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“Originally a candlestick, but afterwards the name of a stand for supporting lamps, in which signification most commonly occurs. The candelara of this kind were usually made to stand upon the ground, and were of a considerable height. The most common kind were made of wood; but those which have been found in Herculaneum and Pompeii are mostly of bronze. sometimes they were made of the more precious metals, and even of jewels. The candelbra did not always stand upon the ground, but were also placed upon the table. Such candelabra usually consisted of pillars, from the capitals of which several lamps hung down, or of trees, from whose branches lamps also were suspended. the preceding cut represents a very elegant candelabrum of this kind, found in Pompeii.” — Smith, 1873;


William Smith, A School Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1873) 63


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