One of the most important musical instruments in use among the Chinese, one that is indispensable to their temple ritual, is the Sheng. This instrument is the representative of the gourd principle; originally the bowl was formed from a portion of a gourd or a calabash, the top being covered by a circular piece of wood with holes around the margin in which the pipes, seventeen in number, are fixed. In the side of the gourd is placed a mouthpiece or tube covered with ivory, through which the player <em>draws</em> his breath. Each pipe is fitted with a small free reed of copper. A small hole is made in each pipe just above the bowl, which prevents a pipe from speaking when the air is drawn in by the player, unless the hole is closed by a finger. --Baltzell, 1905

Sheng

One of the most important musical instruments in use among the Chinese, one that is indispensable to…

Temple of Isis at Philae.

Temple of Isis

Temple of Isis at Philae.

Temple of Jupiter at Olympia.

Temple of Jupiter

Temple of Jupiter at Olympia.

Temple of the Sun at Rome.

Temple of the Sun

Temple of the Sun at Rome.

Within the Chinese Empire, the Chinese people were very religious. They had Chinese Temples in many locations.

Chinese Temple

Within the Chinese Empire, the Chinese people were very religious. They had Chinese Temples in many…

The vulture, with widespread wings, symbolizing protection and maternal care, is a frequent and a splendid decoration of temple ceilings, and appears in many other applications.

Painted Vulture

The vulture, with widespread wings, symbolizing protection and maternal care, is a frequent and a splendid…

Lotus-bundle column from the Temple of Thomthmes III, Karnak.

Egyptian Column

Lotus-bundle column from the Temple of Thomthmes III, Karnak.

Palm capital from the Temple of Edfu.

Palm Capital

Palm capital from the Temple of Edfu.

Corinthian capital from Temple of Zeus at Athens.

Corinthian Capital

Corinthian capital from Temple of Zeus at Athens.

Fragment fdrom Temple of Vespasian, in Villa Aldobrandini.

Band Ornament

Fragment fdrom Temple of Vespasian, in Villa Aldobrandini.

Corinthian capital from the Temple of Mars, Ultor.

Corinthian Capital

Corinthian capital from the Temple of Mars, Ultor.

Temple of Fortuna Virilis.

Ionic Order

Temple of Fortuna Virilis.

Temple of Castor and Pollux.

Corinthian Order

Temple of Castor and Pollux.

Greco-Roman Corinthian order of Temple of Vesta.

Corinthian Order

Greco-Roman Corinthian order of Temple of Vesta.

Enriched Corinthian base from the Temple of Concord.

Corinthian Base

Enriched Corinthian base from the Temple of Concord.

Rinceau from the Temple of the Sun.

Rinceau

Rinceau from the Temple of the Sun.

Enriched ove fdrom the Temple of Vespasian.

Ove

Enriched ove fdrom the Temple of Vespasian.

Columned Hall of the Temple of Karnak

Columned Hall

Columned Hall of the Temple of Karnak

The Chaldaean Temple viewed from the sky.

Chaldaean Temple

The Chaldaean Temple viewed from the sky.

An order of architecture wherein the entablature is supported by female figures clothed in long garments, instead of columns. The temple of Polias-Minerva at Priene, Greece.

Caryatic Order

An order of architecture wherein the entablature is supported by female figures clothed in long garments,…

Floria Temple was a famous race horse.

Flora Temple

Floria Temple was a famous race horse.

