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“France under Napoleon. The consulate was the form of government established after the overthrow of the Directory was peculiar. Republican forms were retained, but all the power was in the lands of the first Consul, and the man chosen to fill this office was Napoleon. He had two colleagues, each of whom was called Consul and enjoyed an appearance of authority, but from the first Napoleon as First Consul exercised all the powers of the state. He alone could promulgate the laws, and although there were a Tribunate, a Legislative Body, and a Senate, the men chosen as members of these bodies were Napoleon’s friends. This constitution was submitted to the people and approved by a large majority."—Colby, 1899


Frank Moore Colby, Outlines of General History, (New York: American Book Company, 1899) 489


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