Old clock with Roman numerals, 11:58.

Old clock

Old clock with Roman numerals, 11:58.

A clock is run by wheels. Each wheel turns another to keep the clock running.

Wheels of a Clock

A clock is run by wheels. Each wheel turns another to keep the clock running.

Escapement is a mechanical device intervening between the power and the time-measurer of a clock or watch, and whose purpose is to secure uniformity in the rate of movement.

Escapement

Escapement is a mechanical device intervening between the power and the time-measurer of a clock or…

Gulliver's watch is being taken away. From <em>Gulliver's Travels</em> by Dean Swift.

Gulliver's Watch

Gulliver's watch is being taken away. From Gulliver's Travels by Dean Swift.

Passage of the second division of the Federal Squadron past Fort St. Philip. On April 24, 1862 at three o'clock in the morning, the greater part of Commodore Farragut's squadron passed the forts through one of the most terrible fires ever known. It consisted of five sloops of war and nine gunboats. The mortar flotilla and eight war steamers remained below, thus putting the forts between two fires, and cutting off all communication with New Orleans. General Duncan surrendered the forts unconditionally to Captain Porter, on Monday, April 28. There were found about seven hundred men in each fort.

The Great Naval Battle of the Mississippi

Passage of the second division of the Federal Squadron past Fort St. Philip. On April 24, 1862 at three…

Temperance, holding her attributes, a yoke and a clock.

Temperance

Temperance, holding her attributes, a yoke and a clock.

"Gallant charge of the Sixth Regiment, United States Regular Cavalry, upon the Confederate Stuart's Cavalry- the Confederates scattered in confusion and sought safety in the woods, May 9th, 1862. At three o'clock P.M. on May 9th, 1862, eighty men of the Sixth Regular Cavalry had advanced to Slatersville, when a considerable force of the enemy was observed directly in front. The Sixth charged upon the Confederates, and obliged them to retreat precipitately. The charge made by the Federal cavalry at the commencement of the skirmish was splendidly executed, and elicited the praise of the general in command of the troops. The Confederate cavalry was advancing toward the Federals when they formed in line and waited the approach of the enemy. when he had arived sufficiently near they made dash upon him, cutting their way through the line and causing the utmost confusion to prevail, after which they returned to quarters by a road leading through the woods on the right of the enemy." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Sixth Regiment

"Gallant charge of the Sixth Regiment, United States Regular Cavalry, upon the Confederate Stuart's…

"Siege of Island No. 10, on the Mississippi River- night bombardment by the Federal mortar boats, ten o'clock P. M., March 18th, 1862. On the 16th of March, 1862, the mortar fleet and the gunboats, consisting of the <em>Cincinnati, Pittsburg, St. Louis, Silver Wave, Carondelet, Mound City, Conestoga, Louisville, Rob Roy, Alps, Wilson, Lake Erie, Great Western</em> and <em>Torrence</em>, and nine mortar boats, arrived near the Point. These were accompanied by several tugboats. On the 18th they opened fire, which, after some hours' delay, was returned by the Confederate batteries. This continued for several days, with very little loss to the Federal troops, owing to the iron casing of the vessels. The study of mortar firing is very interesting. Our sketch represents the manner in which the smoke rolls, and a small column frequently splits out when the shell passes. The shell itself can be seen at night during its entire flight, the fuse having the appearance of a star, which appears and disappears as the shell rolls through the air, very like the twinkling of the celestial orbs. The explosion of the shell at night is a magnificent and fearful sight, sending a glow of surpassing brightness around it as though some world of combustible light had burst." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Siege of Island

"Siege of Island No. 10, on the Mississippi River- night bombardment by the Federal mortar boats, ten…

"The Confederate batteries shelling the Federal position on the night of the Battle of Cedar Mountain, August 9th, 1862- wounded men lying on the ground, McDowell's division marching on the field. The scene at night was very striking. It was past ten o'clock, and there was a bright moonlight and a clear blue sky. The Federal troops were on a rising ground, while the enemy's batteries were shelling from the woods, the Federal batteries replying, and one by one driving them further back. The hospital was near the Federal position, and wounded men wre lying on the ground, waiting their turn to receive surgical attention. Near them were groups of stragglers, ambulances, ammunition wagons, etc." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Cedar Mountain

"The Confederate batteries shelling the Federal position on the night of the Battle of Cedar Mountain,…

"Battle of Winchester, VA., March 23rd, 1862- decisive bayonet charge of the Federal troops, led by General Tyler. The contest raged furiously till three o'clock in the afternoon, the fighting being done chiefly by the artillery and the musketry, at a range of not more than three or four hundred yards, and often much less. The Confederate infantry opposite the right now debouched from the woods, and attempted to capture Doan's battery by a charge. The first effort was nearly successful, but the heavy discharge of grape compelled them to retire in confusion. A second and weaker attempt likewise failed, and the enemy fell back, with heavy loss, behind the stone parapet. General Tyler then ordered his brigade to charge the enemy's batteries on the left, and a most deadly encounter followed. Twice the Federals reeled under storm; but in the third effort they routed the Confederates with tremendous slaughter, amid loud cheering, capturing two of their guns and four caissons." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Winchester

"Battle of Winchester, VA., March 23rd, 1862- decisive bayonet charge of the Federal troops, led by…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Engagement at Romney, VA., twenty miles from New Creek, Tuesday, June 11th, 1861- the Eleventh Indiana Zouaves crossing the bridge over the Potomac, at double quick time, to attack the Confederate forces. On Tuesday, June 11th, 1861, Colonel Lewis Wallace, in command of the Eleventh Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Zouaves, stationed at Cumberland, Md., received orders to attack the Confederates assembled at Romney, the capital of Hampshire County, Va. He took six hundred men and left the same evening, reaching New Creek Bridge, twenty-eight miles by rail from Cumberland, at eleven o'clock P.M. Colonel Wallace reached the neighborhood of Romney about eight o'clock A.M., and was not surprised to find that the enemy had got the alarm, there having been time enough for horsemen to give warning. Picket guards had been placed on the eights commanding the road, at a distance of about one mile and a half from the town. These fired their pieces at the advance of the Zouaves, and as the fire was promptly and effectually returned, they immediately withdrew. The Zouaves entered Romney at half-past eight o'clock A.M., in time to partake of the breakfast which had been prepared for the "evacuates."" — Frank Leslie, 1896

Engagement at Romney

"Engagement at Romney, VA., twenty miles from New Creek, Tuesday, June 11th, 1861- the Eleventh Indiana…

"Battle of Mill Spring, on the Cumberland River, near Jamestown, between a confederate force, 8,000 strong, under General Zollicoffer, and the Federal troops, 4,000 strong, commanded by General Thomas, fought Sunday, January 19th, 1862- flight of the Confederate Army. One of the most dashing, desperate and decisive battles of the war took place on Sunday, January 19th, 1862, when a Confederate army of 8,000 men, led by Generals Zollicoffer and Crittenden, were totally routed by General Thomas, at the head of about 4,000 Federal troops. The cannonading began at four o'clock in the morning, and the engagement soon became general. Zollicoffer found, however, that instead of surprising General Thomas, that able and vigilant officer was ready for him. The Confederates fought gallantly throughout that dismal Sabbath day, and owing to their decided superiority in numbers the result was doubtful till near the conclusion of the conflict. The death of Colonel Peyton, who fell gallantly at the head of his regiment, had materially damped the spirits of the Confederates, but the fall of their commander, Zollicoffer, about ten minutes past three in the afternoon, completed their rout. At that hour, as the Fourth Kentucky regiment was deploying on the flank of the Confederate army, Zollicoffer, attended by several of his aids, mistook his way in the underwood, and suddenly emerged before Colonel Fry, who was also with several officers. At first they mistook each other for friends, but upon the mistake being discovered one of the Confederate officers fired at Fry and shot his horse. Almost at the same instant Colonel Fry drew his revolver and shot General Zollicoffer through the heart. His aids, seeing their commander slain, deserted the body, which was taken charge of by the Federal troops, and carried to Somerset. The news spread like wildfire through the Confederate army, which fled with precipitation, and at half-past three not a confederate stood his ground." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Mill Spring

"Battle of Mill Spring, on the Cumberland River, near Jamestown, between a confederate force, 8,000…

"Battle of Charles City Road- charge of the Jersey Brigade- the first New Jersey brigade, General Tayler, detaching itself from General Slocum's division and rushing to the support of the General Kearny's division, which had been driven back, thus turning the fortunes of the day, June 30th, 1862, six o'clock p.m." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of Charles City

