wheel

"A wheel driven by water shot over the top. The buckets of the wheel receive the water as nearly as…