"The Temple. This view is from the site of the <em>Temple</em>, looking southeast. In the distance is seen the opening of the Highlands into Newburgh Bay. On the right is Butter Hill, and near it is the village of Cornwall. The form and appearance of the <em>Temple</em> was drawn from the description given by Major Burnet, and doubtless has a general resemblance to the original."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Temple

"The Temple. This view is from the site of the Temple, looking southeast. In the distance is…

"View of the Camp Ground. This is from a painting by Tice, in my possession. The land on which the encampment on the west side of the meadow was, in now owned chiefly by Gilbert Tompkins and Nathaniel Moore. This view is from the land of Mr. Tompkins, looking east-southeast. On the slopes seen in the foreground, and on the margine of the meadow beyond Van Cortlandt's New York regiment, and the Maryland and Virginia troops were encamped. On the east side of the meadow, upon the most distant elevation in the middle ground, the New England troops were stationed. On the slope toward the right o that elevation stood the <em>Temple</em>. In the distance is seen the upper entrance of the Hudston into the Highlands. The meadow was formerly called Beayer Dam Swamp, from the circumstance that beavers constructed dams at the lower extremity, causing the waters to overflow the low grounds."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Camp Ground

"View of the Camp Ground. This is from a painting by Tice, in my possession. The land on which the encampment…

"This is a view from the lawn, looking south. It is a frame building with a brick foundation. At the time of the siege it belonged in fee to Governor Nelson, but its occupant, a widow Moore, had a life interest in it, and it was known as Moore's house. The narrow piazza in front is a modern addition. This house is upon the Temple Farm, so called from the fact that vestiges of a small temple or church, and the remains of an ancient settlement, are there seen, about a mile and a half south of Yorktown. Around the temple was a wall, and within are several tomb-stones. One of these bear the name of Major William Gooch, and the date of his death, 1655."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Moore's House

"This is a view from the lawn, looking south. It is a frame building with a brick foundation. At the…

An Egyptian Temple

Egyptian Temple

An Egyptian Temple

"Seven-branched candle-stick from the temple."—Colby, 1899

Candle-stick

"Seven-branched candle-stick from the temple."—Colby, 1899

Chinese Temple

Temple

Chinese Temple

A Grecian Temple

Grecian Temple

A Grecian Temple

"Herakles, from the eastern pediment of the temple of Athena."-Whitney, 1902

Æginetan Sculpture

"Herakles, from the eastern pediment of the temple of Athena."-Whitney, 1902

Temple Mound in Mexico

Temple Mound

Temple Mound in Mexico

"Another important diamond is the one at the point of the scepter of the Russian empire, known as the Orloff, which weighs 194 and three quarters carats. At one time it formed the eye of an idol in the temple of Seringham in Mysore, whence it was stolen. It was in the throne of Nadir Shah, and after his murder it was bought by an Armenian merchant in 1772 at the price of 450,000 silver rubles and the title of nobility. By the gift of Prince Orloff, a favorite of Catherine II., from whom it derived its name, it came into her possession. Some writers believe that this and the Koh-i-Nur are the two parts of the 'Great Mogul' diamond."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

The Great Mogul Diamond

"Another important diamond is the one at the point of the scepter of the Russian empire, known as the…

"A Frieze, in architecture, is that portion of the entablature which is between the architrave and the cornice. It was generally adorned with triglyphs in the Doric order. The term frieze was also applied to a broad band of sculpture, in low relief, that was frequently placed round the cella of a Grecian temple, immediately under the ceiling of the portico, and completely surrounding the exterior."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Drontheim Frieze

"A Frieze, in architecture, is that portion of the entablature which is between the architrave and the…

"A Frieze, in architecture, is that portion of the entablature which is between the architrave and the cornice. It was generally adorned with triglyphs in the Doric order. The term frieze was also applied to a broad band of sculpture, in low relief, that was frequently placed round the cella of a Grecian temple, immediately under the ceiling of the portico, and completely surrounding the exterior."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Roman-Doric Frieze

"A Frieze, in architecture, is that portion of the entablature which is between the architrave and the…

"A Frieze, in architecture, is that portion of the entablature which is between the architrave and the cornice. It was generally adorned with triglyphs in the Doric order. The term frieze was also applied to a broad band of sculpture, in low relief, that was frequently placed round the cella of a Grecian temple, immediately under the ceiling of the portico, and completely surrounding the exterior."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Roman-Doric Frieze

