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“The spade was but little used in ancient husbandry, the ground having been broken and turned over by the plough, and also by the use of large hoes and rakes. The preceding woodcut, taken a deceased countryman with his falx and bidens, and also with a pala, modified by the addition of a strong cross-bar, by the use of which he was enabled to drive it nearly twice as deep into the ground, as he could have done without it.” — Smith, 1873


Pala, Spade


Roman Empire


William Smith, A School Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1873) 236


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