"The front view of a large quarter clock of Sir E. Beckett's design, with all the wheels on the great horizontal bed, a gravity escapemen, and a compensated pendulum.  They are made in two sizes, one wih a great striking wheels 18 inches wide, and the other 14. The striking is done by cams cast on the great wheels, about 1.125 inch broad in the large-sized clocks, which are strong enough for an hour bell of thirty cwt., and corresponding quarters. Wire ropes are used, not only because they last longer, if kept greased, but because a sufficient number of coils will go on a barrel of less than half the length that would be required for hemp ropes of the same strength, without overlapping, which it is as well to avoid, if possible, though it is not so injurious to wire ropes as it is to hemp ones. by this means also the striking cams can be put on the great wheel, instead of the second wheel, which saves more in friction than could be imagined by any one who had not tried both. In clocks of the common construction two-thirds of the power is often wasted in friction and in the bad arrangement of the hammer work, and the clock is wearing itself out in doing nothing." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Quarter Clock

"The front view of a large quarter clock of Sir E. Beckett's design, with all the wheels on the great…

"A circular wheel, with teeth on the circumference, by which it can be moved or its motion stayed." — Williams, 1889

Ratchet-wheel

"A circular wheel, with teeth on the circumference, by which it can be moved or its motion stayed."…

A roller. Crushes clods and packs the surface so as to keep the seed moist at the expense of increased evaporation.

Roller

A roller. Crushes clods and packs the surface so as to keep the seed moist at the expense of increased…

"The Savart wheel consists of a heavy metal toothed wheel that may be put in rapid revolution by pulling a cord wound upon its axis. Set such a wheel in rapid motion and hold the edge of a card against its teeth. As the speed of the wheel diminishes, the shrill tone produced by the rapid vibrations of the card correspondingly falls in pitch." — Avery, 1895

Savart wheel

"The Savart wheel consists of a heavy metal toothed wheel that may be put in rapid revolution by pulling…

"It is apparent by turning the crank, C, the wheel will revolve, for the thread of the screw passes between the cogs of the wheel. By means of an axle, through the centre of this wheel, like the common wheel and axle, this becomes an axceedingly powerful machine, but...is slow." -Comstock 1850

Screw and Wheel

"It is apparent by turning the crank, C, the wheel will revolve, for the thread of the screw passes…

"Scutching-machine or Scutcher for Flax. a, feed-table on which the flax is fed to the fluted rollers b, b', which seize it and present it to the scutches or beaters c, fastened by supports d to the rotating drum e. The latter revolves in a case f, with a grating at the bottom. The feed-rolls are driven by gearing i." -Whitney, 1911

Scutcher

"Scutching-machine or Scutcher for Flax. a, feed-table on which the flax is fed to the fluted rollers…

"...represents a simple pulley, with a single fixed wheel. In other forms of the machine, the wheel moves up and down with the weight." -Comstock 1850

Simple Pulley

"...represents a simple pulley, with a single fixed wheel. In other forms of the machine, the wheel…

A woman spinning cotton on a spinning jenny.

Spinning Jenny

A woman spinning cotton on a spinning jenny.

"The spinning-wheel shall buzz and whirr." -Beard, 1906

Spinning Wheel

"The spinning-wheel shall buzz and whirr." -Beard, 1906

"A band or cord (E) connected the large wheel with the small wheel (D). Another cord (F) connected the small wheel with the grooved pulley, or wharve, on the spindle (C). The revolutions of the large wheel turned the small wheel very rapidly, thus communicating motion to the spindle through the wharve."—Webster, 1920

A Spinning Wheel

"A band or cord (E) connected the large wheel with the small wheel (D). Another cord (F) connected the…

"The spinning-wheel." - Beard, 1906

Diagram of a spinning-wheel

"The spinning-wheel." - Beard, 1906

"A wheel having teeth projecting radially from the circumference." — Williams, 1889

Spur-wheel

"A wheel having teeth projecting radially from the circumference." — Williams, 1889

"System of Wheels.—As the wheel and axle is only a modification of the simple lever, so a system of wheels acting on each other, and transmitting the power to the resistance, is only another form of the compound lever. The first wheel a, by means of the teeth, or cogs, around its axle, moved the second wheel, b, with a force equal to that of a lever, the long arm of which extends from the center to the circumference of the wheel, where the power p is suspended, and the short arm from the same center to the ends of the cogs. The dotted line c, passing through the center of the wheel a, shows the position of the lever, as the wheel now stands." —Comstock, 1850