"Battle of Charles City Road- charge of the Jersey Brigade- the first New Jersey brigade, General Tayler,…

"Battle at Willis Church, Monday, June 30th, 1862- the Federal forces, under General Heintzelman, engaged with the enemy. This desperate battle between the Confederates on one hand and the divisions of General Heintzelman and Franklin on the other was fought on the morning of Monday, June 30th, 1862, at Willis Church, a place midway between the White Oak Swamp Bridge and Turkey Bend, where, later in the day, another fierce fight raged, the week of combat being closed next day by the deadly but drawn battle of Malvern Hill. Our sketch represents the position of part of the Federal army at ten o'clock in the morning, just as the battle was commencing. The baggage train is in the foreground, and the enemy is advancing upon the Federal lines, and covering the advance with a heavy shower of shells. Willis Church is on the left of the illustration, being what most of the Southern places of worship were, mere wooden barns." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Battle at Willis Church

"Battle at Willis Church, Monday, June 30th, 1862- the Federal forces, under General Heintzelman, engaged…

"Battle of Gaines's Mill, Friday, June 27th, 1862. At eleven o'clock each division, brigade, regiment and gun was in place. Some were in the broad, open field and others under the cover of the woods. The day was intensely warm, and many of the men, worn out with their previous day's fighting, lack of sleep and toilsome march, had already thrown themselves upon the ground and were indulging in a short slumber, when a sharp volley and then the roar of artillery announced that the Confederates had opened the fight. Their shells burst in front of the farmhouse which General Morell had made his headquarters. The Federal batteries, after some little delay, replied and for an hour this artillery duel and shelling the woods continued. It was not till near three o'clock in the afternoon that the engagement became general, and then the battle raged for four hours with unexampled fury. As though by common consent, there was a pause now; but it did not last long, for the enemy had evidently received large re-enforcements, as the whole Federal line was attacked, with a vigor which showed that those who made it were fresh men. To prevent defeat, General Porter sent for re-enforcements, for under the additional pressure the Federal troops were giving way. Fortunately, General Slocum's division came to the rescue, and with it Generals Palmer, French and Meagher with their brigades and two bodies of cavalry. This changed the character of the struggle. Meagher's gallant gellows, coats off and sleeves rolled up, charged the enemy and drove them back. General Palmer's men and Duryee's Zouaves also went in with valor, and finally the Confederates rolled back like a retreating wave. This was the close of the day's fight. Toward the end the Federals had fifty-four regiments on the field, numbering about 36,000 men." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Battle of Gaines's Mill

"Battle of Gaines's Mill, Friday, June 27th, 1862. At eleven o'clock each division, brigade, regiment…

"In the Shenandoah Valley- General Fremont's division marching through the woods to attack the Confederates. This exciting pursuit commenced on Saturday, May 31st, 1862, when the first collision occurred between the hostile armies in the lower valley, near Strasburg, to which place Jackson had fallen back from the Potomac upon hearing that Fremont was on the march to intercept him. In this retreat the indomitable and daring Ashby, the "Murat of the Confederates," occupied the post of danger, dashing against the Federal troops whenever they pressed the retreating enemy too closely. At ten o'clock on the 31st the First Jersey Cavalry, led by the gallant Wyndham, and Ashby's men had a desperate skirmish, in which the Confederates were driven back with some loss. Jackson rested his Confederate troops in Strasburg this night, and next morning resumed his retreat, when the Ashby cavalry and the First Jersey had another and heavier conflict, in which artillery was used. That night the enemy occupied Woodstock, having made fourteen miles in their retreat this day. So close was the Federal advance on the Confederates that General Bayard's cavalry, when they entered Strasburg, captured the Confederate provost marshal and two hundred men. At the village of Edinburgh, five miles from Woodstock, the Confederate General Ashby, by Jackson's orders, after seeing the rear guard safely across the bridge over Stony Creek, fired the wooden structure, and it was soon enveloped in flames." —Leslie, 1896

Strasburg Woods

"In the Shenandoah Valley- General Fremont's division marching through the woods to attack the Confederates.…

"Desperate naval combat between the Confederate iron-plated ram <em>Arkansas</em> and the Federal gunboat <em>Carondelet</em>, at the mouth of the Yazoo River, Tuesday, July 15th, 1862. Next to the ever-memorable combat between the <em>Merrimac</em> and the <em>Monitor</em>, that of the <em>Carondelet</em> and the <em>Arkansas</em> was the most exciting. Like the former engagement, it ended in a drawn battle. On July 14th, 1862, the gunboats <em>Carondelet</em> and <em>Tyler</em> were sent by Commodore Farragut to survey the Yazoo River and ascertain the exact condition of the Confederate iron-plated ram <em>Arkansas</em>, about which there were various reports. They arrived at the mouth of the Yazoo, fifteen miles above Vicksburg, at seven o'clock in the evening, and anchored for the night. Next morning at daylight they tipped anchor and slowly steamed up the Yazoo, the <em>Tyler</em> considerably in advance. About two miles up the river smoke was seen across a little point of land, which, as Captain Gwin of the <em>Tyler</em> surmised, proceeded from the Confederate ram, now rapidly steaming toward the <em>Tyler</em>. In another moment a heavy report was heard from the enigmatical gunboat, and a huge round shot went howling over the deck of the <em>Tyler</em>. Captain Walke of the <em>Carondelet</em> ordered the <em>Tyler</em> to proceed with all speed to alarm the fleet and advise it to prepare for her approach while he engaged the Confederate monster. In ten minutes afterward the <em>Carondelet</em> and <em>Arkansas</em> were alongside each other, and the conflict commenced in earnest. The <em>Carondelet</em> commenced with her bow guns, striking her opponent with a rapidity and precision which the enormous strength of the iron plating alone prevented taking immediate effect. The <em>Arkansas</em> used in return her rifled and guns with terrible effect, some of the shots going right through the <em>Carondelet</em>. Seeing her inability to cope with her antagonist, Captain Walke ran the <em>Carondelet</em> alongside the <em>Arkansas</em> and grappled her. The order "Boarders away!" was instantly passed, and the crew of the Federal gunboat speedily mounted the deck of its adversary. When there they found no foe to engage. The crew of the Arkansas had retired below, and the iron hatches were closed, so that it was uttlerly impossible to go down and continue the action." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Combat at Yazoo River

"Desperate naval combat between the Confederate iron-plated ram Arkansas and the Federal gunboat…

"Battle of Cedar Mountain, fought Saturday, August 9th, 1862, between the Federal troops commanded by General Banks and the Confederate Army led by Generals Jackson, Ewell, Winder, etc.- final repulse of the Confederates. General Pope's report of the battle is as follows: "On Saturday, August 9th, 1862, the enemy advanced rapidly to Cedar Mountain, the sides of which they occupied in heavy force. General Banks was instructed to take up his position on the ground occupied by Crawford's brigade, of his command, which had been thrown out the day previous to observe the enemy's movements. He was directed not to advance beyond that point, and if attacked by the enemy to defend his position and send back timely notice. The artillery of the enemy was opened early in the afternoon, but he made no advance until nearly five o'clock, at which time a few skirmishers were thrown forward on each side under cover of the heavy wood in which his force was concealed. The enemy pushed forward a strong force in the rear of his skirmishers, and General Banks advanced to the attack. The engagement did not fairly open until after six o'clock, and for an hour and a half was furious and unceasing. I arrived personally on the field at 7 P.M., and found the action raging furiously. The infantry fire was incessant and severe. I found General Banks holding the position he took up early in the morning. His losses were heavy. Ricketts's division was immediately pushed forward and occupied the right of General Banks, the brigades of Crawford and Gordon being directed to change their position from the right and mass themselves in the centre. Before this change could be effected it was quite dark, though the artillery fire continued at short range without intermission. The artillery fire, at night, by the Second and Fifth Maine batteries in Ricketts's division of General McDowell's corps was most destructive, as was readily observable the next morning in the dead men and horses and broken gun carriages of the enemy's batteries which had been advanced against it. Our troops rested on their arms during the night in line of battle, the heavy shelling being kept up on both sides until midnight. At daylight the next morning the enemy fell back two miles from our front, and still higher up the mountain."" —Leslie, 1896

Battle of Cedar Mountain

"Battle of Cedar Mountain, fought Saturday, August 9th, 1862, between the Federal troops commanded by…

