Deductive Logic

by George William Joseph Stock, M.A.

Exercises Part 2

Additional Information
  • Year Published: 1888
  • Language: English
  • Country of Origin: England
  • Source: Stock, G. W. J. (1888). Deductive Logic. Oxford, England; Pembroke College.
  • Readability:
    • Flesch–Kincaid Level: 11.0
  • Word Count: 1,587
  • Genre: Informational
  • Keywords: math, math history
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Give a name to each of the following sentences:—

(1) Oh, that I had wings like a dove!

(2) The more, the merrier.

(3) Come rest in this bosom, my own stricken deer.

(4) Is there balm in Gilead?

(5) Hearts may be trumps.


Analyse the following propositions into subject, copula and predicate:—

(1) He being dead yet speaketh.

(2) There are foolish politicians.

(3) Little does he care.

(4) There is a land of pure delight.

(5) All’s well that ends well.

(6) Sweet is the breath of morn.

(7) Now it came to pass that the beggar died.

(8) Who runs may read.

(9) Great is Diana of the Ephesians.

(10) Such things are.

(11) Not more than others I deserve.

(12) The day will come when Ilium’s towers shall perish.


1. Express in logical form, affixing the proper symbol:—

(1) Some swans are not white.

(2) All things are possible to them that believe.

(3) No politicians are unprincipled.

(4) Some stones float on water.

(5) The snow has melted.

(6) Eggs are edible.

(7) All kings are not wise.

(8) Moths are not butterflies.

(9) Some men are born great.

(10) Not all who are called are chosen.

(11) It is not good for man to be alone.

(12) Men of talents have been known to fail in life.

(13) ‘Tis none but a madman would throw about fire.

(14) Every bullet does not kill.

(15) Amongst Unionists are Whigs.

(16) Not all truths are to be told.

(17) Not all your efforts can save him.

(18) The whale is a mammal.

(19) Cotton is grown in Cyprus.

(20) An honest man’s the noblest work of God.

(21) No news is good news.

(22) No friends are like old friends.

(23) Only the ignorant affect to despise knowledge.

(24) All that trust in Him shall not be ashamed.

(25) All is not gold that glitters.

(26) The sun shines upon the evil and upon the good.

(27) Not to go on is to go back.

(28) The king, minister, and general are a pretty trio.

(29) Amongst dogs are hounds.

(30) A fool is not always wrong.

(31) Alexander was magnanimous.

(32) Food is necessary to life.

(33) There are three things to be considered,

(34) By penitence the Eternal’s wrath’s appeased.

(35) Money is the miser’s end.

(36) Few men succeed in life.

(37) All is lost, save honour.

(38) It is mean to hit a man when he is down.

(39) Nothing but coolness could have saved him.

(40) Books are generally useful.

(41) He envies others’ virtue who has none himself.

(42) Thankless are all such offices.

(43) Only doctors understand this subject.

(44) All her guesses but two were correct.

(45) All the men were twelve.

(46) Gossip is seldom charitable.

2. Give six examples of indefinite propositions, and then quantify them according to their matter.

3. Compose three propositions of each of the following kinds:—

(1) with common terms for subjects;

(2) with abstract terms for subjects;

(3) with singular terms for predicates;

(4) with collective terms for predicates;

(5) with attributives in their subjects;

(6) with abstract terms for predicates.


1. Point out what terms are distributed or undistributed in the following propositions:—

(1) The Chinese are industrious.

(2) The angle in a semi-circle is a right angle.

(3) Not one of the crew survived.

(4) The weather is sometimes not propitious.

The same exercise may be performed upon any of the propositions in the preceding list.

2. Prove that in a negative proposition the predicate must be distributed.


Affix its proper symbol to each of the following propositions:—

(1) No lover he who is not always fond.

(2) There are Irishmen and Irishmen.

(3) Men only disagree, Of creatures rational.

(4) Some wise men are poor.

(5) No Popes are some fallible beings.

(6) Some step-mothers are not unjust.

(7) The most original of the Roman poets was Lucretius.

(8) Some of the immediate inferences are all the forms of conversion.


1. Give six examples of terms standing one to another as genus to species.

2. To which of the heads of predicables would you refer the following statements? And why?

(1) A circle is the largest space that can be contained by one line.