"A Frieze, in architecture, is that portion of the entablature which is between the architrave and the…

"Karnak is a village in Egypt built on the site of Thebes, on the bank of the Nile, and renowned for its magnificent architectural antiquities. The principal one of these is the Great Temple, 1,200 feet long and 330 feet wide. In this are found great colonades, obelisks, and a vast quantity of sculptures. Various colored marbles, sandstones and granite are used. Other smaller temples abound, beautifully ornamented with mural decorations which portray the kings, divinities and recreations of those ancient peoples. These temples were erected at various times from 1500 B.C. to 28 B.C."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Temple of Karnak

"Karnak is a village in Egypt built on the site of Thebes, on the bank of the Nile, and renowned for…

The Masonic Temple in New York City.

Masonic Temple of New York

The Masonic Temple in New York City.

"The Parthenon is a celebrated temple at Athens, consecrated to Athena or Minerva, the protectress of the city, built on an elevated rock near the Acropolis, and has always been regarded as the most exquisite and perfect example of Grecian architecture. The Parthenon was erected about 448 B. C., in the time of Pericles, Phidias being the chief sculptor. It had a length of 228 feet, by a breadth of 100; it had eight columns beneath each pediment, and 15 on each side, exclusive of those at each end of the pediments, with which they formed 16 intercolumns, of 46 columns in all, exclusive of those within the building. This magnificent fane had resisted the ravages of time down to the 17th century, being by turns a pagan temple, a Christian church, and also a Turkish mosque, till at the siege of Athens by the Venetians, in 1687, a shell fell on the roof of the Acropolis or citadel, which, firing the magazine beneath, shattered that building and the Parthenon into blackened ruins."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Parthenon

"The Parthenon is a celebrated temple at Athens, consecrated to Athena or Minerva, the protectress of…

"When she was about to be slain at the altar, Artemis intervened and carried her off in a cloud to be priestess of her temple in Tauris (the Crimea), while a stag was substituted in the sacrifice." &mdash; The Delphian Society, 1913

Rescue of Iphigenia

"When she was about to be slain at the altar, Artemis intervened and carried her off in a cloud to be…

"What in this letter is contained, what here, Is written, all I will repeat to thee, That thou mayst bear my message to my friends, 'Gainst danger thus I guard: if thou preserve, The letter, that though silent will declare, My purport; if it perish in the sea, Saving thyself, my words too thou wilt save." &mdash; The Delphian Society, 1913

Iphegnia delivers letter to Pylades

"What in this letter is contained, what here, Is written, all I will repeat to thee, That thou mayst…

The temple of Asklepios.

Temple of Asklepios

The temple of Asklepios.

"Ancilia carried by Salii. The sacred shield carried by the Salii, and made of bronze. The original ancile was found, according to tradition, in the palace of Numa; and, as no numan hand has brought it there, it was concluded that it had been sent from heaven. At the same time, the haruspices declared that the Roman state would endure so long as this shield remained in Rome. To secure its preservation in the city, Numa ordered eleven other shields, exactly like it, to be made by the armourer, Mamurius Veturius, and twelve ancilia. They were kept in the temple of that divinity, on the Palatine mount, and were taken from it only once a year, on the calends of March. The feast of the god was then observed during several daysl when the Salaii carried their shields about the city, singing songs in praise of Mars, Numa, and Mamurius Veturius, and at the same time performing a dance, which probably in some degree resembled our morris with rods, so as to keep time with their voices, and with the movements of their dance. The preceding cut shows one of these rods, as represented on the tomb of pontifex salius, or chief of the Salii" &mdash; Smith, 1873

Ancile

"Ancilia carried by Salii. The sacred shield carried by the Salii, and made of bronze. The original…

