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“Toques or torquis, an ornament of gold, twisted spirally and bent into a circular form, which was worn round the neck by men of distinction among the Persians, the Gauls, and other Asiatic and northern nations. It was by taking a collar from a Gallic warrior that T. Manlius obtained the cognomen of Torquatus. Torques, whether in the form of collars or bracelets, no doubt formed a considerable part of te wealth of those who wore them. Hence they were an important portion of the spoil, when any Celtic or Oriental army was conquered, and they were among the rewards of valour bestowed after an engagement upon those who had most distinguished themselves.” &mdash Smith; 1873


William Smith, A School Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1873) 327


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