(2) All the angles of a square are right angles.

(3) Man alone among animals possesses the faculty of laughter.

(4) Some fungi are poisonous.

(5) Most natives of Africa are negroes.

(6) All democracies are governments.

(7) Queen Anne is dead.


1. Define the following terms—

       Sun            inn-keeper       tea-pot
       hope          anger                virtue
       bread         diplomacy        milk
       carpet        man                   death
       sincerity     telescope         mountain
       poverty      Senate               novel.

2. Define the following terms as used in Political Economy—

       Commodity    barter          value
       wealth             land             price
       money             labour         rent
       interest            capital         wages
       credit               demand      profits.

3. Criticise the following as definitions—

(1) Noon is the time when the shadows of bodies are shortest.

(2) Grammar is the science of language.

(3) Grammar is a branch of philology.

(4) Grammar is the art of speaking and writing a language with propriety.

(5) Virtue is acting virtuously.

(6) Virtue is that line of conduct which tends to produce happiness.

(7) A dog is an animal of the canine species.

(8) Logic is the art of reasoning.

(9) Logic is the science of the investigation of truth by means of evidence.

(10) Music is an expensive noise.

(11) The sun is the centre of the solar system.

(12) The sun is the brightest of those heavenly bodies that move round the earth.

(13) Rust is the red desquamation of old iron.

(14) Caviare is a kind of food.

(15) Life is the opposite of death.

(16) Man is a featherless biped.

(17) Man is a rational biped.

(18) A gentleman is a person who has no visible means of subsistence.

(19) Fame is a fancied life in others’ breath.

(20) A fault is a quality productive of evil or inconvenience.

(21) An oligarchy is the supremacy of the rich in a state.

(22) A citizen is one who is qualified to exercise deliberative and judicial functions.

(23) Length is that dimension of a solid which would be measured by the longest line.

(24) An eccentricity is a peculiar idiosyncrasy.

(25) Deliberation is that species of investigation which is concerned with matters of action.

(26) Memory is that which helps us to forget.

(27) Politeness is the oil that lubricates the wheels of society.

(28) An acute-angled triangle is one which has an acute angle.

(29) A cause is that without which something would not be.

(30) A cause is the invariable antecedent of a phenomenon.

(31) Necessity is the mother of invention.

(32) Peace is the absence of war.

(33) A net is a collection of holes strung together.

(34) Prudence is the ballast of the moral vessel.

(35) A circle is a plane figure contained by one line.

(36) Superstition is a tendency to look for constancy where constancy is not to be expected.

(37) Bread is the staff of life.

(38) An attributive is a term which cannot stand as a subject.

(39) Life is bottled sunshine.

(40) Eloquence is the power of influencing the feelings by speech or writing.

(41) A tombstone is a monument erected over a grave in memory of the dead.

(42) Whiteness is the property or power of exciting the sensation of white.

(43) Figure is the limit of a solid.

(44) An archdeacon is one who exercises archidiaconal functions.

(45) Humour is thinking in jest while feeling in earnest.


1. Divide the following terms—

       Soldier      end                   book
       church      good                  oration
       apple        cause                school
       ship           government     letter
       vehicle     science             verse.
2. Divide the following terms as used in Political Economy—

Requisites of production, labour, consumption, stock, wealth, capital.

3. Criticise the following as divisions—

(1) Great Britain into England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.

(2) Pictures into sacred, historical, landscape, and mythological.

(3) Vertebrate animals into quadrupeds, birds, fishes, and reptiles.

(4) Plant into stem, root, and branches.

(5) Ship into frigate, brig, schooner, and merchant-man.

(6) Books into octavo, quarto, green, and blue.

(7) Figure into curvilinear and rectilinear.

(8) Ends into those which are ends only, means and ends, and means only.

(9) Church into Gothic, episcopal, high, and low.

(10) Sciences into physical, moral, metaphysical, and medical.

(11) Library into public and private.

(12) Horses into race-horses, hunters, hacks, thoroughbreds, ponies, and mules.

4. Define and divide—

Meat, money, virtue, triangle;

and give, as far as possible, a property and accident of each.