"Square pillars, which were commonly joined to the sidewalls of a building, being placed on each side of the door, so as to assist in forming the portico. These terms are seldom found except in the plural; because the purpose served by antae required that they should be erected corresponding to each other, and supporting the extremities of the same roof. The following is a specimen of the temple in antis." &mdash; Smith, 1873

Antae

"Square pillars, which were commonly joined to the sidewalls of a building, being placed on each side…

"Square pillars, which were commonly joined to the sidewalls of a building, being placed on each side of the door, so as to assist in forming the portico. These terms are seldom found except in the plural; because the purpose served by antae required that they should be erected corresponding to each other, and supporting the extremities of the same roof. Their position and form will be best understood from the cut, in which A A are the antae. The temple in antis was one of the simplest kind. It had in front antae attached to the walls which inclosed the calla; and in themiddle, between the antae, two columns supporting the architrave." &mdash; Smith, 1873

Antae

"Square pillars, which were commonly joined to the sidewalls of a building, being placed on each side…

"A Sacrifice. (From a vase-painting by Polygnotus.)"

Sacrifice

"A Sacrifice. (From a vase-painting by Polygnotus.)"

"A small temple, supposed to have been build by Numa, and dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, situated on the Esquiline. It was a small and humble structure suited to the simplicity of the age in which it was erected, and was not termed Capitolium until after the foundation of the one mentioned below, from which it was then distinguished as the capitolium vetus." &mdash; Smith, 1873;

Capitolium

"A small temple, supposed to have been build by Numa, and dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, situated…

A hinge or pivot. The first figure, in the annexed woodcut, is designed to show the general form of a door, as we find it with a pivot at the top and bottom in ancient remains of stone, marble, wood, and bronze. The second figure represents a bronze hinge in the Egyptian collection of the British Museum: its pivot is exactly cylindrical. Under these is drawn the threshhold of a temple, or other large edifice, with the plan of the folding-doors. The pivots move in holes fitted to receive them, each of which is in an angle behind the antepagmentum. The Greeks and Romans also used hinges exactly like those now in common use. Four Roman hinges of bronze, preserved in the British Museum, are shown in the following woodcut.

Cardo

A hinge or pivot. The first figure, in the annexed woodcut, is designed to show the general form of…

"An ancient Greek or Roman temple, of rectangular construction, is terminated at its upper extremity by a triangular figure, both in front and rear, which rests upon the cornice of the entablature as a base, and has its sides formed by the cornices which terminate the roof. The whole of this triangle above the trabeation is implied in the term fastigium." &mdash; Smith, 1873.

Fastigium

"An ancient Greek or Roman temple, of rectangular construction, is terminated at its upper extremity…

"It was the universal practice of the Greeks to undertake no matter of importance without first asking the advice of the gods; and there were many sacred spots in which the gods were always ready to give an answer to pious worshippers. The oracle of Apollo at Delphi surpassed all the rest in importance, and was regarded with veneration in every part of the Grecian world. In the center of the temple of Delphi there was a small opening in the ground from which it was said that a certain gas or vapour ascended. Whenever the oracle was to be consulted, a virgin priestess called <em>Pythia</em> took her seat upon a tripod which was placed over the chasm." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Tripod of Apollo

"It was the universal practice of the Greeks to undertake no matter of importance without first asking…

"The first public monuments that arose after the Persian wars were erected under the auspices of Cimon, who was, like Pericles, a lover and patron of the arts. The principal of these were the small Ionic temple of Nike Apteros (Wingless Victory), and the Theseum, or Temple of Theseus. The temple of Nike Apteros was only 27 feet in length by 18 in breadth, and was erected on the Acropolis in commemoration of Cimon's victory at the Eurymedon." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Temple of Nike Apteros

"The first public monuments that arose after the Persian wars were erected under the auspices of Cimon,…

