Common Vipers

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“Viper is a genus of venomous snakes. This family includes many important forms– e. g., the common adder, the asp, extending as far N. as Sweden; the African horned viper and puff adder, the Indian daboia or Russell’s viper, and the Indian Echis carinata. The head is relatively broad, somewhat triangular, and generally covered with scales; the eye has a vertical pupil, and there is no pit between it and the nostril; the maxilla bears on each side one functional fang, usually with several reserve fangs beside it; the poison is virulent. The vipers are widely distributed through Europe and Australia; the majority are African. As far as is known they are viviparous."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)


Everybody's Cyclopedia (New York, NY: Syndicate Publishing Company, 1912)


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