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking the advance of the Confederates. After the battle of Savage's Station the Federals continued on their retreat, and by eight o'clock on the morning of June 30th, 1862, they had crossed White Oak Swamp and Creek, after destroying the bridge over the latter and warding off the repeated attacks to which they were subjected throughout the night. After crossing White Oak Creek the Federals had quickly formed a new line of battle at Willis Church, General Hancock's forces being on the extreme right, while Porter's occupied the left, and Heintzelman's and Sumner's the intervening space. Jackson's advance was checked by the destruction of the bridge, and when he reached the creek, at about noon, he found the approaches well defended by artillery. Jackson opened upon Hancock's troops, and made repeated efforts to rebuild the bridge under cover of his heavy artillery, but he was every time repulsed. While this was going on Longstreet and Hill had come upon a Federal force at a place two miles away, called Frazier's Farm. Here stood Sumner and Hooker, on the extreme right, McCall somewhat in advance toward the centre and Kearny on the extreme left. When Longstreet found this force arrayed against him he waited for re-enforcements to come up, and it was four o'clock when he commenced the attack. McCall's left was first assailed by Kenper's brigade, which was met by the Pennsylvania Reserves under Colonel Simmons, who, after a bitter conflict, drove the Confederates into the woods with a loss of 250 killed and wounded and about 200 prisoners. Fresh troops then enabled the Confederates to drive back the Federals, who in turn lost heavily. Longstreet and Hill now pressed on, and the conflict became a severe one along the entire front. One point, then another, was vainly tried in the determined effort to break the Federal line. At length Wilcox's Alabama Brigade rushed across an open field upon McCall's left, directly against Randall's battery, which centered upon the Confederates a most galling fire. Nothing daunted, they moved on, and finally engaging in a desperate hand-to-hand fight, first captured Cooper's battery, and afterward Randall's battery, which had been doing such terrible execution. A charge was then ordered for the recapture of the guns. The Confederates bravely met the severe attacks that followed. A still more desperate hand-to-hand struggle took place for the possession of the lost batteries, which were finally recaptured. By dark the Confederates had retired into the woods, and the Federals remained on that portion of the field which they had lost earlier in the action. The Federal loss was about 1,800 killed and wounded, whilst that of the Confederates was over 2,000. Colonel Simmons and General Meade were both severely wounded, while General McCall was a made prisoner." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge

"Battle of White Oak Swamp Bridge, Monday June 30th, 1862- Ayres's, Mott's and Randall's batteries checking…

"Battle of Munfordville, Ky., Sunday, September 14th, 1862- the Confederates charging through the abatis in front of the fortifications near Green River. Our correspondent reports of this battle: 'At five o'clock the Confederates were seen forming in front of our rifle pits, and soon, from the cover of the woods and abatis, began the engagement by a rapid fire of musketry. It was plainly seen that a disposition of our men was being made by Colonel Wilder to repel the attack anticipated on the left, and, thinking it a favorable hour, the Confederate force made a desperate assault on our right. This was made by a Mississippi and a Georgia regiment. The assault was led by the colonel of the Mississippi regiment, and he died for his daring. The major of the same regiment was wounded and taken prisoner. The newly formed Confederate right marched from the woods in splendid order, with ranks apparently full. When they appeared over the brow of the hill it was at a double-quick; all pushed on with desperate courage, to meet resistance not the less desperate. With grape from the artillery and a shower of balls from the musketry they were met and moved down; but they never faltered; and it was only when they sprang on the breastworks and were met with the bayonet that they fell back, leaving the field strewn with their dead and dying. After a momentary struggle on the breastworks the whole Confederate force broke into disorder and fled from the field.'" —Leslie, 1896

Battle of Munfordville

"Battle of Munfordville, Ky., Sunday, September 14th, 1862- the Confederates charging through the abatis…

"Advance of the Army of the Potomac. Occupation of Winchester, VA., and the abandoned Confederate Fortifications, by a detachment of General Banks's Deivision of the Federal Army, consisting of the brigades of Generals Hamilton and Williams, March 12th, 1862. Our sketch represents the advance of the Federal troops upon the City of Winchester, and is thus described by our correspondent: 'A portion of General Banks's Division, under General Gorman, occupied the town of Berryville, VA., on the 11th. There were five hundred of the Confederate cavalry in the place, but upon the Third New York Cavalry, properly supported by artillery and infantry, charging them, they fled in confusion toward Winchester. During the night the pickets of General Gorman came in contact with a portion of Colonel Ashby's Confederate cavalry, and were compelled to fall back, but the general made a reconnoissance in force to within two miles of Winchester, and, charging upon the Confederates dispersed them, taking several prisoners, and killing or wounding four of the Confederates. This reconnoissance sealed the fate of Winchester. The enemy were blinded and misled by the movement of our troops, and they commenced the evacuation of the place on the afternoon of the 12th. General Hamilton advanced from Bunker hill, the Michigan Cavalry heading the column. The Confederate Cavalry, one thousand two hundred strong, and supported by a section of artillery, gave battle at five o'clock in the afternoon. Our cavalry was supported by the First maryland Infantry, and a battery of artillery. The fight was a short one. The Confederates fled, leaving their guns behind them, and at daylight on the 12th our troops entered the city as the rear guard of the enemy was flying out of it.'"— Frank Leslie, 1896

Army of the Potomac

"Advance of the Army of the Potomac. Occupation of Winchester, VA., and the abandoned Confederate Fortifications,…

"Bombardment and capture of Fort Thompson, thirteen guns, near New Berne, on the Neuse River, by the Federal gunboats of General Burnside's expedition, commanded by Commander S. C. Rowan, U. S. N., March 14th, 1862. Extract from the official report of General Burnside. 'Early on the morning of the 12th, the entire force started for New Berne, and that night anchored off the mouth of Slocum's Creek, some eighteen miles from New Berne, where I had decided to make a landing. The landing commenced by seven o'clock the next morning under cover of the naval fleet, and was effected with the greatest enthusiasm by the troops. After a toilsome march through the mud, the head of the column marched within a mile and a half of the enemy's stronghold at eight o'clock, a distance of twelve miles from the point of landing, where we bivouached for the night. At daylight on the morning of the 14th I ordered an advance of the whole division, and, after an engagement of four hours, we succeeded in carrying a continuous line of field-works of over a mile in length. The position was finally carried by a most gallant charge of our men, which enabled us to gain the rear of all the batteries between this point and New Berne, which was done by a rapid advance of the entire force up the main road and railroad, the naval fleet meantime pushing its way up the river, throwing their shots into the forts in front of us. The enemy, after retreating in great confusion across the railroad bridge set fire to it, thus preventing further pursuit and causing detention in occupying the town by our troops. But the naval force had arrived at the wharves and commanded the town with their guns."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Fort Thompson

"Bombardment and capture of Fort Thompson, thirteen guns, near New Berne, on the Neuse River, by the…

"The Federal troops under Generals Brannan and Terry driving the Confederates under beauregard across the Pocotaligo bridge, near the Charleston and Savannah Railroad, October 22nd. Our correspondent thus describes the fight: 'This action began between twelve and one o'clock, and lasted about an hour, ending in the retreat of the Confederates to another position at Frampton's Plantation, which lies two miles beyond. The enemy was closely followed, and after a hotly contested fight the Confederates were driven from their well-chosen position, and two miles beyond, which brought them up to Pocotaligo Bridge, over which they crossed, taking shelter behind earthworks on the farthest side. To this point our troops nearly approached, but found further progress impossible, as the bridge had been out by the enemy on his retreat. Our loss was: Killed, 15; wounded, 106; missing, 2; total, 123.'"&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Pocotaligo Bridge

"The Federal troops under Generals Brannan and Terry driving the Confederates under beauregard across…

"Federal artillery taking up position at the Battle of South Mountain. The Federal movement was admirably executed in face of the well-directed fire from the Confederates, who had the advantage of position and could contest almost every inch of the steep, wooded and rocky approach. By four o'clock (September 14th, 1862) the engagement became general, and the entire ground was vigorously contested until the crest was reached and darkness put an end to the fight. In this engagement the total loss on both sides in killed, wounded and missing was nearly 3,000. General Jesse L. Reno was killed while at the head of his command, and was replaced by General Cox, General Hatch and Colonel Wainwright being severely wounded."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of South Mountain

"Federal artillery taking up position at the Battle of South Mountain. The Federal movement was admirably…