"Athens is said to have derrived its name from the prominence given to its worship of Athena by its king erechtheus. The inhabitants were previously called Crannai and Cecropidae, from Cecrops, who, according to tradition, was the original founder of the city. This at first occupied the hill or rock which afterwards became the <em>Acropolis</em>, but gradually the buildings began to spread over the ground at the southern foot of this hill. It was not till the time of Pisitratus and his sons (B.C. 560-514) that the city began to assume any degree of splendour. The most remarkable of these building deposits was the gigantic temple of the Olympian Zeus, which, however, was not finished till many centuries later."&mdash; Smith, 1882

Temple of the Olympian Zeus

"Athens is said to have derrived its name from the prominence given to its worship of Athena by its…

"The Theseum is situated on a height to the north of the Areopagus, and was built to receive the bones of Theseus, which Cimon brought from Seyros in B.C. 469. It was probably finished about 465, and is the best preserved of all the monuments of ancient Athens. It was at once a tomb and a temple, and possessed the privileges of an asylum. It is of the Doric order, 104 feet in length by 45 feet broad, and surrounded with columns." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Thesium restored

"The Theseum is situated on a height to the north of the Areopagus, and was built to receive the bones…

"A. Pinacotheca, B. Temple of Nike Apteros, C. Pedestal of Agrippa, D. Road leading to the central entrace, E. Central enterance, F. Hail corresponding to the Pinacotheca." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Propylea restored

"A. Pinacotheca, B. Temple of Nike Apteros, C. Pedestal of Agrippa, D. Road leading to the central entrace,…

"The Parthenon stood on this highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre, and probably occupied the site of an earlier temple destroyed by the Persians. It was entirely of Pentelic marble, on a rustic basement of ordinary limestone, and its architecture, which was of the Doric order, was of purest kind." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Parthenon restored

"The Parthenon stood on this highest part of the Acropolis, near its centre, and probably occupied the…

"The building of the new Erechtheum was not commenced till the Parthenon and Propylea were finished, and probably not before the year preceding the breaking out of the Peloponnesian war. Its progress was no doubt delayed by that event, and it was probably not completed before 393 B.C. When finished it presented one of the finest models of the Ionic order, as the Parthenon was of the Doric. It stood to the north of the Acropolis." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Erechtheum restored

"The building of the new Erechtheum was not commenced till the Parthenon and Propylea were finished,…

"The Round temple in the Piazza Bocca Della Verita." &mdash; Young, 1901

Round temple

"The Round temple in the Piazza Bocca Della Verita." — Young, 1901

"In the time of Trajan, the Arch of titus and the Colossus of Nero (a gilt bronze statue 120 feet high), stood near the site now occupied by the church of S. Francesca Romana. They were removed by Hadrian to make room for the Temple of Venus and Rome, the arch being placed in its present position, and the colossus on the large square pedestal near the Colosseum, of which some remains may be still identified." &mdash; Young, 1901

Arch of titus

"In the time of Trajan, the Arch of titus and the Colossus of Nero (a gilt bronze statue 120 feet high),…

"Columns of Temple of Castor, Temple of Augustus, and Palatine Hill." &mdash; Young, 1901

Columns of Temple of Castor

"Columns of Temple of Castor, Temple of Augustus, and Palatine Hill." — Young, 1901

"Temple of Saturn, Tabularium and Tower of Capitol." &mdash; Young, 1901

Temple of Saturn

"Temple of Saturn, Tabularium and Tower of Capitol." — Young, 1901

"The door in front of a temple, as it reeached nearly to the ceiling allowed the worshippers to view from without the entire statue of the divinity, and to observe the rites performed before it. The whole light of the building, moreover, was commonly admitted through the same aperture. These circumstances are illustrated in the following cut, showing the front of a small temple of Jupiter taken from an ancient bas-relief." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Temple of Jupiter

"The door in front of a temple, as it reeached nearly to the ceiling allowed the worshippers to view…

"The Temple of Janus is represented as closed." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Coin of Temple of Janus

"The Temple of Janus is represented as closed." — Anthon, 1891