"The following is a figure of a hatchel or flax-comb." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian flax-comb

"The following is a figure of a hatchel or flax-comb." — Goodrich, 1844

An illustration of a hand loom. he earliest looms were vertical warp-weighted looms, with the warp threads suspended from a branch or piece of wood and weighted or attached to the ground. The weft threads would be pushed into place by hand or a stick that would eventually become the shuttle. At first, it was necessary to raise and lower every warp thread one at a time, which was a time-consuming and laborious process. Basic techniques, such as the insertion of a rod, were developed to produce a shed, the space between warp threads (perhaps every other thread would be alternately raised and lowered), so that the weft thread or shuttle could pass through the entire warp at once.

Hand Loom

An illustration of a hand loom. he earliest looms were vertical warp-weighted looms, with the warp threads…

Originally the Jacquard machines were mechanical, and the fabric design was punched in pattern cards which were joined together to form a continuous chain. The Jacquards often were small and only independently controlled a relatively few warp ends. This required a number of repeats across the loom width. Larger capacity machines, or the use of multiple machines, allowed greater control, with fewer repeats, and hence larger designs to be woven across the loom width.

Jacquard Machine and Harness

Originally the Jacquard machines were mechanical, and the fabric design was punched in pattern cards…

The first completely automated loom was made by Jacques Vaucanson in 1745. A different power loom was built by Edmund Cartwright in 1785. Originally, powered looms were shuttle-operated but in the early part of the 20th century the faster and more efficient shuttleless loom came into use. Today, advances in technology have produced a variety of looms designed to maximize production for specific types of material. The most common of these are air-jet looms and water-jet looms. Computer-driven looms are now also available to individual (non-industrial) weavers. Industrial looms can weave at speeds of six rows per second and faster.

Loom

The first completely automated loom was made by Jacques Vaucanson in 1745. A different power loom was…

A diagram of a complete pin loom. Notice the pins holding the thread to the loom and the top and bottom.

Complete pin loom

A diagram of a complete pin loom. Notice the pins holding the thread to the loom and the top and bottom.

This machine is used to weave cloth, the purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension.

Weaving Loom

This machine is used to weave cloth, the purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension.

The shuttle is a device in which the thread is woven between the warps to create fabric.

Threaded shuttle

The shuttle is a device in which the thread is woven between the warps to create fabric.

"The spinning-wheel shall buzz and whirr." -Beard, 1906

Spinning Wheel

"The spinning-wheel shall buzz and whirr." -Beard, 1906

"The use of the spindle and loom, sewing, braiding, etc, form the subjects of many of the paintings, as also the process of cultivating flax, beating and combing it." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian weaving

"The use of the spindle and loom, sewing, braiding, etc, form the subjects of many of the paintings,…