"Bird's-eye view of the burning of a Confederate schooner in Quantico or Dumfries Creek, Potomac River, on the night of October 11th, 1861. On the 10th of October, 1861, Lieutenant Harrell, commanding the steamer <em>Union</em>, of the Potomac Flotilla, stationed at the mouth of Aquia Creek, learning that the Confederates had fitted out a large schooner in Quantico or Dumfries Creek, and had collected a considerable body of troops there, with the intention of crossing the Potomac, determined that the vessel should be destroyed. He accordingly organized an expedition, and with one boat and two launches entered the mouth of the creek about half-past two o'clock on the morning of the 11th. The schooner was discovered some distance up, in charge of a single sentry, who fled and gave the alarm. She was immediately boarded and set on fire; and when her destruction was rendered certain Lieutenant Harrell's men returned to their boats and pulled again for the steamer. Their position was fully revealed by the light of the burning schooner, and they were fired upon continuously from both banks of the narrow stream, but not one of them was injured, though their clothing in many instances was perforated with bullets. The success of the enterprise was complete."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Confederate Schooner

"Bird's-eye view of the burning of a Confederate schooner in Quantico or Dumfries Creek, Potomac River,…

"Battle of Antietam, Burnside's Division, left wing- brilliant and decisive bayonet charge of Hawkins's Zouaves on the Confederate battery on the hill, right bank of Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg, September 17th, 1862, utter route of the Confederates. This brilliant and decisive charge was made about five o'clock in the afternoon of Wednesday, September 17th. Our correspondent thus described the charge: 'On the left, during the afternoon, Burnside carried the bridge after an obstinate contest of several hours duration, and a loss of about five hundred killed and wounded. Hawkins's Zouaves then crossed and found the enemy ready drawn up under cover of the hills, and advanced in line of battle on the enemy's new position, about a half a mile distant. The ground over which they advanced was open clover and plowed fields, the latter very difficult and fatiguing to march in, owing to the softness of the ground. The enemy's guns, fourteen in number, kept up a terrible fire on our advancing line, which never wavered, but slowly toiled along, receiving shelter, however, when they were in the hollows. They were halted a few moments to rest in the hollow nearest the enemy's position, and then were ordered to charge with a yell. As they came up the hill in front of the enemy's batteries, they received a heavy volley from a large force of infantry behind a stone wall, about two hundred feet in front of the enemy's batteries. Our men, though terribly decimated, gave a volley in return, and then went on with the bayonet. The enemy did not stay to contest the ground, and, although two to one, broke and ran, leaving their guns.'"— Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Antietam

"Battle of Antietam, Burnside's Division, left wing- brilliant and decisive bayonet charge of Hawkins's…

A diller, a dollar, a ten o'clock scholar.

Teacher and Pupil

A diller, a dollar, a ten o'clock scholar.

"Battle of Antietam- the opening of the fight- Hooker's division fording the Great Antietam Creek to attack the Confederate army under General lee, ten o'clock A. M., September 17th, 1862."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Antietam

"Battle of Antietam- the opening of the fight- Hooker's division fording the Great Antietam Creek to…

"Bombardment of Fredericksburg, Va., by the army of the Potomac, commanded by General Burnside, Thursday, December 11th, 1862. Our correspondent's report of this event: 'At ten o'clock General Burnside gives the order, "Concentrate the fire of all your guns on the city and batter it down!" You may believe they were not loath to obey. The artillery of the right- eight batteries- was commanded by Colonel Hays; Colonel Tompkins, right centre, eleven batteries; Colonel Tyler, left centre, seven batteries; Captain De Russy, left, nine batteries. In a few moments these thirty-five batteries forming a total of one hundred and seventy-nine guns, ranging from 10-pounder Parrotts to 41-inch siege guns, posted along the convex side of the arc of the circle formed by the bend of the river and land opposite Fredericksburg, opened on the doomed city. The effect was, of course, terrific, and, regarded merely as a phenomenon, was among the most awfully grand conceivable. Perhaps what will give you the liveliest idea of its effect is a succession, absolutely without intermission, of the very loudest thunder peals. It lasted thus for upward of an hour, fifty rounds being fired from each gun, and I know not how many hundred tons of iron were thrown into the town. The congregate generals were transfixed; mingled satisfaction and awe was upon every face. But what was tantalizing was, that though a great deal could be heard, nothing could be seen, the city being still eveloped in fog and mist. Only a denser pillar of smoke defining itself on the background of the fog indicated where the town had been fired by our shells. Another and another column showed itself, and we presently saw that at least a dozen houses must be on fire. Toward noon the curtain rolled up, and we saw that it was indeed so. Fredericksburg was in conflagration. Tremendous though this firing had been, and terrific though its effect obviously was on the town, it had not accomplished the object intended. It was found by our gunners almost impossible to obtain a sufficient depression of their pieces to shell the front part of the city, and the Confederate sharpshooters were still comparatively safe behind the thick stone walls of the houses.'"&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Bombardment of Fredericksburg

"Bombardment of Fredericksburg, Va., by the army of the Potomac, commanded by General Burnside, Thursday,…

"Battle of Stone River, Tenn. The decisive charge of General Negley's division across the river- the Confederates flying in confusion. We question if a more spirited sketch was ever published than our double-page engraving representing the final charge of General Negley's division, on the afternoon of Friday, January 2nd, 1863, at the battle of Murfreesborough, or Stone River. About four o'clock in the afternoon General Rosecrans, seeing that the critical moment had arrived, gave orders for General Negley to cross the river and drive the enemy from his position. This was done in a manner worthy of the most disciplined troops in the world. The Eighteenth Ohio Regiment dashed into the river, the Nineteenth Illinois and Twenty-first Ohio following close behind. Our artist reported: 'The scene was grand in the extreme. It was indeed a momentous battle on a miniature scale. Nothing could resist our gallant men; on they rushed; the Confederates met the shock then wavered, and then were driven back at the bayonet's point, step by step, for some half mile, when they broke and fled, ever and anon rallying to check our too hasty pursuit. Night fell on the scene, and the victors and vanquished rested from their strife. Thus was won the great battle of Stone River, in which, if ever men met foemen worthy of their steel, they met them then.'"— Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Stone River

"Battle of Stone River, Tenn. The decisive charge of General Negley's division across the river- the…

"Battle of Antietam. The centre and right wing of General McClellan's Army, commanded by Generals Hooker, Sumner and Franklin, engaged with the Confederate Army, led by Generals Longstreet, Jackson and Lee, September 17th, 1862. Our sketch was taken about ten o'clock in the morning of the 17th of September, and represents the centre and right wing of the Federal army engaged with the Confederate centre and left, commanded by Generals Longstreet and Jackson. Hooker's division was then just on the point of crossing the creek, which they did in splendid style. Thus at the close of the engagement the federal troops occupied every position held in the morning by the Confederates, who retreated behind Sharpsburg, from which they escaped over the Potomac next night. Our illustration gives an excellent idea of the nature of the struggle, and the ground over which it was fought, which admitted of much fairer fighting than the jungles of Virginia. Since Waterloo there has been no struggle so long and so fiercely contested, and with an army spread over so wide an extent- the extreme end of the right wing, under Hooker, being three miles distant from the extreme left of Burnside, whose Hawkins's Zouave charge concluded this hard-fought day. At seven o'clock the last gun was fired, and the armies, victorious and vanquished, rested for the night."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Antietam

"Battle of Antietam. The centre and right wing of General McClellan's Army, commanded by Generals Hooker,…

"Battle of Gettysburg, Cemetery Hill during the attack of the Confederates, Thursday evening, July 2nd, 1863. No attack was made until about half-past three o'clock, when Lee ordered a simultaneous advance against each flank of the Federal army, while demonstrations were being kept up against the centre. The attacks were not, however, made simultaneously, as Lee had intended. Longstreet began by sending Hood's force against Sickles's extreme left, then held by General Ward, of Birney's division, whose three brigades extended their line from the Round Top across the Devil's Den, to and beyond the Peach Orchard, along the Emmittsburg Road. Ward's force was driven back after a bitter contest, and before De Trobriand, who stood next in line, could give him any assistance. Upon turning Ward's left Hood fell upon De Trobriand's flank and rear, leading part of his force between that portion of the field and the Round Top, while McLaws, with Anderson's support, was assaulting De Trobriand's centre. The attack was made with such vigor that Sickles called for re-enforcements, and Burling's brigade of Humphreys's division, as well as the two brigades of Barnes's division, under Tilton and Sweitzer, were therefore sent him. A terrible struggle followed, and the ground was contested bitterly at all points."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Gettysburg