System of Wheels

"System of Wheels.—As the wheel and axle is only a modification of the simple lever, so a system…

"As he sang these tender strains, the very ghosts shed tears. Tantalus, in spite of his thirst, stopped for a moment his efforts for water, Ixion's wheel stood still, the vulture ceased to tear the giant's liver, the daightrs of Danaus rested from their task of drawing water in a sieve, and Sisyphus sat on his rock to listen." —Bulfinch, 1897

Tantalus, Sisyphus, and Ixion

"As he sang these tender strains, the very ghosts shed tears. Tantalus, in spite of his thirst, stopped…

A tire is ring shaped, the earliest tires were bands of iron placed on wooden wheels which were used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a forge fire, placed over the wheel and quenched.

Adjustable Tire

A tire is ring shaped, the earliest tires were bands of iron placed on wooden wheels which were used…

A tire is a ring shaped covering that fits around a wheel to protect it and enable better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground. The fundamental materials of modern tires are rubber and fabric along with other compound chemicals. The tread provides traction while the body ensures support.

Elastic Tire

A tire is a ring shaped covering that fits around a wheel to protect it and enable better vehicle performance…

"The most efficient form of water-wheel is the turbine, one form of which is shown." — Avery, 1895

Turbine

"The most efficient form of water-wheel is the turbine, one form of which is shown." — Avery,…

"The general sectionl elevation of a Girard turbine, in which the flow is axial. The water, admitted above a horizontal floor, passes down through the annular wheel containing the guide-blades, G, and thence into the revolving wheel WW. The revolving wheel is fixed to a hollow shaft suspended from the pivot p. The solid internal shaft ss is merely a fixed column supporting the pivot. The advantage of this is that the pivot is accessible for lubrication and adjustment. B is the mortise bevel wheel by which the power of the turbine is given off. The sluices are worked by the hand wheel h, which raises them successively, in a way to be described presently. a is the sluice rods." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Girard Turbine

"The general sectionl elevation of a Girard turbine, in which the flow is axial. The water, admitted…

"Turbine is, in mechanics, a term formerly confined to horizontal water wheels, the revolution of which is due to the pressure derived from falling water, but now applied generally to any wheel driven by water escaping through small orifices subject to such pressure. The turbine was invented by Fourneyron in 1823, and the first one was made in 1827. Air and steam turbines are also in use, air and steam being used instead of water to drive the impulse wheel."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Pelton Wheel Turbine

"Turbine is, in mechanics, a term formerly confined to horizontal water wheels, the revolution of which…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines. It is one of the best even in normal conditions of working, and the mode of regulation introduced is decidedly superior to that in most reaction turbines; it might almost be said to be the only mode of regulation which satisfies the conditions of efficient working, and it has been adopted in a modified form in the Leffel turbine, which is now largely used in america. The turbine has suction pipes, which permit the turbine to be placed at any height less than 30 feet above the tail-water level. The water enters the turbine by cast-iron supply pipes at A, and is discharged through two suction pipes S. The water on entering the case distributes itself through a rectangular supply chamber SC, from which it finds its way equally to the four guide-blade passages G. In these passages it acquires a velocity about equal to that due to half the fall, and is directed into the wheel at an angle of about 10 or 12 degrees with the tangent to its circumference. The wheel W receives the water in equal proportions from each guide-blade passage." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Reaction Turbine

"Professor James Thomson's inward flow or vortex turbine has been selected as the type of reaction turbines.…

"Thus constructed, this wheel moves equally well whether the water acts on one or the other side of the boards, and hence is employed for tide wheels, which turn in one direction when the tide is going out, and in the other when it is coming in." -Comstock 1850

Undershot Wheel

"Thus constructed, this wheel moves equally well whether the water acts on one or the other side of…

"Waterwheel where the lowest flat-board is submerged in the running water. The water is often given its power from a slight inclination. This wheel is also often powered by the running water issued by a dam." —Quackenbos 1859

Undershot Wheel

"Waterwheel where the lowest flat-board is submerged in the running water. The water is often given…

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load or performing labor in machines.

Antique Vehicle Wheel

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation…

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement and transportation.

Side View of a Vehicle Wheel

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement and transportation.

