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“Tympanum, a small drum carried in the hand. Of these, some resembled in all respects a modern tambourine with bells. Others presented a flat circular disk on the upper surface and swelled out beneath like a kettle-drum. Both forms are represented in the cuts below. Tympana were covered with the hides of oxen, or of asses; were beaten with a stick, or with the hand, and were much employed in all wild enthusiastic religious rites, especially the orgies of Bacchus and Cybele.” &mdash Smith; 1873


William Smith, A School Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1873) 346


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