"Battle of Gettysburg, Cemetery Hill during the attack of the Confederates, Thursday evening, July 2nd,…

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Va. Attack on General Sedgwick's Corps. on Monday, May 4th, 1863, at 5 P.M., as seen from Falmouth Heights. After General Sedgwick had carried the fortifications on Sunday, May 3rd, he pushed along the Gordonsville Plank Road in pursuit till night stopped his advance. Before morning the enemy threw a heavy force in his rear, cutting him off from his small force at Fredericksburg on the rear, and began to mass troops on his front and left flank. About half-past five o'clock in the afternoon they began the attack, and columns poured from behind the breastworks and marched down the hill to the plain above the town and opposite Falmouth, receiving, as they came in range, a brisk fire from the Federal artillery beyond the river. Unchecked by this, however, they rushed on Sedgwick's line, which repeatedly repulsed them, falling back, however, gradually to Banks's Ford, which they crossed in the morning on pontoons. In the sketch the breastworks captured on Sunday are seen, with the Confederates passing between them and the river in columns to attack Sedgwick's troops, which are the continuous line in the distance."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Chancellorsville

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Va. Attack on General Sedgwick's Corps. on Monday, May 4th, 1863, at 5…

"Daring and desperate attack- surprise and capture of the United States gunboat <em>Harriet Lane</em> by the Confederates under General Magruder, and destruction of the flagship <em>Westfield</em>, in Galveston Harbor, Tex., January 1st, 1863. About two o'clock in the morning of January 1st, 1863, the Federal gunboats were attacked by five Confederate steamers, protected by double rows of bales of cotton, and loaded with troops armed with rifles, muskets, etc. The <em>Harriet Lane</em> was captured by boarding, after about all her officers, including Captain Wainwright and Lieutenant Commander Lee, and a crew of 130, all told, had been killed by muskettry from the Confederate steamers. The gunboats <em>Clifton</em> and <em>Owasco</em> were engaged and escaped, the former losing no men and but one wounded. The <em>Owasco</em> lost one killed and fifteen wounded. Two barks, loaded with coal, fell into the hands of the Confederates. The <em>Westfield</em> (flagship, Commodore Renshaw) was not engaged, being ashore in another channel. Her crew were transferred to transports, and Commodore Renshaw, fearing she would fall into the hands of the Confederates, blew her up. By some mismanagement or accident the exploion took place before a boat containing Commodore Renshaw, First Lieutenant Zimmerman and the boat's crew got away, and they were blown up with the ship. The Confederate force was estimated at 5,000, under the command of General Magruder. The Federal land force, under the command of Colonel Burrill, of Masschusetts, did not exceed 300, the residue not having disembarked at the time of the fight. The Federal loss was 160 killed and 200 taken prisoners. The navy suffered the most. The Confederate loss was much greater, as the Federal guns were firing grape and canister continually in their midst."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Harriet Lane

"Daring and desperate attack- surprise and capture of the United States gunboat Harriet Lane

"Confederate rams from Charleston Harbor attacking the Federal blockading squadron, January 31st, 1863. Official report of Rear Admiral Dupont: 'About four o'clock on the morning of the 31st of January, during the obscurity of a thick haze, two ironclad gunboats came out of Charleston by the main ship channel, unperceived by the squadron, and commenced a raid upon the blockading fleet. The <em>Mercedita</em> was the first vessel attacked. Captain Stellwagen had gone to his room for a short time, leaving Lieutenant Commanding Abbott on deck, when one of the ironclads suddenly appeared. Her approach was concealed by the haze and mist of the atmosphere. The vessel was immediately hailed and an order given to fire; but the ironclad being close aboard, and lying low in the water, no guns could be brought to bear. A heavy rifle shell was fired from the enemy, which entered the starboard side of the <em>Mercedita</em>, passed through her condenser, the steam drum of her port boiler, and exploded against her port side, blowing a hole in its exit some four or give feet square, killing the gunner, and, by the escape of steam, a number of the men, and rendering her motive power apparently useless. Unable to use his guns, and being at the mercy of the enemy, which was lying alongside on his starboard quarter, all further resistance was deemed hopeless by Captain Stellwagen, and he surrendered.'"&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Confederate rams

"Confederate rams from Charleston Harbor attacking the Federal blockading squadron, January 31st, 1863.…

"Siege of Vicksburg- General Sherman's fight with hand grenades, June 13th, 1863. On the 13th of June occurred in the siege of Vicksburg a scene hitherto unparalleled in the Civil War. By two o'clock in the morning General Sherman's corps had pushed up to the rifle pits, and to within twenty yards of one of the bastions. The Confederates threw lighted shells over the parapet on the Federal approach, and received in return twenty-three hand grenades, twenty of which exploded, driving the Confederates out. Cannon had now become useless to either party, and as musketry was of no avail, they had to resort to the old hand grenade."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Siege of Vicksburg

"Siege of Vicksburg- General Sherman's fight with hand grenades, June 13th, 1863. On the 13th of June…

"Battle of Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863- the formidable position of General Pemberton carried by Generals Hovey, Logan and Crocker, of Grant's army. On the morning of the 16th of May, General A. P. Hovey's division, occupying the right of McClernand's corps, encountered the Confederate pickets, but no engagement took place until about eleven o'clock, when the Indiana troops, led by General McGinnis, made a deliberate attack upon the rapidly increasing force which Pemberton had brought together at Champion Hills. Two batteries which had been planted along a high ridge were doing considerable damage, and it was finally determined to assault them. They were both taken by the Eleventh and Forty-sixth Indiana and the Twenty-ninth Wisconsin, after a fierce hand-to-hand fight; but the arrival of fresh Confederate troops and the want of re-enforcements prevented their being held for any length of time. The Federals withdrew, and remained under cover of their artillery till joined by part of Quimby's late dvision, commanded by General Marcellus M. Crocker. Another advance was then ordered, and while Pemberton's right was thus engaged Logan's division attacked his left, and succeeded in flanking and in forcing it back in such manner as to completely isolate for awhile the whole of General Loring's brigade, which occupied the extreme Confederate right. The attack was so fierce that Stevenson's line became completely demoralized, yielded in turn, and by four o'clock the Confederates were in full retreat toward the Big Black River. Just then the other division of McClernand's corps came upon the scene, and a pursuit was ordered by Generals Carr and Osterhaus. This lasted until dark, and resulted in the capture of many prisoners and arms of all descriptions. The total loss in killed and wounded on both sides approximated to 4,000."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Champion Hills

"Battle of Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863- the formidable position of General Pemberton carried by Generals…

"The war in Virginia. Burnside's corps charging the Confederate position on the right of the enemy's line in front of Petersburg. The first line of Confederate works on the right shown in our sketch were carried by Burnside's Corps. The artillery in the foreground is pouring its steady shower of shot and shell on the enemy's line from the breastworks, while the troops are charging through the brush and fallen trees in double line of battle. The fight was in an open, rolling space of ground, skirted by a belt of timber toward the city. Said an officer: 'It was now about five o'clock P.M. We opened our battery at once and commenced shelling the Confederate fort. We kept on firing for about half an hour, when our infantry, Griffin's brigade, made a charge and captured the fort, taking five guns and about two hundred prisoners. We had, we found, dismounted the Confederate gun by our shells.'"— Frank Leslie, 1896

Burnside's Corps

"The war in Virginia. Burnside's corps charging the Confederate position on the right of the enemy's…

"Presentation of colors to the Twentieth United States [African American] Infantry, Colonel Bartram, at the Union League Clubhouse, New York, March 5th, 1864. The Twentieth Regiment, United States [African American] Troops, left Riker's Island at nine o'clock on the 5th of March, 1864, on board the steamer <em>John Romer</em>, and were conveyed to the foot of Twenty-first Street, East River, New York, where they were disembarked and formed in regimental line, and marched to Union Square, arriving in front of the Union League Clubhouse at one o'clock. A vast crowd of citizens, of every shade of color and every phase of social and political life, filled the square and streets, and every door, window, veranda, tree and housetop that commanded a view of the scene was peopled with spectators. Over the entrance of the clubhouse was a large platform, ornamented with flags and filled with ladies. In the street was another platform, tastefully decorated and occupied by prominent citizens. From the stand the colors were presented by President King of Columbia College, who addressed them with warmth and eloquence. After the presentation ceremony was over the men stacked arms and partook of a collation provided for them."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Presentation of Colors

"Presentation of colors to the Twentieth United States [African American] Infantry, Colonel Bartram,…