"[This illustration] shows a third form of the wheel and axle. Here the axle A is vertical, instead of horizontal. A bar inserted in its head, at the extremity of which the hand is applied, takes the place of the wheel." —Quackenbos 1859

Vertical Wheel and Axle

"[This illustration] shows a third form of the wheel and axle. Here the axle A is vertical, instead…

"When a water fall ranges between 10 and 70 feet, and the water supply is from 3 to 25 cubic feet per second, it is possible to construct a bucket wheel on which the water acts chiefly by its weight. If the variation of the head-water level does not exceed 2 feet, an overshot wheel may be used. The water is then projected over the summit of the wheel, and falls in a parabolic path into the buckets. With greater variation of head-water level, a pitch-back or high breast wheel is better. The water falls over the top of a sliding sluice into the wheel, on the same side as the head race channel. By adjusting the height of the sluice, the requisite supply is given to the wheel in all positions of the head-water level. The wheel consists of a cast-iron or wrought-iron axle C supporting the weight of the wheel. To this are attached two sets of arms A of wood or iron, which support circular segmental plates termed shrouds B. A cylindrical sole plate dd extends between the shrouds on the inner side. The buckets are formed by wood planks or curved wrought-iron plates extending from shroud to shroud, the back of the buckets being formed by the sole plate." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Water Wheel

"When a water fall ranges between 10 and 70 feet, and the water supply is from 3 to 25 cubic feet per…

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

Water Wheel

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

Water Wheel

A wheel used to create energy by running water.

"A wheel driven by water shot over the top. The buckets of the wheel receive the water as nearly as possible at the top, and retain it until they approach the lowest point of the decent. The water acts principally by its gravity, though some effect is of course due to the velocity with which it arrives." — Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Water-wheel

"A wheel driven by water shot over the top. The buckets of the wheel receive the water as nearly as…

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation.

Wheel

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation.

"The wheel and axle consists of a wheel united to a cylinder in such a way that they may turn together on a common axis. It is a modified lever of the first or second class." — Avery, 1895

Wheel and axle

"The wheel and axle consists of a wheel united to a cylinder in such a way that they may turn together…

"The wheel and axle consists of two cylinders of different diameters, rigidly connected, so that they turn together about a common axis." — Hallock, 1905

Wheel and Axle

"The wheel and axle consists of two cylinders of different diameters, rigidly connected, so that they…

"It consists of two wheels, one of which is larger than the other, but the small one passes through the larger, and hence both have a common centre, on which they turn." -Comstock 1850

Wheel and Axle

"It consists of two wheels, one of which is larger than the other, but the small one passes through…

"This figure represents the machine endwise, so as to show in what manner the lever operates. The two weights hanging in opposition to each other, the one on the wheel at a, and the other on the axle at b, act in the same manner as if they were conected by the horizontal lever a b, passing from one to the other, having the common centre, c, as a fulcrum between them." -Comstock 1850

Wheel and Axle

"This figure represents the machine endwise, so as to show in what manner the lever operates. The two…

"To change the direction, it is only necessary that the rope by which the weight is to be raised, should be carried in a line perpendicular to the axis of the machine, sto the place below where the weight lies, and there be let fall over a pulley." -Comstock 1850

Wheel and Axle

"To change the direction, it is only necessary that the rope by which the weight is to be raised, should…

"The wheel and axle consists of a wheel united to a cylinder in such a way that they may turn together on a common axis. It is a modified lever of the first or second class." -Avery 1895

Wheel and Axle with Rope and Bucket

"The wheel and axle consists of a wheel united to a cylinder in such a way that they may turn together…

"Considered as a lever, the fulcrum is at the common axis, while the arms of the lever are the radii of the wheel and of the axle. The usual arrangement is to take ac, the radius of the wheel, as the power arm, and bc , the radius of the axle, as the weight arm." -Avery 1895

Wheel and Axle

"Considered as a lever, the fulcrum is at the common axis, while the arms of the lever are the radii…

"...the mechanical advantage of this machine (wheel and axle) equal the ratio between the radii, diameters, or circumferences of the wheel and of the axle." -Avery 1895

Wheel and Axle with Rope and Bucket

"...the mechanical advantage of this machine (wheel and axle) equal the ratio between the radii, diameters,…

"The wheel and axle is simply a revolving lever of the first kind. One application of the lever can not move a body any great distance; but, by means of the wheel and axle, the action of the lever is continued uninterruptedly." —Quackenbos 1859

Wheel and Axle

"The wheel and axle is simply a revolving lever of the first kind. One application of the lever can…

"Instead of having a rope attached to it, the wheel is often provided with projecting pins, as shown, to which the hand is directly applied." —Quackenbos 1859

Wheel and Axle with Spokes

"Instead of having a rope attached to it, the wheel is often provided with projecting pins, as shown,…

