Water Wheel

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“When a water fall ranges between 10 and 70 feet, and the water supply is from 3 to 25 cubic feet per second, it is possible to construct a bucket wheel on which the water acts chiefly by its weight. If the variation of the head-water level does not exceed 2 feet, an overshot wheel may be used. The water is then projected over the summit of the wheel, and falls in a parabolic path into the buckets. With greater variation of head-water level, a pitch-back or high breast wheel is better. The water falls over the top of a sliding sluice into the wheel, on the same side as the head race channel. By adjusting the height of the sluice, the requisite supply is given to the wheel in all positions of the head-water level. The wheel consists of a cast-iron or wrought-iron axle C supporting the weight of the wheel. To this are attached two sets of arms A of wood or iron, which support circular segmental plates termed shrouds B. A cylindrical sole plate dd extends between the shrouds on the inner side. The buckets are formed by wood planks or curved wrought-iron plates extending from shroud to shroud, the back of the buckets being formed by the sole plate.” — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893


The Encyclopedia Britannica, New Warner Edition (New York, NY: The Werner Company, 1893)


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