"Capture of Fort De Russy, La., on the 14th of March, 1864, by the Federal forces under General Andrew Jackson Smith. This fort was captured, March 14th, 1864, by the Federal forces under General A. J. Smith. The expedition left Vicksburg on March 10th, landed at Summerville, La., on the 13th, and marched to Bayou Glace, where General Scurri's Confederate brigade had been encamped, which fled on the approach of the transports, leaving considerable camp equipage and commissary stores. General Smith pushed forward to Yellow Bayou, where strong fortifications had been erected; but the Confederates again fled. As he came up the enemy was pressed, and some skirmishing occurred, resulting in the capture of several prisoners and a small wagon train. At daylight the entire command started for Fort de Russy, twenty-eight miles distant, hotly pursued by General Dick Taylor, who hoped to save the fort; but Smith had the lead, and at four o'clock in the afternoon the Third and Ninth Indiana Batteries opened on the fort, which replied vigorously with three of its heaviest guns. The cannonade continued an hour, when General Smith ordered the First and Second illinois Regiments, Sixteenth Corps, under General Mower, to charge the enemy's rifle pits and storm the fort. The Eighty-ninth and One Hundred and Nineteenth Indiana and Twenty-fourth Missouri Regiments charged over deep ditches and a thick abatis in the face of a galling fire, and within twenty minutes after the order was given the [African American] sergeant of the Fifty-eighth Illinois Volunteers planted the American flag upon the enemy's works."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Fort de Russy

"Capture of Fort De Russy, La., on the 14th of March, 1864, by the Federal forces under General Andrew…

"The war in Tennessee. Hooker's Battle above the clouds, and capture of the Confederate position on Lookout Mountain, November 24th, 1863. The wild mountains of Tennessee, where nature reveals in producing the most fantastic forms, and piling rocks upon rocks, forms one of the mightiest ridges on the land, have been the scene of one of the most extraordinary battles in history; a battle fought with the mists and clouds rolling beneath the combatants, the flash and the roar of the guns appearing to the spectators in the plain below like the lightning and the thunder of heaven. By eight o'clock on Tuesday, November 24th, Hooker's column was moving up Lookout Valley, and, to the surprise of the enemy, disappeared in the woods south of Wauhatchie. But here, filing his troop to the left, General Hooker began the difficult task of the ascent of the mountain. The head of the column, having reached the palisades, went into line of battle facing to the north, and with the right resting against the palisades stretched down the mountain. Geary's division formed the front, with Greene's brigade of New York troops on the right. General Hooker then formed a second line of the two brigades of the Fourth Corps which had been sent him, placing Whittaker on the right and Grose on the left. General Osterhaus formed a third line, and held himself in readiness to aid any part of the line which might need it. Thus arranged, the corps was ordered forward, with a heavy line of skirmishers thrown out, and marching along the slope of the ridge, soon came upon the rear of the enemy, who were taken completely by surprise. Before those at the foot of the hill could comprehend the situation Colonel Ireland's skirmishers had penetrated far toward the point of the mountain, and got in a heavy fire upon the enemy, who were now trying to escape up the hill, while the Federals assaulted them from above. At the same time the Federal batteries on the Moccasin Point and those of the Confederates on Lookout Mountain opened a heavy fire upon each other, and soon the whole mountain was hid from the view in Chattanooga by the cloud of smoke which rose above and around it. The enemy made but little organized resistance, yet their skirmishers for a long time kept up a heavy fire from behind jutting rocks and from trees. Holding Ireland's right well against the palisades, Geary threw Kennedy forward on the left, and he, after being re-enforced by Grose, the enemy on the point of the mountain gradually gave way and fell back in some disorder to the line of breastworks on the east slope of the mountain, at Craven's House. General Geary swung around until his line was parallel with that of the enemy, and again advanced, but being met by organized and well-directed resistance, for a time recoiled. The enemy were now in strong position, Craven's House being the centre of a line of heavy breastworks; but they lacked numbers to man them, having lost severely. They were compelled to expose their right flank. Hooker then sent the Eighty-fourth and Seventy-fifth Illinois to hold the road across the mountain, and advanced on the enemy, with Geary on the right, Osterhaus on the left. Whittaker and Grose in the centre. Geary turned their left, as Osterhaus did the enemy's right, and then, with one charge of the whole line, Hooker carried the position."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Hooker's Battle

"The war in Tennessee. Hooker's Battle above the clouds, and capture of the Confederate position on…

"The operations near Washington, scene of the fight in front of Fort Stevens, July 12th-13th, 1864. When news of the Confederate invasion reached Grant he sent up to City Point the old Sixth Corps, that had so long battled under Sedgwick, whence they embarked for Washington. They went perhaps enjoying the scare of the Washington people, little suspecting that they were to have a brilliant little battle of their own under the eyes of the President. About six o'clock on the 12th the Confederates showed themselves coming down a declivity on both sides of Seventh Street road (Brookville Turnpike) into a little valley running across the road about a mile north of Fort Stevens. General Wright ordered a small brigade of infantry to clear out the enemy from his front. The dwelling on the hill opposite, shelter for sharpshooters, were preliminarily emptied by shells, which set them on fire- shells sent from Forts Massachusetts and Slocum. Then the Federal infantry rose, and, with a fanlike spreading to the right and left, dashed with hurrahs of delight at the two positions on each side of the Seventh Street road. The Confederates slid out of their rifle pits and leaped from behind their fences and trees, and raced. They did not stand a moment. A regiment of cavalry issued from a wood, seemingly Blair's, to the succor of their flying infantry and sharpshooters. The Federals halted to receive the troopers' charge, fired into them at close quarters, checked them, fired again, and kept firing. In three minutes neither Confederate cavalry nor infantry was in sight. The Federals double-quicked in line of battle over the crest of the heights, and disappeared in pursuit, with hurrahs and laughter, on the other wise, driving Rodes's and Gordon's divisions of Ewell's corps in headlong flight before them."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Fort Stevens

"The operations near Washington, scene of the fight in front of Fort Stevens, July 12th-13th, 1864.…

"The war in Virginia. A regiment of the Eighteenth Corps carrying a portion of Beauregard's line in front of Petersburg. The first line of Confederate works, on the right, was carried by Burnside's corps. Said an officer: 'It was now about five o'clock P. M. We opened our battery at once and commenced shelling the Confederate fort. In five minutes we had three wounded. We kept on firing for about half an hour, when our infantry- Griffin's brigade- made a charge and captured the fort, taking give guns and about 200 prisoners. We had, we found, dismounted the Confederate guns by our shells.' The works on the left were carried, after a desperate fight, by the Eighteenth Corps, of which we give a near view."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Eighteenth Corps

"The war in Virginia. A regiment of the Eighteenth Corps carrying a portion of Beauregard's line in…

"The war in Georgia. Capture of Lost Mountain by General Hooker, June 16th, 1864. On June 14th General Hooker pushed forward, with Geary in the advance, and soon came up with the enemy. Having driven the Confederates from two hills, Geary, being without support upon his right, was forced to halt. Butterfield and Williams having arrived and formed in open fields on the right of Geary's position, about three o'clock P. M., General Hooker ordered an advance of the corps. The lines moved forward, driving the enemy's pickets rapidly before them, halting now and then a moment to dislodge some of the more stubborn of the Confederates, who maintained their fire until almost under the feet of the advancing troops. General Geary's division was the first to encounter the enemy in strong force, with whom one or two sharp volleys were exchanged, and they then fell back to their strongly intrenched lines, from which they opened a terrible fire. This was the commencement of a fierce struggle, which lasted until after dark. Under the cover of darkness the enemy threw out a strong line of skirmishers. The morning of the 15th opened with heavy firing, resulting in repelling an attack of the Confederates to break the picket lines of Geary's Second and Third Brigades. Artillery was placed along the lines, and took a prominent part in the struggle, which continued with varying intensity till after nightfall. Early on the morning of the 16th the skirmishers of Geary's First Brigade discovered that the enemy had evacuated, and they immediately pushed into the works."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Capture of Lost Mountain

"The war in Georgia. Capture of Lost Mountain by General Hooker, June 16th, 1864. On June 14th General…