"The whole length of the tube of the wheel barometer, from C to A, is 34 or 35 inches, and it is filled with mercury, as usual. The mercury rises in the short leg to the point a, where there is a small piece of glass floating on its surface, to which there is attached a silk string, passing over the pulley p. To the axis of the pulley is fixed an index, or hand, and behind this is a graduated circle, as seen in the figure. It is obvious, that a very slight variation in the height of the mercury at o, will be indicated by a considerable motion of the index, and thus changes in the weight of the atmosphere, hardly perceptible by the common barometer, will become quite apparent by this." —Comstock, 1850

Wheel Barometer

"The whole length of the tube of the wheel barometer, from C to A, is 34 or 35 inches, and it is filled…

Theory of static equilibrium of mechanism, illustrated b Sir A.B.W. Kennedy.

Wheel Mechanism

Theory of static equilibrium of mechanism, illustrated b Sir A.B.W. Kennedy.

"Rotation of a Wheel. The same force which throws the wire away from the mercury, will cause the rotation of a spur-wheel. For this purpose the conducting wire, instead of being suspended, as in the former experiment, must be fixed firmly to the arm. A support for the axis of the wheel may be made by soldering a short piece to the side of the conducting wire, so as to make the form of a fork, the lower end of which must be flattened with a hammer, and pierced with fine orifices, o recieve the ends of the axis." —Comstock, 1850

Wheel Rotation

"Rotation of a Wheel. The same force which throws the wire away from the mercury, will cause the rotation…

"Wheel. a, felly; b, spoke; c, hub." -Whitney, 1911

Wheel Showing Parts

"Wheel. a, felly; b, spoke; c, hub." -Whitney, 1911

A tire is a ring shaped covering that fits around a wheel to protect it and enable better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground.

Rubber Made Wheel Tire

A tire is a ring shaped covering that fits around a wheel to protect it and enable better vehicle performance…

A wheel from an Ancient Egyptian chariot.

Chariot Wheel

A wheel from an Ancient Egyptian chariot.

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation while supporting a load, or performing labor in machines. Common examples are found in transport applications.

Eight Spoke Wheel

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or transportation…

"In the overshot wheel, the water falls into buckets at the top, and by its weight, aided by the force of the current, turns the wheel. Such wheels have been made 100 feet in diameter." — Avery, 1895

Overshot wheel

"In the overshot wheel, the water falls into buckets at the top, and by its weight, aided by the force…

A wheel with pointed and angular teeth, against which a ratchet abuts, used either for converting a reciprocating into a rotatory motion on the shaft to which it is fixed, or for admitting of circular motion in one direction only, as in a winch.

Ratchet Wheel

A wheel with pointed and angular teeth, against which a ratchet abuts, used either for converting a…

A circular frame of hard material that may be solid, partly solid, or spoked and that is capable of turning on an axle.

Sheet Metal Web Wheel

A circular frame of hard material that may be solid, partly solid, or spoked and that is capable of…

Spinning Wheel used to make thread.

Spinning Wheel

Spinning Wheel used to make thread.

An old spinning wheel used to spin cotton into yard.

Spinning Wheel

An old spinning wheel used to spin cotton into yard.

This trolley wheel is often refereed to as a bogie, or the framework for a carrying case in this scenario a trolley.

Trolley Wheel

This trolley wheel is often refereed to as a bogie, or the framework for a carrying case in this scenario…

An illustration of creating a hand wheel by spinning while moving threaded tool to the desired radius.

Turning Hand Wheels

An illustration of creating a hand wheel by spinning while moving threaded tool to the desired radius.

A whirling-table, with a brass tube attached. A cork is shooting out of the tube.

Whirling table

A whirling-table, with a brass tube attached. A cork is shooting out of the tube.

"A still more common form, much used in drawing water from wells and loaded buckets from mines, is shown [here]. Instead of a wheel, we have here a winch, or handle, attached to the axle." —Quackenbos 1859

Winch

"A still more common form, much used in drawing water from wells and loaded buckets from mines, is shown…

"Windlass.—The common windlass for drawing water is another modification of the wheel and axle. The winch, or crank, by which it is turned, is moved around by the hand, and there is no difference in the principle, whether a whole wheel is turned, or a single spoke. The winch, therefore, answers to the wheel, while the rope is taken up, and the weight raised by the axle, as already described." —Comstock, 1850

Windlass

"Windlass.—The common windlass for drawing water is another modification of the wheel and axle.…