"Sherman's Campaign in Georgia- the attack of the Fourteenth, Sixteenth and Twentieth Army Corps on Kenesaw Mountain, June 22nd, 1864. Kenesaw Mountain, a second Lookout among its fellows, is about four miles in length and some four hundred feet high, difficult of ascent, with spurs on the flanks, and presenting a most dignified appearance. Sherman resolved to flank it, and on June 22nd the corps of the right and left of his army advanced, the centre maintaining its position around and upon the base of the mountain in the teeth of a very heavy artillery fire from the Confederate batteries. The Twentieth and Twenty-third wheeled on the left to hem in the Confederates between the Federal line and the railroad. The Fourteenth Kentucky met the enemy first, who charged furiously to check the movement. Schofield and Hooker were, however, ready. Williams's division drove back the enemy with artillery alone, without the employment of a musket. Batteries I and M of the First New York had second position, which gave them a cross fire upon the Confederates as they advanced over an open field, and it proved entirely too hot for them. Again, about six o'clock, they made the same attempt, and were driven back still more rapidly by a combined fire of artillery and musketry, which must, from the openness of the ground, have proved very destructive. The Federal losses were slight. They did not exceed two hundred killed and wounded during the day, and one-quarter of this loss was suffered by the Fourteenth Kentucky."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Sherman's Campaign

"Sherman's Campaign in Georgia- the attack of the Fourteenth, Sixteenth and Twentieth Army Corps on…

"The Siege of Petersburg. Battle of Ream's Station- the attempt of the enemy to regain the Weldon Railroad on the evening of August 25th, 1864. The enemy having been repulsed, the Federal skirmishers followed, advancing to the position they had formerly held, and capturing a number of prisoners. Shortly after the enemy again advanced, and were again driven back with heavy loss; and their third assault, made about four o'clock P. M., was attended with a like satisfactory result. In the first three charges the enemy used no artillery, but about five o'clock P. M. they opened a heavy, concentrated fire from a number of batteries, pouring a storm of shell and other missiles over the entire ampitheatre included within the Federal lines. After about twenty minutes of this artillery fire the enemy again made their appearance in front of General Miles's division, their assault being directed mainly against his centre. Emerging from the woods, they advanced in two lines of battle. The Federal artillery and musketry greeted them, as before, with a rapid fire, but without checking their progress. On they came, with bayonets fixed and without firing a shot. They approached the Federal lines, gained the outside of their intrenchments, and at some points a hand-to-hand conflict ensued over the top of the breastworks, the Federals beating back the Confederates with their bayonets as they atempted to climb over. But soon it was found that the Federal line was broken near the centre, and the gap once made rapidly grew wider, until nearly the entire line was swept back, leaving the Federal breastworks and artillery in the hands of the enemy. General Miles, with great coolness, set to work to rally the men, and in a short time succeeded in forming a line with its right resting against the breastworks. At the same time General Hancock ordered the Second Division to be faced about, and cheering and urging the men forward, ledthem in person in a charge at double-quick. This charge, which was made under a heavy fire, was gallantly executed, and in conjunction with the line rallied by General Miles instantly checked the enemy and regained the intrenchments for some distance further toward the left. After the enemy had been checked in the centre and along that portion of the line against which they had chiefly directed their attack the graetest part of the Second Division returned to their own intrenchments. By this time it was dark and the fighting ended. Our sketch shows the repulse of the last Confederate assault."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Ream's Station

"The Siege of Petersburg. Battle of Ream's Station- the attempt of the enemy to regain the Weldon Railroad…

"Blowing out of the bulkhead of the Dutch Gap Canal, James River, Va., January 1st, 1865. At twelve minutes before four o'clock A. M., the mine was sprung, in the presence of General Butler and staff. A dense black smoke, at first immediately following the upheaval of the earth, was succeeded by a ponderous cloud of white smoke, which entirely filled the gap and concealed the result of the scheme. On rolling away it revealed the bank settled again into nearly its former position, but indented with a species of crater, into which the water ran slowly from the canal below. No connection between the canal and the river was immediately established, although as we have intimated, the disturbace of the embankment disposed it suitably for the gradual action of the current, and lightened the subsequent labors of the gang."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Dutch Gap Canal

"Blowing out of the bulkhead of the Dutch Gap Canal, James River, Va., January 1st, 1865. At twelve…

"Battle of Middletown, on the afternoon of the 19th of October, 1864. Great victory won by Major General Sheridan. Our sketch represents the gallant charge of the Sixth Corps, commanded by General Getty, which was made at about four o'clock in the afternoon of the 19th. It was this which decided the battle. The charge was made in face of a deadly and terrible fire from the Confederate batteries, under which the Federal troops only slightly wavered, though they never for an instant gave way. The battle ground is depicted in our sketch, lying at the foot of the Blue Ridge. The Confederate position is on the right, sheltered by a stone fence. That of the Sixth Corps is similarly protected on the left."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Middletown

"Battle of Middletown, on the afternoon of the 19th of October, 1864. Great victory won by Major General…

"The war in Tennessee. Capture of Mission Ridge, near Rossville, by General Thomas, November 25th, 1863. Our correspondent thus graphically depicts this scene: 'Simultaneously and instantaneously the two, or rather four, columns rushed forward across the valley of Citco Creek and up to the line of the Confederate rifle pits that lined the base of Mission Ridge. These even did not claim their attention, nor did the two or three discharges of musketry which received them call for a reply. On they pushed with their glittering bayonets, signaling back a reply that startled the already dismayed foe. They abandoned the works and their camps, over and through which our men rushed with headlong speed and a velocity which of itself would have secured them victory. The enemy had opened on these columns a heavy fire from several batteries, which he had massed along his centre, to hide and in some measure remedy his now apparent weakness there. But these were only replied to by the guns of Captain Bridges on Orchard Knob and the deep-mouthed monsters of Fort Wood. The foot of the hill was reached by the advancing column in good order, and now began the difficult ascent. Half-way up, the line became broken and ragged, and it looked much as if a heavy line of skirmishers were mounting the hill. When they reached the top, and the Confederate artillerists were limbering up their pieces, the front line was no longer preserved, but the men pushed forward indiscriminately. The Confederate infantry fled and yielded up the artillery without further struggle. From below we could see the Confederate flag as it entered and passed through Fort Hindman, and gave place to that of the Union. In just three-quarters of an hour after the order was given for the assault General Turchin, of Baird's division, occupied Fort Hindman with two of his regiments, and was rapidly moving the others forward to their support. Generals Willich, Hazen and Waggener were reaping harvest of artillery. The hill was won at four o'clock, the enemy cut in two, and his organization for the time destroyed. As the hill was won, General Grant, following in the wake of the advancing column, appeared in their midst on the summit. The troops saw and recognized him, and at once there went up a shout such as only victorious men can give to a victorious leader.'"— Frank Leslie, 1896

War in Tennessee

"The war in Tennessee. Capture of Mission Ridge, near Rossville, by General Thomas, November 25th, 1863.…

"Grant's Campaign in Virginia. Repulse of Lee's night attack on Smith's Brigade, Hancock's Corps, Friday, June 3rd, 1864. After the fearful battle of Friday, when Grant so gallantly attempted to force the passage of the Chickahominy and actually carried some of Lee's works, a lull ensued, and night was fast coming on in a universal stillness. But, suddenly, when nearly eight o'clock and as twilight was just vanishing, Hancock's Corps heard in the Confederate Corps heard in the Confederate works just by them the words of command. At once all was in motion, every man at his post. They had not long to wait. Over the intervening crest, clearly defined in the gathering darkness, came Beauregard's men. As the line appeared, Smith's Brigade of Gibbons's Division poured in a volley which pierced the darkness like a flash of lightning. Volley after volley is given, but they press on the Division of Barlow and Gibbons and the left of Wright's Corps. These gallant fellows welcomed their antagonists of the morning, and drove them back with terrible loss. This repulse of the Confederates closed the bloody work of the day, which stands the fiercest action of war."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Grant's Campaign

"Grant's Campaign in Virginia. Repulse of Lee's night attack on Smith's Brigade, Hancock's Corps, Friday,…

"The Battle of Gettysburg, Friday morning, July 3rd, 1863. In our illustration may be studied the struggle on Friday morning. On the Federal right the battle raged furiously from early dawn. Ewell was determined to advance from the rifle-pits he had taken the night before, and Slocum was equally resolute to recover them. Geary and Birney here met the first assault firmly. For six hours the struggle was desperate on both sides. The Confederates seemed to laugh at death, and again and again charged through the smoke of artillery with shouts that swelled above the uproar. Wheaton's Brigade, of the Sixth, ws hurried up to the rescue, and the Federal line which had been forced back for a moment, again advanced; more troops were pushed forwad, artillery brought up on a gallop, and posted so as to enfilade the hostile ranks. At eleven o'clock the enemy gave it up, and his shattered bleeding battalions fell back in despair."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Gettysburg

"The Battle of Gettysburg, Friday morning, July 3rd, 1863. In our illustration may be studied the struggle…

"Second battle of Bull Run, fought Saturday, August 30th, 1862, between the Federal forces commanded by Major General Pope, and the Confederate forces by Generals Lee, Jackson and Longstreet. The battle began about twelve o'clock noon, and was waged with unwavering success for the Federal forces until about four o'clock in the afternoon. The fighting on both sides was desperate and destructive, either party frequently firing shrapnel and grape from the artillery. At about four o'clock the whole of General Pope's troops, save those under General Banks, were engaged at close quarters with the Confederate forces. The conflict was a desperate one. The firing on both sides was terrific, and the whole line of General Pope's command, from generals commanding army corps down to enlisted men, behaved with wonderful coolness, courage and determination, and fought with the most heroic valor from the beginning to the end. The tide of battle turned adversely for the Federals about half-past five o'clock, overwhelming numbers of re-enforcements being precipitated against the left wing under General McDowell, who was compelled to fall back."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Second Battle of Bull Run

"Second battle of Bull Run, fought Saturday, August 30th, 1862, between the Federal forces commanded…

"First assault upon Fort Fisher, Sunday, January 15th, 1865. The One Hundred and Seventeenth New York troops, followed by the Third, planting the flag on the northern traverse of the fort. On the 13th of January the Federal fleet commenced the bombardment, which was continued with unabated vigor throughout the day. On the 15th it was resolved to take the place by storm. The boats containing the naval force intended to co-operate effected a landing on a shelving piece of beach about a mile and a half from the fort. At two o'clock, and when within eight hundred yards of the fort, the order to charge was given. The First Brigade of the Second Division of the Twenty-fourth Corps, headed by General Curtis, scaled the northeast salient of the fort, and forced a rapid entrance. Inch by inch they fought their way along the northeast face, the gallant First Brigade in the advance. It was a hand-to-hand struggle; bayonets were in general use; muskets were clubbed; and man stood up to man in deadly conflict. Night fell, and yet the fierce struggle raged unremittingly within the fort. About ten o'clock the final struggle took place, and, after a short but desperate hand-to-hand encounter, the Federals remained masters of the hitherto impregnable Fort Fisher."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Fort Fisher

"First assault upon Fort Fisher, Sunday, January 15th, 1865. The One Hundred and Seventeenth New York…

"The bombardment of Fort Pulaski, second day, Friday, April 11th, 1862. General Quincy A. Gilmore took personal command of Tybee Island on the 20th of February, 1862, and at once began construction of earthworks. On the 9th of April everything was in readiness for the bombardment, and early on the following morning a summons for the surrender of Fort Pulaski was sent, through Lieutenant J. H. Wilson, to its commander, Colonel Charles H. Olmstead, by General David Hunter. The surrender having been refused, order was given to immediately open fire. This was done at about eight o'clock on the morning of the 10th, from the two 13-inch mortars in charge of Captain Sanford. The remaining two batteries joined in, and their united fire thundered all day, and was steadily responded to from the fort. The bombardment of the fort was kept up until the next morning, and at daybreak of the 11th the firing again commenced on both sides. The Federal fire was mainly directed against the southeastern portion of the fort, and by two o'clock in the afternoon the breach had become so wide that the arches of the casemate were laid bare. This was followed by the hoisting of a white flag, when firing ceased. The immediate and unconditional surrender of the fort was agreed on."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Fort Pulaski

"The bombardment of Fort Pulaski, second day, Friday, April 11th, 1862. General Quincy A. Gilmore took…

"Walnut Street front of the State House in 1776. This gives the appearance of the shorter steeple, which took the place of the stately one taken down in 1774. This was its appearance during the Revolution. A huge clock case was upon each gable of the main building of the State House."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

State House

"Walnut Street front of the State House in 1776. This gives the appearance of the shorter steeple, which…

"Battle at Willis Church, Monday, June 30th, 1862- the Federal forces, under General Heintzelman, engaged with the enemy. This desperate battle between the Confederates on one hand and the divisions of General Heintzelman and Franklin on the other was fought on the morning of Monday, June 30th, 1862, at Willis Church, a place midway between the White Oak Swamp Bridge and Turkey Bend, where, later in the day, another fierce fight raged, the week of combat being closed next day by the deadly but drawn battle of Malvern Hill. Our sketch represents the position of part of the Federal army at ten o'clock in the morning, just as the battle was commencing. The baggage train is in the foreground, and the enemy is advancing upon the Federal lines, and covering the advance with a heavy shower of shells. Willis Church is on the left of the illustration, being what most of the Southern places of worship were, mere wooden barns." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Battle at Willis Church

"Battle at Willis Church, Monday, June 30th, 1862- the Federal forces, under General Heintzelman, engaged…

"Battle of Stone River, Tenn. The decisive charge of General Negley's division across the river- the Confederates flying in confusion. We question if a more spirited sketch was ever published than our double-page engraving representing the final charge of General Negley's division, on the afternoon of Friday, January 2nd, 1863, at the battle of Murfreesborough, or Stone River. About four o'clock in the afternoon General Rosecrans, seeing that the critical moment had arrived, gave orders for General Negley to cross the river and drive the enemy from his position. This was done in a manner worthy of the most disciplined troops in the world. The Eighteenth Ohio Regiment dashed into the river, the Nineteenth Illinois and Twenty-first Ohio following close behind. Our artist reported: 'The scene was grand in the extreme. It was indeed a momentous battle on a miniature scale. Nothing could resist our gallant men; on they rushed; the Confederates met the shock then wavered, and then were driven back at the bayonet's point, step by step, for some half mile, when they broke and fled, ever and anon rallying to check our too hasty pursuit. Night fell on the scene, and the victors and vanquished rested from their strife. Thus was won the great battle of Stone River, in which, if ever men met foemen worthy of their steel, they met them then.'"— Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Stone River

"Battle of Stone River, Tenn. The decisive charge of General Negley's division across the river- the…

"Battle of Stone River, Tenn. The decisive charge of General Negley's division across the river- the Confederates flying in confusion. We question if a more spirited sketch was ever published than our double-page engraving representing the final charge of General Negley's division, on the afternoon of Friday, January 2nd, 1863, at the battle of Murfreesborough, or Stone River. About four o'clock in the afternoon General Rosecrans, seeing that the critical moment had arrived, gave orders for General Negley to cross the river and drive the enemy from his position. This was done in a manner worthy of the most disciplined troops in the world. The Eighteenth Ohio Regiment dashed into the river, the Nineteenth Illinois and Twenty-first Ohio following close behind. Our artist reported: 'The scene was grand in the extreme. It was indeed a momentous battle on a miniature scale. Nothing could resist our gallant men; on they rushed; the Confederates met the shock then wavered, and then were driven back at the bayonet's point, step by step, for some half mile, when they broke and fled, ever and anon rallying to check our too hasty pursuit. Night fell on the scene, and the victors and vanquished rested from their strife. Thus was won the great battle of Stone River, in which, if ever men met foemen worthy of their steel, they met them then.'"— Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Stone River

"Battle of Stone River, Tenn. The decisive charge of General Negley's division across the river- the…

"Battle of Stone River, Tenn. The decisive charge of General Negley's division across the river- the Confederates flying in confusion. We question if a more spirited sketch was ever published than our double-page engraving representing the final charge of General Negley's division, on the afternoon of Friday, January 2nd, 1863, at the battle of Murfreesborough, or Stone River. About four o'clock in the afternoon General Rosecrans, seeing that the critical moment had arrived, gave orders for General Negley to cross the river and drive the enemy from his position. This was done in a manner worthy of the most disciplined troops in the world. The Eighteenth Ohio Regiment dashed into the river, the Nineteenth Illinois and Twenty-first Ohio following close behind. Our artist reported: 'The scene was grand in the extreme. It was indeed a momentous battle on a miniature scale. Nothing could resist our gallant men; on they rushed; the Confederates met the shock then wavered, and then were driven back at the bayonet's point, step by step, for some half mile, when they broke and fled, ever and anon rallying to check our too hasty pursuit. Night fell on the scene, and the victors and vanquished rested from their strife. Thus was won the great battle of Stone River, in which, if ever men met foemen worthy of their steel, they met them then.'"— Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Stone River

"Battle of Stone River, Tenn. The decisive charge of General Negley's division across the river- the…